Arthur "Blind" Blake

Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, 1st duke of

(born May 1, 1769, Dublin, Ire.—died Sept. 14, 1852, Walmer Castle, Kent, Eng.) British general. Son of the Irish earl of Mornington, he entered the army in 1787 and served in the Irish Parliament (1790–97). Sent to India in 1796, he commanded troops to victories in the Maratha War (1803). Back in England, he served in the British House of Commons and as chief secretary in Ireland (1807–09). Commanding British troops in the Peninsular War, he won battles against the French in Portugal and Spain and invaded France to win the war in 1814, for which he was promoted to field marshal and created a duke. After Napoleon renewed the war against the European powers, the “Iron Duke” commanded the Allied armies to victory at the Battle of Waterloo (1815). Richly rewarded by English and foreign sovereigns, he became one of the most honoured men in Europe. After commanding the army of occupation in France (1815–18) and serving in the Tory cabinet as master general of ordnance (1818–27), he served as prime minister (1828–30), but he was forced to resign after opposing any parliamentary reform. He was honoured on his death by a monumental funeral and burial in St. Paul's Cathedral alongside Horatio Nelson.

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Evelyn Waugh, photograph by Mark Gerson, 1964.

(born Oct. 28, 1903, London, Eng.—died April 10, 1966, Combe Florey, near Taunton, Somerset) English novelist. After an Oxford education, he devoted himself to solitary, observant travel and the writing of novels, soon earning a wide reputation for sardonic wit and technical brilliance. His finest satirical novels are Decline and Fall (1928), Vile Bodies (1930), Black Mischief (1932), A Handful of Dust (1934), Scoop (1938), and The Loved One (1948). He converted to Roman Catholicism in 1930, and his Catholicism is insistently reflected in his novels from then on. After service in World War II he led a retired life, growing increasingly conservative and misanthropic. His later works, more serious and ambitious but written with less élan, include Brideshead Revisited (1945) and the Sword of Honour trilogy—Men at Arms (1952), Officers and Gentlemen (1955), and Unconditional Surrender (1961).

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(born March 22, 1884, Grand Rapids, Mich., U.S.—died April 18, 1951, Grand Rapids) U.S. politician. Editor of the Grand Rapids Herald (1906–28), he was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate (1928–51). He was a critic of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt's foreign policy but revised his isolationist position after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In a 1945 Senate speech he advocated U.S. participation in international alliances, and he was a delegate to the UN organizing conference. He led Republican congressional support for legislative measures introduced by Pres. Harry Truman, including the Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, and NATO.

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(born July 11, 1890, Glenguin, Stirling, Scot.—died June 3, 1967, Banstead, Surrey, Eng.) British air marshal. He joined the British army in 1913, transferred to the Royal Flying Corps in 1916, and after World War I commanded a branch of the Royal Air Force (RAF). As head of the RAF Middle East Command in World War II, he commanded Allied air operations in North Africa and Italy, and in 1944 he was appointed head of Allied air operations in western Europe. His policy of bombing German communications and providing close air support of ground operations contributed significantly to the success of the Normandy Campaign and the Allied advance into Germany. He later became the first peacetime chief of the air staff (1946–50).

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(born May 22, 1786, Northampton, Mass., U.S.—died July 23, 1865, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. merchant and philanthropist. He operated various businesses, including a silk-importing firm in New York (1826–37) with his brother Lewis Tappan (1788–1873); they also founded the first commercial credit-rating service (1841). He used his wealth to support missionary societies and the abolitionist crusade, helping found the American Anti-Slavery Society and serving as its first president (1833–40). After breaking with William Lloyd Garrison, he created the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (1840). The Tappan brothers later supported the Underground Railroad.

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(born Feb. 28, 1865, Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, Eng.—died Jan. 22, 1945, Wittersham, Kent) English poet and critic. He contributed to The Yellow Book, an avant-garde journal, and edited The Savoy (1896). His Symbolist Movement in Literature (1899), the first English work championing the French Symbolist movement in poetry, summed up a decade of interpretation and influenced William Butler Yeats and T.S. Eliot. His poetry, mainly disillusioned in feeling, appears in such volumes as Silhouettes (1892) and London Nights (1895). He also translated the poetry of Paul Verlaine and wrote travel pieces. After a nervous breakdown in 1908, he produced little apart from Confessions (1930), a moving account of his illness.

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(born May 13, 1842, London, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1900, London) British composer. He attended the Royal Academy and the Leipzig Conservatory, then supported himself by teaching, playing organ, and composing for provincial festivals. His music for The Tempest (1861) achieved great success and was followed by his Irish Symphony (1866) and songs such as “Onward, Christian Soldiers” and “The Lost Chord.” In 1871 he first collaborated in comic opera with playwright W.S. Gilbert, and in 1875 their Trial by Jury became a hit, setting the course for both their careers. Their collaboration continued with The Sorceror (1877), H.M.S. Pinafore (1878), The Pirates of Penzance (1879), Patience (1881), Iolanthe (1882), Princess Ida (1883), The Mikado (1885), Ruddigore (1887), The Yeomen of the Guard (1888), The Gondoliers (1889), and others, many of which would continue to delight international audiences for more than a century.

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(born May 24, 1855, London, Eng.—died Nov. 23, 1934, London) British playwright. He entered the theatrical world as an actor with Henry Irving's theatre company. His first play, £200 a Year, was produced in 1877. He wrote a series of successful farces such as The Magistrate (1885) before turning to dramas of social issues. The Second Mrs. Tanqueray (1893), the first of his plays depicting women confronting their situation in society, established his reputation, and he followed it with works such as The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith (1895) and Trelawny of the “Wells” (1898), becoming the most successful playwright of his time.

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(born Dec. 5, 1875, Napperton, Ont., Can.—died Nov. 30, 1933, Montreal, Que.) Canadian military leader. He was a businessman in Victoria, B.C., before enlisting in the militia. Given command of a battalion in 1914, he won distinction in several battles of World War I; within three years he was promoted to lieutenant general and given command of the four divisions of the Canadian Corps. After the war he served as the first general in the Canadian army. In 1920 he became principal and vice chancellor of McGill University.

