Bosch

Bosch

[bosh; Ger., Sp. bawsh; Du. baws]
Bosch, Carl, 1874-1940, German chemist and engineer, Ph.D. Univ. of Leipzig, 1898. In 1899, Bosch began working as a chemist for BASF, which merged with six other German chemical firms to become I. G. Farben in 1925. He remained with the company until his death in 1940. Bosch was awarded the 1931 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Friedrich Bergius in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high-pressure methods. Bosch is credited with collaborating in the development of the Haber-Bosch process for high-pressure synthesis of ammonia, which is used to produce fertilizers and explosives. He also developed a method for making gasoline from coal dust and hydrogen.
Bosch, Hieronymus, or Jerom Bos, c.1450-1516, Flemish painter. His surname was originally van Aeken; Bosch refers to 's Hertogenbosch, where he was born and worked. Little is known of his life and training, although it is clear that he belonged to a family of painters. His paintings, executed in brilliant colors and with an uncanny mastery of detail, are filled with strangely animated objects, bizarre plants and animals, and monstrous, amusing, or diabolical figures believed to have been suggested by folk legends, allegorical poems, moralizing religious literature, and aspects of late Gothic art. Such works as the Garden of Earthly Delights (Prado) appear to be intricate allegories; their symbolism, however, is obscure and has consistently defied unified interpretation. Bosch clearly had an interest in the grotesque, the diabolical, the exuberant, and the macabre. He also may have been the first European painter to depict scenes of everyday life, although often with a strong element of the bizarre.

King Philip II of Spain collected some of his finest creations. The Temptation of St. Anthony (Lisbon) and The Last Judgment were recurring themes. Other examples of his art may be seen in the Escorial and in Brussels. Examples of the Adoration of the Magi are in the Metropolitan Museum and in the Philadelphia Museum, which also has the Mocking of Christ. Bosch, who deeply influenced the work of Peter Bruegel the Elder, was hailed in the 20th cent. as a forerunner of the surrealists, and his work continues to influence many contemporary artists. Bosch, who had many imitators, signed only seven of his paintings. Over the years, scholars have attributed to Bosch fewer and fewer of the works originally thought to be his, and by the beginning of the 21st cent. only 25 to 30 were definitively ascribed to him.

See his paintings, ed. by G. Martin (1966, repr. 1971); biographies by W. Fraenger (1983) and W. S. Gibson (1985); study by J. Snyder, ed. (1973).

Bosch, Juan (Juan Bosch Gavino), 1909-2001, president of the Dominican Republic (Feb.-Sept., 1963). A teacher and writer, he spent 24 years in exile during the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo and helped found (1939) the Dominican Revolutionary party. He returned (1961) to the Dominican Republic after the assassination of Trujillo and was elected president in the first free elections (Dec., 1962) held in 38 years. He introduced sweeping social and economic reforms but was ousted after seven months by military leaders who viewed him as too leftist. An attempt by his supporters to restore him to power in Apr., 1965, brought civil war and provoked armed intervention by U.S. troops. In 1966, Bosch was overwhelmingly defeated for the presidency by Joaquín Balaguer. After a voluntary exile in Europe, Bosch returned (1970) and joined the opposition to President Balaguer. In 1973 he founded the Dominican Liberation party, which he led until 1994. In 1978, 1982, 1986, 1990, and 1994 he again ran unsuccessfully for the presidency.

(born June 30, 1909, La Vega, Dom. Rep.—died Nov. 1, 2001, Santo Domingo) Scholar, poet, and president of the Dominican Republic (1963). Bosch was raised in a lower-middle-class family. Dismayed by the brutality of the dictator Rafael Trujillo, he spent 24 years in exile but returned after Trujillo's death to build a leftist anticommunist movement. After winning the first free presidential election in 38 years, he instituted liberal constitutional changes, many of which benefited the country's poor. His reforms, however, alienated landholders and industrialists, and after only seven months in office Bosch was ousted in a military coup. When his supporters revolted against the ruling junta in 1965, U.S. Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson, claiming that Bosch's followers were communists, sent troops to suppress the rebellion. Over the subsequent three decades, Bosch ran repeatedly but unsuccessfully for president.

Learn more about Bosch (Gaviño), Juan with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Jeroen van Aken or Jerome van Aken

(born circa 1450s, 's Hertogenbosch, Brabant—died Aug. 9, 1516, 's Hertogenbosch) Netherlandish painter. He was the son and grandson of accomplished painters; his name comes from his native town of 's Hertogenbosch. He enjoyed a successful career and was widely imitated. Of the numerous works attributed to him, none can be dated precisely. His paintings blend fantasy and reality in apocalyptic scenes of chaos with half-human, half-animal creatures, devils, and demons interacting with human figures in imaginary architecture and landscapes. Among his best-known works is The Garden of Earthly Delights, depicting the dreams that afflict people who live in a pleasure-seeking world. One of the most original northern European artists of the late Middle Ages, he was an outstanding draftsman and one of the first to make drawings as independent works. He also produced decorative works, altarpieces, and stained-glass designs.

Learn more about Bosch, Hiëronymus with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Jeroen van Aken or Jerome van Aken

(born circa 1450s, 's Hertogenbosch, Brabant—died Aug. 9, 1516, 's Hertogenbosch) Netherlandish painter. He was the son and grandson of accomplished painters; his name comes from his native town of 's Hertogenbosch. He enjoyed a successful career and was widely imitated. Of the numerous works attributed to him, none can be dated precisely. His paintings blend fantasy and reality in apocalyptic scenes of chaos with half-human, half-animal creatures, devils, and demons interacting with human figures in imaginary architecture and landscapes. Among his best-known works is The Garden of Earthly Delights, depicting the dreams that afflict people who live in a pleasure-seeking world. One of the most original northern European artists of the late Middle Ages, he was an outstanding draftsman and one of the first to make drawings as independent works. He also produced decorative works, altarpieces, and stained-glass designs.

Learn more about Bosch, Hiëronymus with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Bosch is a popular surname in Catalan and Dutch; it means forest. It may refer to:

Places

People:

Buildings:

  • Huis ten Bosch, an official palace of the Dutch Royal Family in The Hague, Netherlands

In fiction:

  • Harry Bosch, a literary character created by Michael Connelly
  • The Catchphrase of Seb, from the BBC2 Comedy Series, Roman's Empire

In chemistry:

  • Bosch reaction, a chemical reaction between carbon dioxide and hydrogen producing carbon, water and heat

Companies

  • Robert Bosch GmbH, a large German industrial company producing, among many other things, household appliances, automotive parts and technology
  • Bosch Brewing Company, a small beer brewery that was located in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

See also

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