(born Jan. 1, 1919, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. writer. He began to publish short stories in periodicals in 1940. After World War II his stories, some based on his army experiences, appeared increasingly in The New Yorker. His entire literary output comprises 13 stories and novellas— collected in Nine Stories (1953), Franny and Zooey (1961), and Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters, and Seymour: An Introduction (1963)—and The Catcher in the Rye (1951), a novel of adolescent anguish that won great critical and popular admiration, especially among college students. He retreated into a mysterious seclusion in New Hampshire and ceased to publish.
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(born Sept. 11, 1885, Eastwood, Nottinghamshire, Eng.—died March 2, 1930, Vence, France) English novelist, short-story writer, poet, and essayist. The son of a Midlands coal miner and an educated mother, he began to write in 1905 and earned a teaching certificate in 1908. Ford Madox Ford published much of Lawrence's early work in the English Review and helped place his first novel, The White Peacock (1911). Lawrence often drew his themes from his own life and relationships. Sons and Lovers (1913) is a clearly autobiographical novel about working-class family life. In 1914 he married a German woman, Frieda Weekley. The object of hostility and suspicion during World War I because of his pacifism and her origins, the couple lived in various countries after 1919, never returning to England. The Rainbow (1915) and its sequel, Women in Love (1920), trace the sickness of modern civilization to the effects of industrialization upon the human psyche. Kangaroo (1923) describes the persecution he experienced during the war. The Plumed Serpent (1926) was inspired by his fascination with Aztec culture. Lawrence's writing is notable for its intensity and its erotic sensuality; several of his works, including Lady Chatterley's Lover (1928), were banned as obscene. He died of the tuberculosis that had plagued him from an early age.
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(born Oct. 7, 1927, Glasgow, Scot.—died Aug. 23, 1989, St. Tropez, France) Scottish psychiatrist. In his widely read and highly controversial book The Divided Self (1960), his analysis of schizophrenia led him to theorize that insecurity about one's existence prompts a defensive reaction in which the self splits into separate components, generating psychotic symptoms, and he opposed standard schizophrenia treatments such as hospitalization and electroshock. He even opposed the concept of mental illness, viewing it as induced by family relationships and society, and radically reconceived the role of the psychiatrist. He later modified some of his controversial positions.
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(born Jan. 22, 1875, Floydsfork, Ky., U.S.—died July 23, 1948, Hollywood, Calif.) U.S. film director. After acting in touring stage companies, he sold film scenarios to the Biograph Co., which hired him as a director (1908–13). In over 400 films for Biograph he developed filmmaking as an art form with techniques such as the close-up, the scenic long shot, and crosscutting, and he collaborated with cinematographer Billy Bitzer to create fade-out, fade-in, and soft-focus shots. He nurtured the careers of future stars such as Mary Pickford, Lillian Gish, Mack Sennett, and Lionel Barrymore. His epic dramas The Birth of a Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1916) greatly influenced later filmmakers. After cofounding United Artists Corp. in 1919, he directed Broken Blossoms (1919), Way Down East (1920), and Orphans of the Storm (1921). His last films were Abraham Lincoln (1930) and The Struggle (1931). He is regarded as one of the seminal figures in the history of motion pictures.
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Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1952.
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(born Oct. 23, 1873, Hudson, Mass., U.S.—died Feb. 3, 1975, Schenectady, N.Y.) U.S. engineer and physical chemist. He taught at MIT (1897, 1901–05) before joining the General Electric Research Laboratory, where in 1908 he perfected a process to render tungsten ductile and therefore more suitable for incandescent lightbulbs. In 1916 he patented a revolutionary X-ray tube capable of producing highly predictable amounts of radiation; it was the prototype of the modern X-ray tube. With Irving Langmuir, he also developed the first successful submarine-detection system.
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Can-avid is politically subdivided into 28 barangays.