Adaptative cruise control (ACC)
is a cruise control
system in some modern vehicles. The system also goes under the names of active cruise control (ACC)
or intelligent cruise control (ICC)
. These systems use either a radar
setup to allow the vehicle to slow when approaching another vehicle and accelerate again to the preset speed when traffic allows. ACC technology is widely regarded as a key component of any future generations of smart cars
, as a form of artificial intelligence
that may usefully be employed as a driving aid.
Laser-based systems are significantly lower in cost than radar
-based systems; however, laser
-based ACC systems do not detect and track vehicles well in adverse weather conditions nor do they track extremely dirty (non-reflective) vehicles very well. Laser-based sensors must be exposed, the sensor (a fairly-large black box) is typically found in the lower grille offset to one side of the vehicle.
Radar-based sensors can be hidden behind plastic fascias; however, the fascias typically looks different from a vehicle without the feature. For example, Mercedes packages the radar behind the upper grille in the center; however, the Mercedes grille on such applications contains a solid plastic panel in front of the radar with painted slats to simulate the slats on the rest of the grille.
Radar-based systems are available on many luxury cars as an option for approx. 1000-3000 USD/euro. Laser-based systems are available on some near luxury and luxury cars as an option for approx. 400-600 USD/euro.
Some systems also feature forward collision warning or Collision Mitigation Avoidance System, which warns the driver and/or provides brake support if there is a high risk of a rear-end collision.
were the first to offer radar
-based systems in 1999. Similar adaptive systems are now offered by other manufacturers. For 2006
, Mercedes-Benz refined the Distronic system to completely halt the car if necessary (now called 'Distronic Plus' and offered on their S-Class range of luxury sedans
), a feature now also offered by Bosch
as 'ACC plus' and available in the Audi Q7. In an episode of Top Gear
, Jeremy Clarkson
demonstrated the effectivness of the cruise control system in the S-class by coming to a complete halt from motorway speeds to a round-about and getting out, all without touching the pedals. He was astonished. Earlier he said, "What am I here for!?", when sitting in the driver's seat.
Toyota's Lexus vehicles was the first to bring laser-based systems to the US market with the 2001 Lexus LS430 "DLCC" (Dynamic Laser Cruise Control). Lexus then offered laser-based systems on its RX and radar-based systems on its IS, ES, GS and LS models.
Several Japanese manufacturers first offered ACC systems in the Japanese market in the late 1990s. These early systems did not apply the brakes and only controlled speed through throttle control and downshifting. However, this was changed with the Acura RL. It features Collision Mitigation Braking System, which can alert drivers of objects up to 100 m ahead, if the distance is less, it brakes slightly and tugs at the seatbelts. In case of no driver reaction, the RL retracts, locks the seatbelts and brakes hard. A similar system is offered in the Lexus LS430/460.
Examples of vehicles with adaptive cruise control
- Acura RL
- Audi A4 (see a demonstration on YouTube), Audi A6, Audi A8, Audi Q7
- BMW 3 Series (called Active Cruise Control), BMW 5 Series, BMW 7 Series
- Cadillac DTS, Cadillac STS, Cadillac XLR
- Chrysler 300C
- Ford Mondeo
- Hyundai Genesis (called Smart Cruise Control)
- Infiniti M, Infiniti Q45, Infiniti G35, Infiniti FX35, Infiniti FX45, Infiniti FX50 and G37
- Jaguar XK-R, Jaguar S-Type, Jaguar XJ, Jaguar XF
- Lexus LS430/460, Lexus ES-350
- Nissan Primera T-Spec Models (called Intelligent Cruise Control)
- Mercedes-Benz S-Class, E-Class, CLS-Class, SL-Class, CL-Class, M-Class, GL-Class, CLK-Class
- Range Rover Sport
- Renault Vel Satis
- Subaru Legacy & Subaru Outback Japan-spec called SI-Cruise
- Toyota Sienna XLE Limited Edition, Toyota Avalon, Toyota Sequoia Platinum Edition
- Volkswagen Passat, Volkswagen Phaeton, Volkswagen Touareg
- Volvo S80, Volvo V70, Volvo XC70
- Lincoln MKS