Carlsson, Arvid, 1923-, Swedish pharmacologist, grad. Univ. of Lund, Sweden, (M.D., Ph.D., 1951). Carlsson was a professor at the Univ. of Lund (1951-59) and at the Univ. of Gothenburg, Sweden (1959-89). In 2000 he, Paul Greengard, and Eric Kandel were awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. The nerve cells in the human brain are linked by a complex network of nerve processes, with messages being transmitted via various chemical transmitters. Carlsson was cited for discovering that dopamine is one of those transmitters and that it is critical to movement control. His research led to the realization that lack of dopamine in certain parts of the brain causes Parkinson's disease. See also neurotransmitter.
ArVid (Archiver on Video) (АрВид, Архиватор на Видео) is a data backup solution using a VHS tape as a storage medium. It was very popular in Russia and former USSR in mid-1990s.

It was produced in Zelenograd, Russia by PO KSI.


  • Using low-cost VHS tapes and recording units for data backup.
  • High reliability
  • Hamming code error correction
  • Easy data copying between two VHS units (eliminating need of a computer for data copying)


  • Inefficient tape capacity usage (only 2 grades of luminance signal spectrum were used)
  • Poor software support


A VHS recorder unit should be connected to an ArVid ISA board via a composite video cable. Unit operation is controlled by a remote control emulator using a LED.

Device may operate in two modes: low data rate at 200 kbyte/s and high data rate at 325 kbyte/s. Not all VHS recorders of the time were capable to support the latter.

An E-180 video tape is able to hold 2 Gb of uncompressed data.


  • ArVid 1010 was first of ArVid devices. It's production started in 1992.
  • ArVid 1020 was a successor to ArVid 1010 using more advanced integrated circuitry.
  • ArVid 1030/1031 had better internal design, less power consumption and was less in size. It allowed automatic switching to a TV set when device was not in use.
  • ArVid 1051/1052 introduced 325 kbyte/s data rate and 128/512 kbyte buffer cache (respectively).

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