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(born Nov. 21, 1863, Bodmin, Cornwall, Eng.—died May 12, 1944, Fowey, Cornwall) English poet, novelist, and anthologist. Educated at Oxford, he worked as a journalist and editor in London before settling in his native Cornwall. He taught at Cambridge from 1912. He is noted for compiling The Oxford Book of English Verse 1250–1900 (1900; revised 1939) and The Oxford Book of Ballads (1910). His works, written in a clear and apparently effortless style, include many novels and short stories, verse, and criticism, including On the Art of Writing (1916) and On the Art of Reading (1920).

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Arthur Stanley Eddington.

(born Dec. 28, 1882, Kendal, Westmorland, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1944, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) British astronomer, physicist, and mathematician. At the University of Cambridge he won every mathematical honour. He was chief assistant at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich (1906–13); in 1914 he became director of the Cambridge observatory. Religious and pacifistic, he declared that the world's meaning could not be discovered by science. His greatest contributions were in astrophysics, where his studies included stellar structure, subatomic sources of stellar energy, white dwarf stars, and diffuse matter in interstellar space. His philosophical ideas led him to believe that unifying quantum theory and general relativity would permit the calculation of certain universal constants.

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(born May 13, 1842, London, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1900, London) British composer. He attended the Royal Academy and the Leipzig Conservatory, then supported himself by teaching, playing organ, and composing for provincial festivals. His music for The Tempest (1861) achieved great success and was followed by his Irish Symphony (1866) and songs such as “Onward, Christian Soldiers” and “The Lost Chord.” In 1871 he first collaborated in comic opera with playwright W.S. Gilbert, and in 1875 their Trial by Jury became a hit, setting the course for both their careers. Their collaboration continued with The Sorceror (1877), H.M.S. Pinafore (1878), The Pirates of Penzance (1879), Patience (1881), Iolanthe (1882), Princess Ida (1883), The Mikado (1885), Ruddigore (1887), The Yeomen of the Guard (1888), The Gondoliers (1889), and others, many of which would continue to delight international audiences for more than a century.

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(born April 14, 1904, London, Eng.—died May 21, 2000, near Aylesbury) British actor and director. He made his London debut in 1921 and joined the Old Vic company in 1929, becoming widely acclaimed for a series of Shakespearean performances, notably Hamlet and Richard II, and also excelling in plays such as The School for Scandal, The Importance of Being Earnest, The Seagull, and Tiny Alice. He directed several repertory seasons in the 1940s and toured the world with the solo recital Ages of Man (1958–59). He appeared in many films, including Arthur (1981, Academy Award) and Shine (1996).

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(born July 8, 1851, Nash Mills, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died July 11, 1941, Youlbury, near Oxford, Oxfordshire) British archaeologist. Son of the archaeologist Sir John Evans, he served as a curator (1884–1908) at Oxford's Ashmolean Museum. Beginning in 1899 he devoted several decades to excavating the ruins of the ancient city of Knossos in Crete, uncovering evidence of a sophisticated Bronze Age civilization that he named Minoan. His work, one of archaeology's major achievements, greatly advanced the study of European and eastern Mediterranean prehistory. He published his definitive account in The Palace of Minos, 4 vol. (1921–36).

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(born Aug. 2, 1891, London, Eng.—died March 27, 1975, London) British composer. He studied with Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst. Though he was compositionally adventurous at first, he later adopted a conservative, Romantic style. His works include A Colour Symphony (1922), Pastoral (1928), the choral symphony Morning Heroes (1930), Music for Strings (1936), and the ballets Checkmate (1937) and Miracle in the Gorbals (1944).

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Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, detail of a portrait by H.L. Gates, 1927; in the National Portrait Gallery, elipsis

(born May 22, 1859, Edinburgh, Scot.—died July 7, 1930, Crowborough, Sussex, Eng.) Scottish writer. He became a doctor and practiced until 1891, studying with Dr. Joseph Bell, who was the model for his fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes. Conan Doyle was knighted for his medical work in the second South African War and his public defense of the war. Holmes first appeared in “A Study in Scarlet” (1887). Collections of Holmes stories began with The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1892). Tiring of Holmes, Conan Doyle devised his death in 1893, only to be forced by public demand to restore him to life. His other Holmes novels include The Sign of Four (1890), The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902), and The Valley of Fear (1915). His historical romances include The White Company (1890). Late in life, Conan Doyle devoted himself to spiritualism.

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(born July 22, 1892, Stannern, near Iglau, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary—died Oct. 16, 1946, Nürnberg, Ger.) Austrian Nazi leader. He served in the Austro-Hungarian army during World War I and was seriously wounded. Later a lawyer in Vienna, he became a leader of the moderate faction of the Austrian Nazis and served on the federal council of state (1937–38). In response to German pressure, he was named minister of interior and security and then replaced Kurt von Schuschnigg as chancellor (1938). He welcomed the Anschluss by Germany and became governor of the Austrian administration (1938–39). In World War II he was German high commissioner of The Netherlands (1940–45) and carried out the Nazi policy against Dutch Jews. He was tried at the Nürnberg trials and executed as a war criminal.

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Arthur Schopenhauer, 1855.

(born Feb. 22, 1788, Danzig, Prussia—died Sept. 21, 1860, Frankfurt am Main) German philosopher. His father was a banker and his mother a novelist. He studied in several fields before earning his doctorate in philosophy. He regarded the Upanishads, together with the works of Plato and Immanuel Kant, as the foundation of his philosophical system, a metaphysical doctrine of the will developed in reaction to the idealism of G.W.F. Hegel. His magnum opus, The World as Will and Representation (1819), consists of two comprehensive series of reflections on the theory of knowledge and the philosophy of nature, aesthetics, and ethics. By turning away from spirit and reason to the powers of intuition, creativity, and the irrational, he influenced (partly via Friedrich Nietzsche) the ideas and methods of vitalism, life philosophy, existentialism, and anthropology. His other works include On the Will in Nature (1836), The Two Main Problems of Ethics (1841), and Parerga and Paralipomena (1851). An unhappy and solitary man, his works earned him the sobriquet “the philosopher of pessimism.”

