, also known as backwards echo
, is a slightly unusual sound effect created as the result of recording an echo or delayed signal of an audio recording whilst being played backwards. The original recording is then played forwards accompanied by the recording of the echo or delayed signal which is now in reverse.
Invention by Jimmy Page
Guitarist and producer Jimmy Page
lays claim to the invention of this effect, stating that he originally developed the method when recording the single "Ten Little Indians
" with The Yardbirds
. He later used it on a number of Led Zeppelin
tracks, such as "You Shook Me
". In an interview he gave to Guitar World
magazine in 1993, Page explained:
During one session [with The Yardbirds], we were recording "Ten Little Indians", which was an extremely silly song that featured a truly awful brass arrangement. In fact, the whole track sounded terrible. In a desperate attempt to salvage it, I hit upon an idea. I said, "Look, turn the tape over and employ the echo for the brass on a spare track. Then turn it back over and we'll get the echo preceding the signal." The result was very interesting -- it made the track sound like it was going backwards.
Later, when we recorded "You Shook Me", I told the engineer, Glyn Johns, that I wanted to use backwards echo on the end. He said, "Jimmy, it can't be done". I said "Yes, it can. I've already done it." Then he began arguing, so I said, "Look, Im the producer. Im going to tell you what to do, and just do it." So he grudgingly did everything I told him to, and when we were finished he started refusing to push the fader up so I could hear the result. Finally, I had to scream, "Push the bloody fader up!" And low and behold, the effect worked perfectly.
Other songs using this effect
Use in other media
Reverse echo has also been used in film and television for an otherworldly effect on voices, especially in horror movies such as Poltergeist
where it was used to suggest ghostly communication. The swelling effect has been used on environmental sounds and musical backgrounds to create tension and intensity, but can also be used for more subtle atmospheric effect.
Real-time digital reverse echo
Devices exist which offer an audio effect
called "reverse echo" for use in live musical performances. This form of reverse echo immediately follows
the initial source sound rather than preceding it as in tape-based or DAW
-based reverse echo. Reverse echo devices sample a short section of the decay and sustain
of a signal, reproducing it immediately in a way that starts small, quickly grows to a maximum then suddenly stops, making a strikingly unnatural sound. Real-time digital reverse echo became popular as pop, hair metal
and New Wave music snare
effects in the 1980s; the effect still finds many uses today. Reverse echo was sometimes combined with a gated reverb
effect for a wildly synthetic sound. Though most commonly heard on snare and cymbals, the effect can be employed on any signal or combinations of signals present in a performance. Digital reverse echo devices are available as guitar stomp boxes
, outboard rackmount effects devices and as internal mixer effects on selected analog and digital mixers. Sampled emulations of reverse echo are found on many electronic percussion devices and sample libraries.