Arthur

Arthur

[ahr-ther]
Dobbs, Arthur, 1689-1765, British colonial governor of North Carolina (1753-65), b. Co. Antrim, Ireland. A member of the Irish House of Commons (1727-30) and surveyor general of Ireland (1730), he wrote An Essay on the Trade and Improvement of Ireland (1729), in which he advocated certain land reforms. He also became interested in the search for a Northwest Passage and was largely responsible for the expedition (1741-42) under Christopher Middleton. He was appointed governor of North Carolina in 1753, arriving at the colony a year and a half later. His administration was marked by conflicts with the assembly arising out of his frequent arbitrary assertions of power. A capable administrator, he attempted to serve the interests of both the crown and the colonists and consequently drew the heavy criticism of both.

See biography by D. Clarke (1958).

Arthur, king of Britain: see Arthurian legend.
Arthur, Chester Alan, 1829-86, 21st President of the United States (1881-85), b. Fairfield, Vt. He studied law and before the Civil War practiced in New York City. In the war he was (1861-63) quartermaster general of New York State. In 1871, President Grant appointed him collector of the port of New York. Although Arthur was a loyal party man and a believer in the spoils system, he administered this office honestly and efficiently. President Hayes, bent on civil service reform, displaced Arthur in 1878, thus defying Senator Conkling and the New York Republican machine. At the Republican national convention of 1880, Garfield was nominated for President, and the Conkling "Stalwarts," who had supported Grant, were placated by the nomination of Arthur for Vice President. Garfield's assassination soon after his inauguration made Arthur President. He came into office handicapped by a record in machine politics and grave doubt as to his ability and integrity, but his administration proved honest, efficient, and dignified. He effectively supported the civil service reform act of 1883, vetoed a Chinese exclusion bill that violated a treaty with China, and vigorously prosecuted the Star Route trials, in which several prominent Republicans were found guilty of swindling the Post Office Department. Serious illness kept Arthur from actively seeking renomination in 1884.

See biography by T. C. Reeves (1975).

Lee, Arthur, 1740-92, American Revolutionary diplomat, b. Westmoreland co., Va.; brother of Francis L. Lee, Richard H. Lee, and William Lee. Educated in Great Britain, he returned to Virginia to practice medicine, but soon decided to study law and went (1768) to London. There, like William Lee, he became a partisan of John Wilkes and a political pamphleteer. In 1770 he became agent for Massachusetts in London. After the outbreak of the American Revolution, he was made a commissioner for the Continental Congress to seek foreign aid. In 1777 he went to Spain, but was unable to obtain a formal treaty; he was also refused recognition at the Prussian court in Berlin. With Benjamin Franklin and Silas Deane he helped persuade Pierre de Beaumarchais to act as agent for supplying aid to the rebellious colonials. In Paris, however, he quarreled with Franklin and Deane, and his unfavorable reports to Congress resulted in the recall of Deane and a halt on payments to Beaumarchais. In 1779 he was recalled. He later served in the Continental Congress.

See B. J. Hendrick, The Lees of Virginia (1935).

Nikisch, Arthur, 1855-1922, Hungarian conductor and violinist, grad. Vienna Conservatory, 1873. He played in Wagner's orchestra at the dedication of the Festspielhaus at Bayreuth and with the Vienna court orchestra. In 1878 he became conductor of the Leipzig Opera, remaining until 1889, when he became conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He conducted (1893-95) the Budapest Opera and afterward was conductor of the Leipzig Gewandhaus and the Berlin Philharmonic until his death.
Hinsley, Arthur, 1865-1943, English prelate, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Born in Yorkshire, he attended Catholic schools in England and Rome. He was ordained in 1893 and spent several decades as a schoolmaster and rector. He served as a missionary in Africa, first as visitor apostolic (1926-30) and then as archbishop of Sardis and apostolic delegate (1930-34). In 1934 he retired but was called from retirement in 1935 to be enthroned as archbishop of Westminster, primate of the Roman Catholic Church in England. He was created cardinal in 1937. Cardinal Hinsley was noted as a foe of German and Italian fascism.
Elphinstone, Arthur, 6th Baron Balmerino: see Balmerino, Arthur Elphinstone, 6th Baron.
Waley, Arthur, 1889-1966, English orientalist, b. London as Arthur David Schloss, educated at Cambridge. He was and still is considered one of the world's great Asian scholars. His most important works include his translations of Chinese poetry and of the Japanese novel, The Tale of Genji (1925-33) by Murasaki Shikibu. Among his other works are The No Plays of Japan (1921), The Poetry and Career of Li Po (1959) and The Secret History of the Mongols and Other Pieces (1964). He never traveled to Asia.

See his bibliography by F. A. Johns (1968).

Griffith, Arthur, 1872-1922, Irish statesman, founder of Sinn Féin. He joined the nationalist movement as a young man. In 1899 he founded the United Irishman, in which he advocated that Irish members of Parliament withdraw from Westminster and organize their own assembly. His goal was the creation of a dual monarchy of England and Ireland, like that of Austria-Hungary. His ideas found adherents who, in 1905, formed the Sinn Féin. Griffith took no part in the Easter Rebellion of 1916, but he was imprisoned several times (1916-18) by the British. Elected to Parliament in 1918, he joined the other Sinn Féiners in forming Dáil Éireann and was elected its vice president. He led the Irish delegation that negotiated the treaty (1921) establishing the Irish Free State. When Eamon De Valera, president of the Dáil, rejected the treaty, Griffith succeeded to his office. He died suddenly at the beginning of the civil war.