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(born May 15, 1862, Vienna, Austria—died Oct. 21, 1931, Vienna) Austrian playwright and novelist. Schnitzler practiced medicine in Vienna most of his life, and he also studied psychiatry. He became known for his psychological dramas and for his fearlessness in depicting the erotic lives of his characters, beginning with the early play Anatol (1893). His best-known play, Reigen (Merry-Go-Round, 1897), was a cycle of 10 dramatic dialogues that traced the links connecting the partners in a series of sexual encounters; considered scandalous when first performed in 1920, it was filmed as La Ronde by Max Ophüls in 1950. His drama Playing with Love (1896) and his most successful novel, None but the Brave (1901), revealed the hollowness of the Austrian military code of honour.

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Bertrand Russell, 1960

(born May 18, 1872, Trelleck, Monmouthshire, Eng.—died Feb. 2, 1970, near Penrhyndeudraeth, Merioneth, Wales) British logician and philosopher. He is best known for his work in mathematical logic and for his advocacy on behalf of a variety of social and political causes, especially pacifism and nuclear disarmament. He was born into the British nobility as the grandson of Earl Russell, who was twice prime minister of Britain in the mid-19th century. He studied mathematics and philosophy at Cambridge University, where he came under the influence of the idealist philosopher J.M.E. McTaggart, though he soon rejected idealism in favour of an extreme Platonic realism. In an early paper, “On Denoting” (1905), he solved a notorious puzzle in the philosophy of language by showing how phrases such as “The present king of France,” which have no referents, function logically as general statements rather than as proper names. Russell later regarded this discovery, which came to be known as the “theory of descriptions,” as one of his most important contributions to philosophy. In The Principles of Mathematics (1903) and the epochal Principia Mathematica (3 vol., 1910–13), which he wrote with Alfred North Whitehead, he sought to demonstrate that the whole of mathematics derives from logic. For his pacifism in World War I he lost his lectureship at Cambridge and was later imprisoned. (He would abandon pacifism in 1939 in the face of Nazi aggression.) Russell's best-developed metaphysical doctrine, logical atomism, strongly influenced the school of logical positivism. His later philosophical works include The Analysis of Mind (1921), The Analysis of Matter (1927), and Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits (1948). His A History of Western Philosophy (1945), which he wrote for a popular audience, became a best-seller and was for many years the main source of his income. Among his many works on social and political topics are Roads to Freedom (1918); The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism (1920), a scathing critique of Soviet communism; On Education (1926); and Marriage and Morals (1929). In part because of the controversial views he espoused in the latter work, he was prevented from accepting a teaching position at the City College of New York in 1940. After World War II he became a leader in the worldwide campaign for nuclear disarmament, serving as first president of the international Pugwash Conferences on nuclear weapons and world security and of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. In 1961, at the age of 89, he was imprisoned for a second time for inciting civil disobedience. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950.

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Rimbaud, detail from “Un Coin de table,” oil painting by Henri Fantin-Latour, 1872; in elipsis

(born Oct. 20, 1854, Charleville, France—died Nov. 10, 1891, Marseille) French poet and adventurer. The provincial son of an army captain, he had begun by age 16 to write violent, blasphemous poems, and he formulated an aesthetic doctrine stating that a poet must become a seer, break down the restraints and controls on personality, and thus become the instrument for the voice of the eternal. He was invited to Paris by Paul Verlaine, with whom he had a homosexual relationship and engaged in a wild and dissipated life. The Drunken Boat (written 1871), perhaps his finest poem, displays his astonishing verbal virtuosity and a daring choice of images and metaphors. In Les Illuminations (written 1872–74), a collection of mainly prose poems, he tried to abolish the distinction between reality and hallucination. A Season in Hell (1873), which alternates prose passages with dazzling lyrics, became his farewell to poetry at age 19. After they had a falling-out, Verlaine shot and wounded Rimbaud; afterward their final meeting ended in a violent quarrel. Rimbaud abandoned literature and from 1875 led an international vagabond life as a merchant and trader, mainly in Ethiopia; he died at age 37 after his leg was amputated. The Dionysian power of his verse and his liberation of language from the constraints of form greatly influenced the Symbolist movement and 20th-century poetry.

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(born Sept. 19, 1867, London, Eng.—died Sept. 6, 1939, Limpsfield, Surrey) British artist and illustrator. While a staff artist for a London newspaper, he also began illustrating books. He became skillful using the new halftone process, and his highly detailed drawings revealed a unique imagination. He achieved renown with a 1900 edition of Grimm's Fairy Tales, and his illustrations for Rip Van Winkle (1905) brought him recognition in America as well. Altogether he illustrated more than 60 books, including classics of children's literature as well as works by William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, John Milton, Richard Wagner, and Edgar Allan Poe.

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(born Nov. 21, 1863, Bodmin, Cornwall, Eng.—died May 12, 1944, Fowey, Cornwall) English poet, novelist, and anthologist. Educated at Oxford, he worked as a journalist and editor in London before settling in his native Cornwall. He taught at Cambridge from 1912. He is noted for compiling The Oxford Book of English Verse 1250–1900 (1900; revised 1939) and The Oxford Book of Ballads (1910). His works, written in a clear and apparently effortless style, include many novels and short stories, verse, and criticism, including On the Art of Writing (1916) and On the Art of Reading (1920).

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(born May 24, 1855, London, Eng.—died Nov. 23, 1934, London) British playwright. He entered the theatrical world as an actor with Henry Irving's theatre company. His first play, £200 a Year, was produced in 1877. He wrote a series of successful farces such as The Magistrate (1885) before turning to dramas of social issues. The Second Mrs. Tanqueray (1893), the first of his plays depicting women confronting their situation in society, established his reputation, and he followed it with works such as The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith (1895) and Trelawny of the “Wells” (1898), becoming the most successful playwright of his time.

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(born Aug. 9, 1922, Coventry, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Dec. 2, 1985, Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire) English poet. Educated at Oxford, Larkin became a librarian at the University of Hull, Yorkshire, in 1955; he would remain a librarian the rest of his life. He wrote two novels before becoming well known with his third volume of verse, The Less Deceived (1955), which expressed the antiromantic sensibility prevalent in English verse of his time. Later poetry volumes are The Whitsun Weddings (1964), High Windows (1974), and Aubade (1980). All What Jazz (1970) contains essays he wrote as a jazz critic for The Daily Telegraph (1961–71).

