Russia's entry into European affairs created a recurring alliance between Russia and Austria often directed against the Ottomans and France. Russia and Austria were allies during the War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738), the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748), the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), and from 1787 to 1791 the monarchies both waged separates wars against the Ottomans (the Austro-Turkish War (1787-1791) and the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)). The coming of the French Revolution created ideological solidarity between the absolutist monarchies including Russia and Austria, which both fought against France during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
The Revolutions of 1848 shook the shook the Habsburg lands, and the Hungarian lands declared their independence. Russia intervened by invading Hungary to suppress the revolutions and restore the Habsburg sovereignty.
During the Crimean War Austria maintained a policy of hostile neutrality towards Russia, and, while not going to war, was supportive of the Anglo-French coalition. This stance deeply angered Nicholas I of Russia and was a serious strain to Russo-Austrian relations thereafter. Russia subsequently stood aside as Austria was evicted from the Italian and German states. The Habsburgs therefore gave in to Hungarian demands for autonomy and refounded their state as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
In order to counter to Russia's support for indepedence movements in the Balkans Austria occupied Bosnia in 1878. This brought Austria into conflict with the Principality of Serbia, an autonomous (de facto independent) state within the Ottoman Empire under Russian influence and protection.
Serbia was elevated to a kingdom in 1882, as the Ottoman Empire further decayed. When the Ottomans attempted to assert control over Bosnia, Austria formally annexed it in 1908, against the protests of Serbia and Russia, during the Bosnian crisis.
The lasting result was bitter enmity between Austria-Hugary on one side and Serbia and Russia on the other. After the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by Serb nationalist of the terrorist group the Black Hand, Austria delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia demanding that the Austrian police and military have the right to enter Seriba. Serbia rejected this which led to the Austrian invasion of Serbia, the first battle of the First World War. Russia and Austria would fight to the point of exhaustion on the bloody Eastern Front. The war ended with revolution and the overthrow of the monarchy in both empires.
After the war Austria was occupied by the allied armies re-sperated from Germany, and divided into four zones of occupation. The Soviets and did not create a sepeate socialist government in their zone as they did in East Germany. Instead Austria was required to sign the Austrian State Treaty of 1955 under which it pledged total neutrality in the growing Cold War.