Austria–Russia relations

Austria–Russia relations

Austria–Russia relations refers to the political, economic and social relations between Austria and Russia and their states.

Early history

The lands now part of Austria were once simply a collection of fifes of the House of Habsburg. The history of Austria in international relations during this time period was synonymous with the foreign policy of the Habsburgs. Russia was disinterested in European affairs before Peter I (r. 1682-1725). Between these two vast monarchies lay the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. However as the Habsburgs expanded their domain (often shorthaned as "Austria" after its central province, the Archduchy of Austria) south and east and Russia south and west, relations between the two monarchies became vital to European security.

Russia's entry into European affairs created a recurring alliance between Russia and Austria often directed against the Ottomans and France. Russia and Austria were allies during the War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738), the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748), the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), and from 1787 to 1791 the monarchies both waged separates wars against the Ottomans (the Austro-Turkish War (1787-1791) and the Russo-Turkish War (1787–1792)). The coming of the French Revolution created ideological solidarity between the absolutist monarchies including Russia and Austria, which both fought against France during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

Austrian and Russian Empires

In 1804 Austria was proclaimed an Empire and after the Congress of Vienna the great reactionary powers of Europe pledged to work together to keep revolution at bay, and Austria and Russia were the greatest defenders of the Vienna settlement.

The Revolutions of 1848 shook the shook the Habsburg lands, and the Hungarian lands declared their independence. Russia intervened by invading Hungary to suppress the revolutions and restore the Habsburg sovereignty.

During the Crimean War Austria maintained a policy of hostile neutrality towards Russia, and, while not going to war, was supportive of the Anglo-French coalition. This stance deeply angered Nicholas I of Russia and was a serious strain to Russo-Austrian relations thereafter. Russia subsequently stood aside as Austria was evicted from the Italian and German states. The Habsburgs therefore gave in to Hungarian demands for autonomy and refounded their state as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Austria-Hungary and Russia

Austrian officials worried that Russia was adopting a pan-Slavist policy designed to united all Slavonic-speaking peoples under the Tsar's leadership. This lead them to pursue a anti-Slavic policy domestically and abroad. The major source of tension between Austria-Hungary and Russia was the so-called Eastern Question: what to do about the weakening Ottoman Empire and its rebellious Christian subjects.

In order to counter to Russia's support for indepedence movements in the Balkans Austria occupied Bosnia in 1878. This brought Austria into conflict with the Principality of Serbia, an autonomous (de facto independent) state within the Ottoman Empire under Russian influence and protection.

Serbia was elevated to a kingdom in 1882, as the Ottoman Empire further decayed. When the Ottomans attempted to assert control over Bosnia, Austria formally annexed it in 1908, against the protests of Serbia and Russia, during the Bosnian crisis.

The lasting result was bitter enmity between Austria-Hugary on one side and Serbia and Russia on the other. After the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by Serb nationalist of the terrorist group the Black Hand, Austria delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia demanding that the Austrian police and military have the right to enter Seriba. Serbia rejected this which led to the Austrian invasion of Serbia, the first battle of the First World War. Russia and Austria would fight to the point of exhaustion on the bloody Eastern Front. The war ended with revolution and the overthrow of the monarchy in both empires.

Austria and the Soviet Union

The rump Austrian state left after the war eventually joined with Nazi Germany in the Anschluss, and was therefore part of the German invasion of the Soviet Union.

After the war Austria was occupied by the allied armies re-sperated from Germany, and divided into four zones of occupation. The Soviets and did not create a sepeate socialist government in their zone as they did in East Germany. Instead Austria was required to sign the Austrian State Treaty of 1955 under which it pledged total neutrality in the growing Cold War.

Austria and the Russian Federation

References

  • Armour, Ian D. (2007). A History of Eastern Europe 1740-1918. Hodder Arnold. ISBN 0340760400.

External links

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