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(born March 27, 1934, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. dancer, choreographer, and director of the Dance Theatre of Harlem. He studied at the High School for the Performing Arts in New York City. He began dancing in Broadway musicals and worked with several ballet companies before joining the New York City Ballet in 1956 as its first African American dancer. He created roles in several of George Balanchine's ballets, including A Midsummer Night's Dream (1962) and Agon (1967), before leaving the company in 1972. In 1968 he cofounded a ballet school, and its company, the Dance Theatre of Harlem, made its debut in 1971. He has continued as its director and choreographer.

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Arthur Miller, photograph by Inge Morath

(born Oct. 17, 1915, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 10, 2005, Roxbury, Conn.) U.S. playwright. He began writing plays while a student at the University of Michigan. His first important play, All My Sons (1947), was followed by his most famous work, Death of a Salesman (1949, Pulitzer Prize), the tragedy of a man destroyed by false values that are in large part the values of his society. Noted for combining social awareness with a searching concern for his characters' inner lives, Miller wrote many other plays, including The Crucible (1953), which uses a plot about the Salem witch trials to attack McCarthyism, A View from the Bridge (1955), After the Fall (1964), The Last Yankee (1992), and Resurrection Blues (2002). He also wrote short stories, essays, and the screenplay for The Misfits (1961), which starred his second wife, Marilyn Monroe.

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(born Aug. 9, 1922, Coventry, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Dec. 2, 1985, Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire) English poet. Educated at Oxford, Larkin became a librarian at the University of Hull, Yorkshire, in 1955; he would remain a librarian the rest of his life. He wrote two novels before becoming well known with his third volume of verse, The Less Deceived (1955), which expressed the antiromantic sensibility prevalent in English verse of his time. Later poetry volumes are The Whitsun Weddings (1964), High Windows (1974), and Aubade (1980). All What Jazz (1970) contains essays he wrote as a jazz critic for The Daily Telegraph (1961–71).

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(born March 3, 1918, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 26, 2007, Stanford, Calif.) U.S. biochemist and physician. He studied at the University of Rochester. In 1959 he joined the faculty at Stanford University. While studying how living organisms manufacture nucleotides, his research led him to the problem of how nucleotides are strung together to form DNA molecules. Adding radioactive nucleotides to an enzyme mixture prepared from cultures of E. coli, he found evidence of a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme that adds nucleotides to a preexisting DNA chain. He was the first to accomplish the cell-free synthesis of DNA. He shared a 1959 Nobel Prize with Severo Ochoa. His son Roger D. Kornberg won the 2006 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

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(born Sept. 5, 1905, Budapest, Hung.—found dead March 3, 1983, London, Eng.) Hungarian-British novelist, journalist, and critic. He is best known for Darkness at Noon (1940); a political novel examining the moral danger in a totalitarian system that sacrifices means to an end, it reflects the events leading to his break with the Communist Party and his experience as a correspondent imprisoned by the fascists in the Spanish Civil War. He also wrote of his break with the party in the essay collection The God That Failed (1949). His later works, mostly concerning science and philosophy, include The Act of Creation (1964) and The Ghost in the Machine (1967). Suffering from leukemia and Parkinson's disease and believing in voluntary euthanasia, he died with his wife in a suicide pact.

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James Baldwin

(born Aug. 2, 1924, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 1, 1987, Saint-Paul, France) U.S. essayist, novelist, and playwright. He grew up in poverty in the New York City district of Harlem and became a preacher while in his teens. After 1948 he lived alternately in France and the U.S. His semiautobiographical first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), regarded as his finest, was followed by the essay collections Notes of a Native Son (1955) and Nobody Knows My Name (1961); the novels Giovanni's Room (1956), a story of homosexual life, and Another Country (1962); the long polemical essay The Fire Next Time (1963), prophesying widespread racial violence; and the play Blues for Mister Charlie (produced 1964). His eloquence and passion on the subject of race made him for years perhaps the country's most prominent black writer.

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(born March 10, 1892, Le Havre, France—died Nov. 27, 1955, Paris) French composer. Born to Swiss-French parents, he studied in Zürich, then at the Paris Conservatory. One of the group known as Les Six, though not truly in sympathy with its aims, he first gained international renown for his oratorio Le Roi David (1921). His exciting orchestral piece Pacific 231 (1923), portraying a locomotive, caused a sensation. Prolific throughout his life, he composed five symphonies (including Symphony No. 3 known as Liturgique, for the end of World War II), the oratorio Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher (1938), and numerous scores for ballet, theatre, and films (including Abel Gance's Napoleon).

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(born June 14, 1958, Madison, Wis., U.S.) U.S. speed skater. He became the first American to win the world speed-skating championship, and he retained the h1 for three years (1977–79). In the 1980 Winter Olympics he became the first person to win gold medals in all five speed-skating events. He later turned to competitive cycling.

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(born March 31, 1871, Dublin, Ire.—died Aug. 12, 1922, Dublin) Irish journalist and nationalist, principal founder of Sinn Féin. As a young man, he edited political newspapers and urged passive resistance to British rule. He lost influence with the extreme nationalists when he did not participate in the Easter Rising (1916) but regained it when the British jailed him with other Sinn Féin members. In 1918 the Irish members of the House of Commons declared a republic and chose Eamon de Valera as president and Griffith as vice president. In 1921 Griffith led the Irish delegation to the self-government treaty conference and was the first Irish delegate to accept partition, embodied in the Anglo-Irish Treaty (1921). When the Dáil narrowly approved it in 1922, de Valera resigned and Griffith was elected president. Exhausted from overwork, he died soon after.

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(born April 14, 1904, London, Eng.—died May 21, 2000, near Aylesbury) British actor and director. He made his London debut in 1921 and joined the Old Vic company in 1929, becoming widely acclaimed for a series of Shakespearean performances, notably Hamlet and Richard II, and also excelling in plays such as The School for Scandal, The Importance of Being Earnest, The Seagull, and Tiny Alice. He directed several repertory seasons in the 1940s and toured the world with the solo recital Ages of Man (1958–59). He appeared in many films, including Arthur (1981, Academy Award) and Shine (1996).

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(born Dec. 17, 1894, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died July 10, 1979, Brookline, Mass.) U.S. conductor. Son of a distinguished violinist, he was trained in Berlin and joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1915. In the 1920s he began conducting and recording with his own Boston Sinfonietta and various choral groups. In 1929 he organized a series of open-air concerts, which was successful enough to eventually become an institution, the Boston Pops. Thereafter his name was inextricably linked with the Pops, which achieved enormous success under his direction.

