Ashqelon, city (1994 pop. 80,100), SW Israel, on the Mediterranean Sea. It is a beach resort in an area of citrus groves and cotton plantations. Ashqelon's industries process agricultural products and manufacture cement, plastics, electronic equipment, and watches. Nearby is the site of ancient Ashqelon, or Ashkelon, whose history dates back to the 3d millenium B.C. It was a trade center and port and a seat of worship of the goddess Astarte. Ancient Ashkelon was conquered by the Philistines in the late 12th cent. B.C. and completely rebuilt. Ashkelon flourished under the Greeks and Romans; Herod, believed to have been born there, greatly enlarged the city. It was taken by the Arabs in A.D. 638, conquered by the Crusaders in 1153 and occupied by Richard I in 1191, and completely destroyed by Muslims in 1270. An Israeli settlement was established there in 1948. In 1955 the modern city of Ashqelon was founded when Afridar, a town established by South African Jews in 1952, and Migdal, a former Arab town, were merged. A national park in Ashqelon includes Greek and Roman ruins and the remains of ancient synagogues. A Roman tomb (3d cent.) decorated with frescoes, the ruins of a Byzantine church, and a wall built by Crusaders are also in the city.
formerly Ascalon

Town (pop., 2004 est.: 105,400) and archaeological site, Israel. The historic coastal city-state of Ascalon was traditionally the key to the conquest of southwestern Palestine. Its name appears in Egyptian texts as early as circa 1800 BC. It was conquered by several ancient empires, including that of Alexander the Great (332 BC). Conquered by the Arabs in AD 636, it was taken by Crusaders in 1153 and became one of their principal ports (see Crusades). It was retaken by the Ayyūbid sultan Saladin in 1187 and destroyed by the Mamlūk sultan Baybars I in 1270. Modern Ashqelon, originally an Arab town, was resettled by Israelis after 1949 and is now a resort and industrial centre.

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