Baldwin

Baldwin

[bawld-win]
Baldwin, Abraham, 1754-1807, American political leader, b. Guilford, Conn. After serving as a chaplain in the American Revolution, he studied law and in 1784 was admitted to practice in Georgia. He was a member (1785-88) of the Continental Congress and the leading Georgia delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention in 1787. His change of vote in that convention on the issue of the mode of representation in Congress brought about a tie between the large and small states. Baldwin served on the committee appointed to solve this problem. The compromise system of representation that it proposed (by population in the House of Representatives and by states in the Senate) was adopted. Baldwin was elected to the first House of Representatives and served until 1799. He then served in the Senate until his death. He was an industrious member of many committees and supported Jeffersonian policies. Earlier, while in the Georgia assembly, Baldwin wrote the charter of Franklin College, which later developed into the Univ. of Georgia.

See biography by H. C. White (1926).

Baldwin, James, 1924-87, American author, b. New York City. He spent an impoverished boyhood in Harlem, became a Pentecostal preacher at 14, and left the church three years later. He moved to Paris in 1947 and his first two novels, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), reflecting his experience as a young preacher, and Giovanni's Room (1956), which dealt with his homosexuality, as well as the intensely personal, racially charged essay collection Notes of a Native Son (1955), were written while he lived there. Baldwin returned to the United States in 1957 and participated in the civil-rights movement, later returning to France where he lived for the remainder of his life. Another Country (1962), a bitter novel about sexual relations and racial tension, received critical acclaim, as did the perceptive essays in what is probably his most celebrated book, The Fire Next Time (1963). His eloquence and unsparing honesty made Baldwin one of the most influential authors of his time. Other works include the play Blues for Mr. Charlie (1964); a volume of short stories, Going to Meet the Man (1964); and the novels If Beale Street Could Talk (1974), the story of a young black couple victimized by the judicial system, and Just above My Head (1979). Collections of essays include Nobody Knows My Name (1961), No Name in the Street (1972), and The Price of a Ticket (1985).

See biographies by W. J. Wetherby (1989), J. Campbell (1991), and D. Leeming (1994); interviews in James Baldwin: The Legacy (1989, ed. by Q. Troupe) and Conversations with James Baldwin (1989, ed. by F. L. Standley and L. H. Pratt); studies by L. H. Pratt (1985), H. A. Porter (1989), D. A. McBride, ed. (1999), D. Q. Miller (2000), L. O. Scott (2002), H. Bloom, ed. (2006), D. Field, ed. (2009), and M. J. Zaborowska (2009).

Baldwin, James Mark, 1861-1934, American psychologist, b. Columbia, S.C., grad. Princeton (B.A., 1884; Ph.D., 1889). He taught philosophy at the Univ. of Toronto (1889-93), psychology at Princeton (1893-1903), and philosophy and psychology at Johns Hopkins (1903-9) and the National Univ. of Mexico (1909-13). Internationally known as a philosopher and psychologist, he was the author of numerous works in these fields, many of which were translated into European languages. Among his books are Elements of Psychology (1893), Story of the Mind (1898), and Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology (1901-6).
Baldwin, Matthias William, 1795-1866, American industrialist and philanthropist, b. Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth), N.J. After earlier business successes, Baldwin became interested in steam-engine production and completed in 1832 the locomotive Old Ironsides—one of the first successful American models—for the Philadelphia, Germantown, and Norristown RR. The Baldwin Locomotive Works subsequently prospered and maintained a leading position in the industry. Baldwin made many contributions to the Franklin Institute for the Promotion of Mechanical Arts, of which he was a charter member.
Baldwin, Robert, 1804-58, Canadian statesman, leader of the movement for representative government in Canada, b. York (now Toronto), Ont. His father, William Warren Baldwin (1775-1844), was a leader of the Reform party and a supporter of the principle of responsible (i.e., cabinet) government in the colonies. In 1836, as a recognized leader of reform in Upper Canada, Robert Baldwin was appointed by Sir Francis Bond Head to the executive council, but he resigned in a few weeks when it became apparent that the governor had no intention of acceding to the demands of the reformers. In England, in 1836, Baldwin sent to the colonial secretary a memorandum that was the first clear enunciation of the tenet of responsible government for Canada. Shortly after his return to Canada in 1837, he served as mediator between Head and the rebels; as a moderate reformer, he had opposed the faction of William Lyon Mackenzie in the rebellion of that year. Again (1841) he hopefully accepted appointment to the executive council under Lord Sydenham, only to resign when the governor showed no disposition to grant responsible government. As a member of the assembly, Baldwin led the opposition group and increased his influence, particularly by effecting an alliance with the French in Lower Canada, whom Sydenham had ignored in forming his council. After the reunion of Upper and Lower Canada in 1841, Baldwin and Louis Hippolyte LaFontaine were allowed to form their first coalition government (1842) under Sir Charles Bagot. With Bagot's death and the arrival (1843) of Sir Charles Metcalfe as governor, the first Baldwin-LaFontaine government resigned, but in the elections of Dec., 1847, the reformers won an overwhelming vote. As a consequence, the second Baldwin-LaFontaine ministry (1847-51) was formed; it is often called "the great ministry." Outstanding among its accomplishments were the Municipal Corporations Act, commonly called the Baldwin Act, for the reformation of local government in Ontario; an act to revise the judicial system; and an act to transform King's College into the nonsectarian Univ. of Toronto (over the violent opposition of Bishop John Strachan).