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Evelyn Waugh, photograph by Mark Gerson, 1964.

(born Oct. 28, 1903, London, Eng.—died April 10, 1966, Combe Florey, near Taunton, Somerset) English novelist. After an Oxford education, he devoted himself to solitary, observant travel and the writing of novels, soon earning a wide reputation for sardonic wit and technical brilliance. His finest satirical novels are Decline and Fall (1928), Vile Bodies (1930), Black Mischief (1932), A Handful of Dust (1934), Scoop (1938), and The Loved One (1948). He converted to Roman Catholicism in 1930, and his Catholicism is insistently reflected in his novels from then on. After service in World War II he led a retired life, growing increasingly conservative and misanthropic. His later works, more serious and ambitious but written with less élan, include Brideshead Revisited (1945) and the Sword of Honour trilogy—Men at Arms (1952), Officers and Gentlemen (1955), and Unconditional Surrender (1961).

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(born July 8, 1851, Nash Mills, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died July 11, 1941, Youlbury, near Oxford, Oxfordshire) British archaeologist. Son of the archaeologist Sir John Evans, he served as a curator (1884–1908) at Oxford's Ashmolean Museum. Beginning in 1899 he devoted several decades to excavating the ruins of the ancient city of Knossos in Crete, uncovering evidence of a sophisticated Bronze Age civilization that he named Minoan. His work, one of archaeology's major achievements, greatly advanced the study of European and eastern Mediterranean prehistory. He published his definitive account in The Palace of Minos, 4 vol. (1921–36).

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(born June 14, 1958, Madison, Wis., U.S.) U.S. speed skater. He became the first American to win the world speed-skating championship, and he retained the h1 for three years (1977–79). In the 1980 Winter Olympics he became the first person to win gold medals in all five speed-skating events. He later turned to competitive cycling.

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Arthur Stanley Eddington.

(born Dec. 28, 1882, Kendal, Westmorland, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1944, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) British astronomer, physicist, and mathematician. At the University of Cambridge he won every mathematical honour. He was chief assistant at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich (1906–13); in 1914 he became director of the Cambridge observatory. Religious and pacifistic, he declared that the world's meaning could not be discovered by science. His greatest contributions were in astrophysics, where his studies included stellar structure, subatomic sources of stellar energy, white dwarf stars, and diffuse matter in interstellar space. His philosophical ideas led him to believe that unifying quantum theory and general relativity would permit the calculation of certain universal constants.

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(born Dec. 5, 1875, Napperton, Ont., Can.—died Nov. 30, 1933, Montreal, Que.) Canadian military leader. He was a businessman in Victoria, B.C., before enlisting in the militia. Given command of a battalion in 1914, he won distinction in several battles of World War I; within three years he was promoted to lieutenant general and given command of the four divisions of the Canadian Corps. After the war he served as the first general in the Canadian army. In 1920 he became principal and vice chancellor of McGill University.

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Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, detail of a portrait by H.L. Gates, 1927; in the National Portrait Gallery, elipsis

(born May 22, 1859, Edinburgh, Scot.—died July 7, 1930, Crowborough, Sussex, Eng.) Scottish writer. He became a doctor and practiced until 1891, studying with Dr. Joseph Bell, who was the model for his fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes. Conan Doyle was knighted for his medical work in the second South African War and his public defense of the war. Holmes first appeared in “A Study in Scarlet” (1887). Collections of Holmes stories began with The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1892). Tiring of Holmes, Conan Doyle devised his death in 1893, only to be forced by public demand to restore him to life. His other Holmes novels include The Sign of Four (1890), The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902), and The Valley of Fear (1915). His historical romances include The White Company (1890). Late in life, Conan Doyle devoted himself to spiritualism.

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(born Sept. 10, 1892, Wooster, Ohio, U.S.—died March 15, 1962, Berkeley, Calif.) U.S. physicist. He taught at the University of Chicago (1923–45) and later served as chancellor (1945–54) and professor (1953–61) at Washington University. He is best known for his discovery and explanation of the Compton effect, for which he shared with C.T.R. Wilson the 1927 Nobel Prize for Physics. He was later instrumental in initiating the Manhattan Project, and he directed the development of the first nuclear reactors.

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(born Oct. 5, 1829, North Fairfield, Vt., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1886, New York, N.Y) 21st president of the U.S. (1881–85). He practiced law in New York City from 1854, later becoming a close associate of Sen. Roscoe Conkling, the Republican boss of New York. With Conkling's backing, he was appointed customs collector for the port of New York (1871–78), an office long known for its use of the spoils system. He conducted the business of the office with integrity but continued to pad its payroll with Conkling loyalists. At the Republican national convention in 1880, Arthur was the compromise choice for vice president on a ticket with James Garfield; he became president on Garfield's assassination. As president, Arthur displayed unexpected independence by vetoing measures that rewarded political patronage. He also signed the Pendleton Civil Service Act, which created a civil-service system based on merit. He and his navy secretary recommended appropriations that later helped transform the U.S. Navy into one of the world's great fleets. He failed to win his party's nomination for a second term.

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(born March 18, 1869, Birmingham, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Nov. 9, 1940, Heckfield, near Reading, Hampshire) British prime minister (1937–40). Son of Joseph Chamberlain and half brother of Austen Chamberlain, he prospered in the metalworking industry in Birmingham; as the city's lord mayor (1915–16) he organized England's first municipal bank. He was a member of the House of Commons (1918–40), during which he served in Conservative governments as minister of health and chancellor of the Exchequer. As prime minister (1937–40), he sought to prevent the outbreak of a general European war over Adolf Hitler's demand that Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland to Germany. In 1938 he and France's Édouard Daladier granted most of Hitler's demands in the Munich agreement, after which he returned to England a popular hero, speaking of “peace in our time.” He repudiated appeasement after Hitler seized the rest of Czechoslovakia, and when Germany attacked Poland, he declared war. He lost the support of many Conservatives after the failure of a British expedition to Norway and resigned in 1940.

