Another wave of Azeri immigration to Turkey took place in 1918–1925, when many Muslim residents of then newly independent Armenia fled to the Turkish-controlled lands. According to one Russian source, and another by Andrew Andersen, they were escaping massacres by armed bands of Armenian nationalists. They were followed by former members of the overthrown government of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan and their families, as well as many upper-class Azeris, who fled to Turkey (as well as France and Eastern Europe) in fear of persecution by the Bolsheviks and settled primarily in İstanbul, Bursa and Ankara. In the 1930s hundreds, if not thousands of Azeri families from all over South Caucasus took advantage of the Soviet-Turkish border being open and settled in Kars, Iğdır and Amasya.
After the failure of the USSR created regional government (21 Azar) in Iran(1946), political immigrants from Iran increased the numbers of Azeris in Turkey. Finally, starting from the early 1990s tens of thousands of immigrants from the newly independent Azerbaijan have made their way to Turkey due to economic reasons, settling mostly in big cities.
In general, the Azeri population in Turkey is considered well-integrated into Turkish society, mainly due to cultural and linguistic affinities between Azeris and Turks. Nevertheless, differences still remain in the areas of religion (Azeris are mainly Shi'a, whereas Turks are mostly Sunni Muslims), dialect, and self-conception in terms of historical memory and ethnic/national consciousness.