See biography by G. E. Wilson (1933); S. Leacock, Mackenzie, Baldwin, LaFontaine, Hincks (rev. ed. 1926); R. W. Langstone, Responsible Government in Canada (1931).

Baldwin, Roger Nash, 1884-1981, American civil libertarian, b. Wellesley, Mass. He helped to found (1920) the American Civil Liberties Union and was its director until 1950 and its adviser on international affairs thereafter. He also taught at the New School for Social Research (1938-42) and the Univ. of Puerto Rico (1966-74).
Baldwin, Simeon Eben, 1840-1927, American jurist and politician, b. New Haven, Conn., grad. Yale, 1861. He taught at Yale from 1869 to 1919, serving as a professor of law after 1872. His teaching and financial aid helped to increase the prestige and quality of the law school. He was appointed (1893) associate justice of the supreme court of Connecticut and in 1907 became chief justice. In the year of his compulsory retirement from judicial office (1910) he was elected governor of Connecticut and was reelected in 1912.

See biography by F. H. Jackson (1955).

Baldwin, Stanley, 1867-1947, British statesman; cousin of Rudyard Kipling. The son of a Worcestershire ironmaster, he was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge, and entered the family business. In 1908 he was elected to Parliament as a Conservative. In 1916 he became parliamentary private secretary to Andrew Bonar Law, who made him (1917) joint financial secretary to the treasury. He was made president of the Board of Trade in 1921 but in 1922 played an important role in the decision of the Conservative party to withdraw from David Lloyd George's coalition government. When the Conservatives won the ensuing election, Baldwin became chancellor of the exchequer and in 1923 succeeded Bonar Law as prime minister. His government fell (1924) when he failed to obtain support for a protectionist tariff policy, but he returned to office within the year. Baldwin's second period of office (1924-29) was marked by rising unemployment and by a general strike (1926), following which he secured passage of the Trade Disputes Act (1927) to restrict the power of the labor unions. In 1931, Baldwin became lord president of the council in the National government. Although under the nominal leadership of Ramsay MacDonald, the coalition was dominated by Baldwin, and in 1935 he again became prime minister. Although he won the general election of 1935 on a platform of support for the League of Nations, Baldwin approved the Hoare-Laval pact (see Templewood, Samuel John Hoare, 1st Viscount), which greatly discredited his government. As international relations continued to deteriorate, with the German reoccupation of the Rhineland and the beginning of the Spanish civil war, Britain finally began to rearm. Baldwin steadfastly opposed the proposed marriage of Edward VIII to Wallis Warfield Simpson and secured the king's abdication (1936). He retired in 1937 and shortly thereafter was created Earl Baldwin of Bewdley. Although an able politician, Baldwin has been much criticized for his indolence and particularly for his apparent complacency in the face of the mounting threats to peace in Europe.

See biographies by G. M. Young (1952), A. W. Baldwin (1956), and K. Middlemas and J. Barnes (1969).

Baldwin. 1 Uninc. city (1990 pop. 22,719), Nassau co., SE N.Y., on the south shore of Long Island, on Baldwin Bay; settled 1640s. A fishing center and summer resort, it has varied manufactures. 2 Borough (1990 pop. 21,923), Allegheny co., SW Pa., a suburb just S of Pittsburgh, on the Monongahela River, in a bituminous coal region; inc. 1952.

(born Jan. 21, 1884, Wellesley, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 26, 1981, Ridgewood, N.J.) U.S. civil-rights leader. Born into an aristocratic Massachusetts family, Baldwin attended Harvard University and taught sociology at Washington University (1906–09) in St. Louis, where he also was chief probation officer of the city's juvenile court and secretary of its Civic League. When the U.S. entered World War I, he became director of the pacifist American Union Against Militarism, the predecessor of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). As the ACLU's director (1920–50) and national chairman (1950–55), he made civil rights, once a predominantly leftist cause, a universal one.

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(born May 12, 1804, York, Upper Canada—died Dec. 9, 1858, Toronto) Canadian politician. Called to the bar in 1825, Baldwin began his political career as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada for York (1829–30). In 1842–43 he and Louis Hippolyte LaFontaine formed the first Liberal Party administration; when the Liberals returned to power in 1848, they were able to establish responsible, or cabinet, government. He resigned in 1851.