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(born Dec. 7, 1888, Londonderry, Ire.—died March 29, 1957, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.) British novelist. Cary studied art in Edinburgh and Paris before graduating from the University of Oxford. After serving in West Africa in World War I, he began publishing short stories, then novels, some set in Africa, including An American Visitor (1933) and Mister Johnson (1939). The Horse's Mouth (1944), his best-known novel, was the third in a trilogy in which each volume is narrated by one of three protagonists. Other works include a second trilogy, A Prisoner of Grace (1952), Except the Lord (1953), and Not Honour More (1955).

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(born Aug. 2, 1891, London, Eng.—died March 27, 1975, London) British composer. He studied with Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst. Though he was compositionally adventurous at first, he later adopted a conservative, Romantic style. His works include A Colour Symphony (1922), Pastoral (1928), the choral symphony Morning Heroes (1930), Music for Strings (1936), and the ballets Checkmate (1937) and Miracle in the Gorbals (1944).

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Bertrand Russell, 1960

(born May 18, 1872, Trelleck, Monmouthshire, Eng.—died Feb. 2, 1970, near Penrhyndeudraeth, Merioneth, Wales) British logician and philosopher. He is best known for his work in mathematical logic and for his advocacy on behalf of a variety of social and political causes, especially pacifism and nuclear disarmament. He was born into the British nobility as the grandson of Earl Russell, who was twice prime minister of Britain in the mid-19th century. He studied mathematics and philosophy at Cambridge University, where he came under the influence of the idealist philosopher J.M.E. McTaggart, though he soon rejected idealism in favour of an extreme Platonic realism. In an early paper, “On Denoting” (1905), he solved a notorious puzzle in the philosophy of language by showing how phrases such as “The present king of France,” which have no referents, function logically as general statements rather than as proper names. Russell later regarded this discovery, which came to be known as the “theory of descriptions,” as one of his most important contributions to philosophy. In The Principles of Mathematics (1903) and the epochal Principia Mathematica (3 vol., 1910–13), which he wrote with Alfred North Whitehead, he sought to demonstrate that the whole of mathematics derives from logic. For his pacifism in World War I he lost his lectureship at Cambridge and was later imprisoned. (He would abandon pacifism in 1939 in the face of Nazi aggression.) Russell's best-developed metaphysical doctrine, logical atomism, strongly influenced the school of logical positivism. His later philosophical works include The Analysis of Mind (1921), The Analysis of Matter (1927), and Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits (1948). His A History of Western Philosophy (1945), which he wrote for a popular audience, became a best-seller and was for many years the main source of his income. Among his many works on social and political topics are Roads to Freedom (1918); The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism (1920), a scathing critique of Soviet communism; On Education (1926); and Marriage and Morals (1929). In part because of the controversial views he espoused in the latter work, he was prevented from accepting a teaching position at the City College of New York in 1940. After World War II he became a leader in the worldwide campaign for nuclear disarmament, serving as first president of the international Pugwash Conferences on nuclear weapons and world security and of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. In 1961, at the age of 89, he was imprisoned for a second time for inciting civil disobedience. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950.

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(born Sept. 16, 1881, East Shefford, Berkshire, Eng.—died Sept. 17, 1964, London) British art critic. He studied at Cambridge University and in Paris. In 1907 he married Vanessa Stephen, sister of Virginia Woolf; with Virginia's husband, Leonard Woolf, and Roger Fry, they formed the core of the Bloomsbury group. Bell's most important aesthetic ideas were published in Art (1914) and Since Cézanne (1922), in which he promoted his theory of “significant form” (the quality that distinguishes works of art from all other objects). His assertion that art appreciation involves an emotional response to purely formal qualities, independent of subject matter, was influential for several decades.

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Arthur James Balfour, circa 1900.

(born July 25, 1848, Whittinghame, East Lothian, Scot.—died March 19, 1930, Woking, Surrey, Eng.) British statesman. The nephew of the marquess of Salisbury, Balfour served in Parliament (1874–1911) and in his uncle's government as secretary for Ireland (1887–91). From 1891 he was the Conservative Party's leader in Parliament and succeeded his uncle as prime minister (1902–05). He helped form the Entente Cordiale (1904). His most famous action came in 1917 when, as foreign secretary (1916–19), he wrote the so-called Balfour Declaration, which expressed official British approval of Zionism. He served as lord president of the council (1919–22, 1925–29) and drafted the Balfour Report (1926), which defined relations between Britain and the dominions expressed in the Statute of Westminster.

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James Baldwin

(born Aug. 2, 1924, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 1, 1987, Saint-Paul, France) U.S. essayist, novelist, and playwright. He grew up in poverty in the New York City district of Harlem and became a preacher while in his teens. After 1948 he lived alternately in France and the U.S. His semiautobiographical first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), regarded as his finest, was followed by the essay collections Notes of a Native Son (1955) and Nobody Knows My Name (1961); the novels Giovanni's Room (1956), a story of homosexual life, and Another Country (1962); the long polemical essay The Fire Next Time (1963), prophesying widespread racial violence; and the play Blues for Mister Charlie (produced 1964). His eloquence and passion on the subject of race made him for years perhaps the country's most prominent black writer.

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(born July 10, 1943, Richmond, Va., U.S.—died Feb. 6, 1993, New York, N.Y.) U.S. tennis player. He won his first grand-slam singles h1 (the 1968 U.S. Open) as an amateur. The first African American member of the U.S. Davis Cup team, he helped win five championships (1963, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1978). In 1975 he won the Wimbledon singles h1 and received World Championship Tennis top ranking. He retired in 1980 and became captain of the U.S. Davis Cup team (to 1985). Off the court he was a critic of racial injustice, including South Africa's apartheid policy. In 1992 he revealed that he had been infected with HIV by a transfusion following surgery, and he thereafter devoted time to increasing public awareness of AIDS. The U.S. Open is now played at Arthur Ashe Stadium, which opened at the National Tennis Center in Flushing, N.Y., in 1997.

