This list complements the software engineering
article, giving more details and examples.
For an alphabetical listing of topics, please see List of software engineering topics (alphabetical).
Influence on society
Software engineers affect society by creating applications. These applications produce value for users, and sometimes produce disasters.
Software engineers build software
, operating systems
, system software
) that people use.
Applications influence software engineering by pressuring developers to solve problems in new ways. For example, consumer software emphasizes low cost, medical software emphasizes high quality, and Internet commerce software emphasizes rapid development.
- Business software
- Airline reservations
- Computer graphics
- Databases, support almost every field
- Embedded systems Both software engineers and traditional engineers write software control systems for embedded products.
- Engineering All traditional engineering branches use software extensively. Engineers use spreadsheets, more than they ever used calculators. Engineers use custom software tools to design, analyze, and simulate their own projects, like bridges and power lines. These projects resemble software in many respects, because the work exists as electronic documents and goes through analysis, design, implementation, and testing phases. Software tools for engineers use the tenets of computer science; as well as the tenets of calculus, physics, and chemistry.
- Information systems, support almost every field
- LIS Management of laboratory data
- MIS Management of financial and personnel data
- Network Management
- Networks and Internet
- Office suites
- Operating systems
- Signal processing, encoding and interpreting signals
- Simulation, supports almost every field.
- Traffic Control
- Visualization, supports almost every field
- World wide web
Software has played a role in many high-profile disasters.
Technologies and practices
Skilled software engineers use technologies and practices from a variety of fields to improve their productivity in creating software and to improve the quality of the delivered product.
Software engineering topics
Many technologies and practices are (mostly) confined to software engineering,
though many of these are shared with computer science
Programming paradigm, based on a programming language technology
Graphical user interfaces
Patterns, document many common programming and project management techniques
Processes and methodologies
- Process Models
A platform combines computer hardware and an operating system. As platforms grow more powerful and less costly, applications and tools grow more widely available.
Computer science topics
Skilled software engineers know a lot of computer science
including what is possible and impossible, and what is easy and hard for software.
is a key foundation of software engineering.
Life cycle phases
Deliverables must be developed for many SE projects. Software engineers rarely make all of these deliverables themselves. They usually cooperate with the writers, trainers, installers, marketers, technical support people, and others who make many of these deliverables.
- Application software — the software
- Database — schemas and data.
- Documentation, online and/or print, FAQ, Readme, release notes, Help, for each role
- Administration and Maintenance policy, what should be backed-up, checked, configured, ...
- Upgrade from previous installations
- Upgrade from competitor's installations
- Training materials, for each role
- Support info for computer support groups.
- Marketing and sales materials
Many people made important contributions to SE technologies, practices, or applications.
- John Backus: Fortran, first optimizing compiler, BNF
- Vic Basili: Experience factory.
- F.L. Bauer: Stack principle, popularized the term Software Engineering
- Kent Beck: Refactoring, extreme programming, pair programming, test-driven development.
- Tim Berners-Lee: World wide web
- Barry Boehm: SE economics, COCOMO, Spiral model.
- Grady Booch: Object-oriented design, UML.
- Fred Brooks: Managed System 360 and OS 360. Wrote The Mythical Man-Month and No Silver Bullet.
- Larry Constantine: Structured design, coupling, cohesion
- Edsger Dijkstra: Wrote Notes on Structured Programming, A Discipline of Programming and Go To Statement Considered Harmful, algorithms, formal methods, pedagogy.
- Michael Fagan: Software inspection.
- Tom Gilb: Software metric, Software inspection, Evolutionary processes.
- Grace Hopper: The first compiler (Mark 1), COBOL, Nanoseconds.
- Watts Humphrey: Capability Maturity Model, Personal Software Process, fellow of the Software Engineering Institute.
- Jean Ichbiah: Ada
- Michael A. Jackson: Jackson Structured Programming, Jackson System Development
- Bill Joy: Berkeley Unix, vi, Java.
- Brian Kernighan: C and Unix.
- Donald Knuth: Wrote The Art of Computer Programming, TeX, algorithms, literate programming
- Bertrand Meyer: Design by Contract, Eiffel programming language.
- Peter G. Neumann: RISKS Digest, ACM Sigsoft.
- David Parnas: Module design, social responsibility, professionalism.
- Jef Raskin: Developed the original Macintosh GUI
- Dennis Ritchie: C and Unix.
- Winston W. Royce: Waterfall model.
- Mary Shaw: Software architecture.
- Richard Stallman: Founder of the Free Software Foundation
- Linus Torvalds: Linux kernel, free software / open source development.
- Will Tracz: Reuse, ACM Software Engineering Notes.
- Gerald Weinberg: Wrote The Psychology of Computer Programming.
- Jeanette Wing: Formal specifications.
- Ed Yourdon: Structured programming, wrote The Decline and Fall of the American Programmer.
- About Face: The Essentials of User Interface Design by Alan Cooper, about user interface design. ISBN 0-7645-2641-3
- The Capability Maturity Model by Watts Humphrey. Written for the Software Engineering Institute, emphasizing management and process. (See Managing the Software Process ISBN 0-201-18095-2)
- The Cathedral and the Bazaar by Eric Raymond about open source development.
- The Decline and Fall of the American Programmer by Ed Yourdon predicts the end of software development in the U.S. ISBN 0-13-191958-X
- Design Patterns by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides. ISBN 0-201-63361-2
- Extreme Programming Explained by Kent Beck ISBN 0-321-27865-8
- " Go To Statement Considered Harmful" by Edsger Dijkstra.
- ''Actors in the Network — First Monday article by Ilkka Tuomi (2000) source
- The Mythical Man-Month by Fred Brooks, about project management. ISBN 0-201-83595-9
- Object-oriented Analysis and Design by Grady Booch. ISBN 0-8053-5340-2
- Peopleware by Tom DeMarco and Tim Lister. ISBN 0-932633-43-9
- Principles of Software Engineering Management by Tom Gilb about evolutionary processes. ISBN 0-201-19246-2
- The Psychology of Computer Programming by Gerald Weinberg. Written as an independent consultant, partly about his years at IBM. ISBN 0-932633-42-0
- Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code by Martin Fowler, Kent Beck, John Brant, William Opdyke, and Don Roberts. ISBN 0-201-48567-2
- The Pragmatic Programmer: from journeyman to master by Andrew Hunt, and David Thomas. ISBN 0-201-61622-X
- In Arabic , software engineering is called هندسة البرمجيات
- In Chinese, software engineering is called ruǎnjiàn gōngchéng(软件工程 软件工程)
- In Danish, software engineering is called Software ingeniør.
- In French, software engineering is called G%C3%A9nie_logiciel.
- In Persian, software engineering is called مهندسی نرمافزار.
- In German, software engineering is called Softwaretechnik.
- In Hebrew, software engineering is called הנדסת תוכנה.
- In Italian, software engineering is called Ingegneria del software,
- In Korean, software engineering is called 소프트웨어 공학,
- In Norwegian, software engineering is called Programvareutvikling.
- In Polish, software engineering is called Inżynieria oprogramowania.
- In Portuguese, software engineering is called Engenharia de software,
- In Spanish, software engineering is called Ingeniería del software,
- In Turkish, software engineering is called yazılım mühendisliği.