City (pop., 2002 est.: 743,000), capital of Turkmenistan. It lies in an oasis at the northern foot of the Kopet-Dag Range near the Iranian border. Founded in 1881 as a Russian military fort, it was the capital of Turkmenistan S.S.R. (1924–90). A violent earthquake destroyed the city in 1948; it was rebuilt on the same plan. It is now an industrial, transportation, and cultural centre.
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