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(born Oct. 5, 1829, North Fairfield, Vt., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1886, New York, N.Y) 21st president of the U.S. (1881–85). He practiced law in New York City from 1854, later becoming a close associate of Sen. Roscoe Conkling, the Republican boss of New York. With Conkling's backing, he was appointed customs collector for the port of New York (1871–78), an office long known for its use of the spoils system. He conducted the business of the office with integrity but continued to pad its payroll with Conkling loyalists. At the Republican national convention in 1880, Arthur was the compromise choice for vice president on a ticket with James Garfield; he became president on Garfield's assassination. As president, Arthur displayed unexpected independence by vetoing measures that rewarded political patronage. He also signed the Pendleton Civil Service Act, which created a civil-service system based on merit. He and his navy secretary recommended appropriations that later helped transform the U.S. Navy into one of the world's great fleets. He failed to win his party's nomination for a second term.

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(born Feb. 28, 1865, Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, Eng.—died Jan. 22, 1945, Wittersham, Kent) English poet and critic. He contributed to The Yellow Book, an avant-garde journal, and edited The Savoy (1896). His Symbolist Movement in Literature (1899), the first English work championing the French Symbolist movement in poetry, summed up a decade of interpretation and influenced William Butler Yeats and T.S. Eliot. His poetry, mainly disillusioned in feeling, appears in such volumes as Silhouettes (1892) and London Nights (1895). He also translated the poetry of Paul Verlaine and wrote travel pieces. After a nervous breakdown in 1908, he produced little apart from Confessions (1930), a moving account of his illness.

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(born May 1, 1769, Dublin, Ire.—died Sept. 14, 1852, Walmer Castle, Kent, Eng.) British general. Son of the Irish earl of Mornington, he entered the army in 1787 and served in the Irish Parliament (1790–97). Sent to India in 1796, he commanded troops to victories in the Maratha War (1803). Back in England, he served in the British House of Commons and as chief secretary in Ireland (1807–09). Commanding British troops in the Peninsular War, he won battles against the French in Portugal and Spain and invaded France to win the war in 1814, for which he was promoted to field marshal and created a duke. After Napoleon renewed the war against the European powers, the “Iron Duke” commanded the Allied armies to victory at the Battle of Waterloo (1815). Richly rewarded by English and foreign sovereigns, he became one of the most honoured men in Europe. After commanding the army of occupation in France (1815–18) and serving in the Tory cabinet as master general of ordnance (1818–27), he served as prime minister (1828–30), but he was forced to resign after opposing any parliamentary reform. He was honoured on his death by a monumental funeral and burial in St. Paul's Cathedral alongside Horatio Nelson.

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(born Oct. 13, 1909, Toledo, Ohio, U.S.—died Nov. 5, 1956, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. jazz pianist. Tatum was blind from birth. Influenced by Fats Waller and Earl Hines, his playing represents a synthesis of stride and swing piano traditions. He developed an unprecedented technical and harmonic control on the instrument and was capable of astonishing speed and intricate elaborations of melody. By 1937 he was recognized as the outstanding pianist in jazz. He formed a trio with guitar and bass in 1943 but frequently made solo performances that showcased his unique mastery.

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(born May 22, 1786, Northampton, Mass., U.S.—died July 23, 1865, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. merchant and philanthropist. He operated various businesses, including a silk-importing firm in New York (1826–37) with his brother Lewis Tappan (1788–1873); they also founded the first commercial credit-rating service (1841). He used his wealth to support missionary societies and the abolitionist crusade, helping found the American Anti-Slavery Society and serving as its first president (1833–40). After breaking with William Lloyd Garrison, he created the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (1840). The Tappan brothers later supported the Underground Railroad.

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(born July 22, 1892, Stannern, near Iglau, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary—died Oct. 16, 1946, Nürnberg, Ger.) Austrian Nazi leader. He served in the Austro-Hungarian army during World War I and was seriously wounded. Later a lawyer in Vienna, he became a leader of the moderate faction of the Austrian Nazis and served on the federal council of state (1937–38). In response to German pressure, he was named minister of interior and security and then replaced Kurt von Schuschnigg as chancellor (1938). He welcomed the Anschluss by Germany and became governor of the Austrian administration (1938–39). In World War II he was German high commissioner of The Netherlands (1940–45) and carried out the Nazi policy against Dutch Jews. He was tried at the Nürnberg trials and executed as a war criminal.

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Arthur Schopenhauer, 1855.

(born Feb. 22, 1788, Danzig, Prussia—died Sept. 21, 1860, Frankfurt am Main) German philosopher. His father was a banker and his mother a novelist. He studied in several fields before earning his doctorate in philosophy. He regarded the Upanishads, together with the works of Plato and Immanuel Kant, as the foundation of his philosophical system, a metaphysical doctrine of the will developed in reaction to the idealism of G.W.F. Hegel. His magnum opus, The World as Will and Representation (1819), consists of two comprehensive series of reflections on the theory of knowledge and the philosophy of nature, aesthetics, and ethics. By turning away from spirit and reason to the powers of intuition, creativity, and the irrational, he influenced (partly via Friedrich Nietzsche) the ideas and methods of vitalism, life philosophy, existentialism, and anthropology. His other works include On the Will in Nature (1836), The Two Main Problems of Ethics (1841), and Parerga and Paralipomena (1851). An unhappy and solitary man, his works earned him the sobriquet “the philosopher of pessimism.”

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(born May 15, 1862, Vienna, Austria—died Oct. 21, 1931, Vienna) Austrian playwright and novelist. Schnitzler practiced medicine in Vienna most of his life, and he also studied psychiatry. He became known for his psychological dramas and for his fearlessness in depicting the erotic lives of his characters, beginning with the early play Anatol (1893). His best-known play, Reigen (Merry-Go-Round, 1897), was a cycle of 10 dramatic dialogues that traced the links connecting the partners in a series of sexual encounters; considered scandalous when first performed in 1920, it was filmed as La Ronde by Max Ophüls in 1950. His drama Playing with Love (1896) and his most successful novel, None but the Brave (1901), revealed the hollowness of the Austrian military code of honour.

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(born July 10, 1943, Richmond, Va., U.S.—died Feb. 6, 1993, New York, N.Y.) U.S. tennis player. He won his first grand-slam singles h1 (the 1968 U.S. Open) as an amateur. The first African American member of the U.S. Davis Cup team, he helped win five championships (1963, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1978). In 1975 he won the Wimbledon singles h1 and received World Championship Tennis top ranking. He retired in 1980 and became captain of the U.S. Davis Cup team (to 1985). Off the court he was a critic of racial injustice, including South Africa's apartheid policy. In 1992 he revealed that he had been infected with HIV by a transfusion following surgery, and he thereafter devoted time to increasing public awareness of AIDS. The U.S. Open is now played at Arthur Ashe Stadium, which opened at the National Tennis Center in Flushing, N.Y., in 1997.