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James Baldwin

(born Aug. 2, 1924, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 1, 1987, Saint-Paul, France) U.S. essayist, novelist, and playwright. He grew up in poverty in the New York City district of Harlem and became a preacher while in his teens. After 1948 he lived alternately in France and the U.S. His semiautobiographical first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), regarded as his finest, was followed by the essay collections Notes of a Native Son (1955) and Nobody Knows My Name (1961); the novels Giovanni's Room (1956), a story of homosexual life, and Another Country (1962); the long polemical essay The Fire Next Time (1963), prophesying widespread racial violence; and the play Blues for Mister Charlie (produced 1964). His eloquence and passion on the subject of race made him for years perhaps the country's most prominent black writer.

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James Baldwin

(born Aug. 2, 1924, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 1, 1987, Saint-Paul, France) U.S. essayist, novelist, and playwright. He grew up in poverty in the New York City district of Harlem and became a preacher while in his teens. After 1948 he lived alternately in France and the U.S. His semiautobiographical first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), regarded as his finest, was followed by the essay collections Notes of a Native Son (1955) and Nobody Knows My Name (1961); the novels Giovanni's Room (1956), a story of homosexual life, and Another Country (1962); the long polemical essay The Fire Next Time (1963), prophesying widespread racial violence; and the play Blues for Mister Charlie (produced 1964). His eloquence and passion on the subject of race made him for years perhaps the country's most prominent black writer.

Learn more about Baldwin, James (Arthur) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 21, 1884, Wellesley, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 26, 1981, Ridgewood, N.J.) U.S. civil-rights leader. Born into an aristocratic Massachusetts family, Baldwin attended Harvard University and taught sociology at Washington University (1906–09) in St. Louis, where he also was chief probation officer of the city's juvenile court and secretary of its Civic League. When the U.S. entered World War I, he became director of the pacifist American Union Against Militarism, the predecessor of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). As the ACLU's director (1920–50) and national chairman (1950–55), he made civil rights, once a predominantly leftist cause, a universal one.

Learn more about Baldwin, Roger (Nash) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born May 12, 1804, York, Upper Canada—died Dec. 9, 1858, Toronto) Canadian politician. Called to the bar in 1825, Baldwin began his political career as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada for York (1829–30). In 1842–43 he and Louis Hippolyte LaFontaine formed the first Liberal Party administration; when the Liberals returned to power in 1848, they were able to establish responsible, or cabinet, government. He resigned in 1851.

Learn more about Baldwin, Robert with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as Baldwin the Leper

(born 1161—died March 1185, Jerusalem) King of Jerusalem (1174–85). He was crowned at age 13 on the death of his father, but the kingdom was ruled by a series of regents. Baldwin was afflicted with leprosy throughout his short life, which contributed to power struggles among the nobility. His defeat of Saladin in 1177 led to a two-year truce, but in 1183 Saladin captured Aleppo and completed the encirclement of Jerusalem. Baldwin crowned his nephew king in 1183.

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known as Baldwin of Bourg

(died August 1131, Jerusalem) King of Jerusalem (1118–31). A French nobleman, he joined the First Crusade and was made count of Edessa by his cousin Baldwin I in 1100. Captured by Seljuq Turks in 1104, he was ransomed four years later and reclaimed Edessa from the regent by force. He became king of Jerusalem in 1118 on the death of Baldwin I. He was held hostage by the Turks 1123–24. He later expanded his kingdom and attacked Damascus with the aid of the Knights of Malta and the Templars. He arranged the marriage of his daughter Melisend to Fulk V of Anjou and made them his successors.

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known as Baldwin of Boulogne

(b. 1058?—d. April 2, 1118, Al-Arish, Egypt) King of Jerusalem (1100–18). The son of a French count, he joined the First Crusade and created the first Crusader state when he gained control of Edessa (now in Turkey) in 1098. In 1100 his brother Godfrey died in Jerusalem, and Baldwin was summoned by the nobles to succeed him as king of the Crusader state and defender of the Holy Sepulchre. He expanded the kingdom by conquering coastal cities such as Arsuf and Caesarea, built the important castle Krak de Montréal, and established an administration that served for 200 years as the basis for Frankish rule in Syria and Palestine.

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Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, 1932.

(born Aug. 3, 1867, Bewdley, Worcestershire, Eng.—died Dec. 14, 1947, Astley Hall, near Stourport-on-Severn, Worcestershire) British politician. After managing his family's large industrial holdings, he became a Conservative member of the House of Commons (1908–37). He served as financial secretary of the treasury (1917–21) and president of the Board of Trade (1921–22), then was appointed prime minister (1923–24, 1924–29, 1935–37). He proclaimed a state of emergency in the general strike of 1926 and later secured passage of the antiunion Trade Disputes Act. As prime minister after 1935, he began to strengthen the British military while showing little public concern about the aggressive policies of Germany and Italy. He was criticized for not protesting the Italian conquest of Ethiopia. In 1936 he satisfied public opinion by procuring the abdication of Edward VIII, whose desire to marry divorcée Wallis Simpson, Baldwin believed, threatened the prestige of the monarchy.

Learn more about Baldwin (of Bewdley), Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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