Bagram or Bagrām (ancient Alexandria of the Caucasus, medieval Kapisa) was an ancient city located at the junction of the Ghorband and Panjshir valleys, near today's city of Charikar, Afghanistan. Its location made it a key passage into India along the Silk Road about 60 kilometers northwest of Kabul and towards Bamiyan
Alexandria was laid out in the Greek "hippodamian plan" and had brick walls reinforced with towers at the angles. The central street was bordered with shops and workshops.
In the 320s BC, Alexander the Great captured the city and established a fortified colony named Alexandria of the Caucasus. After his death in 323 BC, the city passed to his general Seleucus, who traded it to the Mauryan Dynasty of India in 305 BC. After the Mauryans were overthrown by the Sunga Dynasty in 185 BC, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom invaded and conquered northwestern India with an army led by Demetrius I of Bactria. Alexandria became a capital of the Eucratidian Indo-Greek Kingdom after they were driven out of Bactria by the Yuezhi in 140 BC.
The emperor Kanishka started many new buildings there. The central palace building yielded a very rich treasure, dated from the time of emperor Kanishka in the 2nd century: ivory-plated stools of Indian origin, lacquered boxes from Han China, Greco-Roman glasses from Egypt and Syria, Hellenistic statues in the Pompean style, stuc moldings, and silverware of Mediterranean origin (probably Alexandria).
The "Begram treasure" as it has been called, is indicative of intense commercial exchanges between all the cultural centers of the Classical time, with the Kushan empire at the junction of the land and sea trade between the east and west. However, the works of art found in Begram are either quite purely Hellenistic, Roman, Chinese or Indian, with only little indications of the cultural syncretism found in Greco-Buddhist art.
Bagram is a district of Parwan Province.