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(born Sept. 19, 1867, London, Eng.—died Sept. 6, 1939, Limpsfield, Surrey) British artist and illustrator. While a staff artist for a London newspaper, he also began illustrating books. He became skillful using the new halftone process, and his highly detailed drawings revealed a unique imagination. He achieved renown with a 1900 edition of Grimm's Fairy Tales, and his illustrations for Rip Van Winkle (1905) brought him recognition in America as well. Altogether he illustrated more than 60 books, including classics of children's literature as well as works by William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, John Milton, Richard Wagner, and Edgar Allan Poe.

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(born March 27, 1934, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. dancer, choreographer, and director of the Dance Theatre of Harlem. He studied at the High School for the Performing Arts in New York City. He began dancing in Broadway musicals and worked with several ballet companies before joining the New York City Ballet in 1956 as its first African American dancer. He created roles in several of George Balanchine's ballets, including A Midsummer Night's Dream (1962) and Agon (1967), before leaving the company in 1972. In 1968 he cofounded a ballet school, and its company, the Dance Theatre of Harlem, made its debut in 1971. He has continued as its director and choreographer.

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Arthur Miller, photograph by Inge Morath

(born Oct. 17, 1915, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 10, 2005, Roxbury, Conn.) U.S. playwright. He began writing plays while a student at the University of Michigan. His first important play, All My Sons (1947), was followed by his most famous work, Death of a Salesman (1949, Pulitzer Prize), the tragedy of a man destroyed by false values that are in large part the values of his society. Noted for combining social awareness with a searching concern for his characters' inner lives, Miller wrote many other plays, including The Crucible (1953), which uses a plot about the Salem witch trials to attack McCarthyism, A View from the Bridge (1955), After the Fall (1964), The Last Yankee (1992), and Resurrection Blues (2002). He also wrote short stories, essays, and the screenplay for The Misfits (1961), which starred his second wife, Marilyn Monroe.

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(born March 3, 1918, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 26, 2007, Stanford, Calif.) U.S. biochemist and physician. He studied at the University of Rochester. In 1959 he joined the faculty at Stanford University. While studying how living organisms manufacture nucleotides, his research led him to the problem of how nucleotides are strung together to form DNA molecules. Adding radioactive nucleotides to an enzyme mixture prepared from cultures of E. coli, he found evidence of a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme that adds nucleotides to a preexisting DNA chain. He was the first to accomplish the cell-free synthesis of DNA. He shared a 1959 Nobel Prize with Severo Ochoa. His son Roger D. Kornberg won the 2006 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

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(born Sept. 5, 1905, Budapest, Hung.—found dead March 3, 1983, London, Eng.) Hungarian-British novelist, journalist, and critic. He is best known for Darkness at Noon (1940); a political novel examining the moral danger in a totalitarian system that sacrifices means to an end, it reflects the events leading to his break with the Communist Party and his experience as a correspondent imprisoned by the fascists in the Spanish Civil War. He also wrote of his break with the party in the essay collection The God That Failed (1949). His later works, mostly concerning science and philosophy, include The Act of Creation (1964) and The Ghost in the Machine (1967). Suffering from leukemia and Parkinson's disease and believing in voluntary euthanasia, he died with his wife in a suicide pact.

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(born March 10, 1892, Le Havre, France—died Nov. 27, 1955, Paris) French composer. Born to Swiss-French parents, he studied in Zürich, then at the Paris Conservatory. One of the group known as Les Six, though not truly in sympathy with its aims, he first gained international renown for his oratorio Le Roi David (1921). His exciting orchestral piece Pacific 231 (1923), portraying a locomotive, caused a sensation. Prolific throughout his life, he composed five symphonies (including Symphony No. 3 known as Liturgique, for the end of World War II), the oratorio Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher (1938), and numerous scores for ballet, theatre, and films (including Abel Gance's Napoleon).

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(born Sept. 10, 1892, Wooster, Ohio, U.S.—died March 15, 1962, Berkeley, Calif.) U.S. physicist. He taught at the University of Chicago (1923–45) and later served as chancellor (1945–54) and professor (1953–61) at Washington University. He is best known for his discovery and explanation of the Compton effect, for which he shared with C.T.R. Wilson the 1927 Nobel Prize for Physics. He was later instrumental in initiating the Manhattan Project, and he directed the development of the first nuclear reactors.

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(born March 22, 1884, Grand Rapids, Mich., U.S.—died April 18, 1951, Grand Rapids) U.S. politician. Editor of the Grand Rapids Herald (1906–28), he was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate (1928–51). He was a critic of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt's foreign policy but revised his isolationist position after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In a 1945 Senate speech he advocated U.S. participation in international alliances, and he was a delegate to the UN organizing conference. He led Republican congressional support for legislative measures introduced by Pres. Harry Truman, including the Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, and NATO.

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(born March 31, 1871, Dublin, Ire.—died Aug. 12, 1922, Dublin) Irish journalist and nationalist, principal founder of Sinn Féin. As a young man, he edited political newspapers and urged passive resistance to British rule. He lost influence with the extreme nationalists when he did not participate in the Easter Rising (1916) but regained it when the British jailed him with other Sinn Féin members. In 1918 the Irish members of the House of Commons declared a republic and chose Eamon de Valera as president and Griffith as vice president. In 1921 Griffith led the Irish delegation to the self-government treaty conference and was the first Irish delegate to accept partition, embodied in the Anglo-Irish Treaty (1921). When the Dáil narrowly approved it in 1922, de Valera resigned and Griffith was elected president. Exhausted from overwork, he died soon after.

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(born Dec. 17, 1894, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died July 10, 1979, Brookline, Mass.) U.S. conductor. Son of a distinguished violinist, he was trained in Berlin and joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1915. In the 1920s he began conducting and recording with his own Boston Sinfonietta and various choral groups. In 1929 he organized a series of open-air concerts, which was successful enough to eventually become an institution, the Boston Pops. Thereafter his name was inextricably linked with the Pops, which achieved enormous success under his direction.

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