See biographies by P. Colum (1959) and V. E. Glandon (1985); study by C. Younger, A State of Disunion (1972).

Morrison, Arthur, 1863-1945, English novelist. A journalist, he worked on the National Observer for William Ernest Henley. His stories of life in the London slums include Tales of Mean Street (1894), A Child of the Jago (1896), and A Hole in the Wall (1902). He was also the author of a series of detective stories.
Rackham, Arthur, 1867-1939, English illustrator and watercolorist. He is known for imaginative, delicately colored, and cheerful pen drawings, especially for children's books. Among these are Peter Pan (1906), Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1907), and A Christmas Carol (1915).

See study by D. Hudson (1960, repr. 1974).

Honegger, Arthur, 1892-1955, Swiss-French composer, studied at the conservatories of Zürich and Paris. One of the group of Parisian composers called Les Six, he wrote music ranging from satire to intensely religious works that are marked by incisive rhythms and sharp dissonances, often the result of his use of polytonality. Besides Pacific 231 (1923)—the first of three mouvements symphoniques—his outstanding works are of a theatrical nature, such as ballets, the operas Judith (1926) and Antigone (1927, libretto by Jean Cocteau), music for films, including Mayerling (1935), and the stage oratorio King David (1921). He also set texts of Paul Claudel to music.
Rimbaud, Arthur, 1854-91, French poet who had a great influence on the symbolists and subsequent modern poets, b. Charleville. A defiant and precocious youth, Rimbaud at 16 sent some poems to Verlaine, who liked his work and invited him to Paris. In 1872-73 the two poets lived together in London and Brussels. In a drunken quarrel Verlaine fired a pistol, wounding Rimbaud, and their relationship ended. Rimbaud returned home and finished Une Saison en enfer (1873), a confessional autobiography in which he renounces his former hellish life and his work. At an undetermined time he produced Les Illuminations, consisting of prose poems that transcend all traditional syntax and narrative elements.

Rimbaud is thought to have stopped writing poetry at the age of 19, and he never wrote another literary work. Thereafter, he wandered throughout Europe and N Africa, working in various jobs, from circus cashier to commercial traveler to African gunrunner, and engaging in numerous business ventures. Six months after the amputation of his leg due to cancer, he died in Marseilles at 37. Rimbaud's poetry has been called hallucinatory because the poet seems to write not of material reality but of his dreamworld; his technique anticipates the symbolists in its suggestiveness, its abstract verbal music, and its images drawn from the subconscious. "Le Bateau ivre" ("The Drunken Boat") is an outstanding example. Rimbaud's works were published by Verlaine in several posthumous editions, the first complete collection appearing in 1898.

See W. Mason, ed. and tr., Rimbaud Complete (2002) and I Promise to Be Good: The Letters of Arthur Rimbaud (2003); biographies by E. Starkie (3d ed. 1961, repr. 1968), G. Robb (2000), and E. White (2008); studies by W. M. Frohock (1963), W. Fowlie (1966), R. G. Cohn (1974), K. Ross (1980), C. A. Hackett (1981), and C. Nicholl (1999).

St. Clair, Arthur, 1734-1818, American general, b. Thurso, Scotland. He left the Univ. of Edinburgh to become (1757) an ensign in the British army and served in the French and Indian War at Louisburg and Quebec. In 1762 he resigned his commission and settled in Pennsylvania, where he purchased a vast estate and held a number of civil offices. In the American Revolution he served in the expedition to Canada as colonel of a regiment of militia which he had raised (1775). He was made a brigadier general and, authorized by George Washington to organize the New Jersey militia, fought in the battles of Trenton and Princeton. As major general, St. Clair took command (1777) at Fort Ticonderoga, which he evacuated without a fight to superior British forces. A court-martial in 1778 cleared him of blame, and he served afterward in several minor capacities. After serving as a delegate to Congress (1785-87), St. Clair was appointed (1787) the first governor of the Northwest Territory. He established its capital at Cincinnati and became (1791) commander in chief of the forces fighting the Native Americans. The Native Americans, led by Little Turtle, surprised and defeated St. Clair near the Miami villages. The defeat led him to resign his commission (1792), although a congressional investigating committee later exonerated him. St. Clair's arbitrary rule as governor gained him many enemies, and in 1802 he was removed by Thomas Jefferson after condemning the act making Ohio a state. He published in 1812 a defense of his military conduct and spent his later years in poverty.

See W. H. Smith, ed., The St. Clair Papers (2 vol., 1882, repr. 1971); biography by F. E. Wilson (1944).

Tappan, Arthur, 1786-1865, American abolitionist, b. Northampton, Mass. He made a fortune in the dry-goods business in New York City and with his brother and partner Lewis Tappan gave generously of his time and money to various causes, especially to the antislavery movement. He contributed to the establishment of Kenyon and Oberlin colleges in Ohio, was elected (1833) the first president of the American Anti-Slavery Society, and, after splitting with William Lloyd Garrison, helped organize (1840) and became president of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society.

See biography by L. Tappan (1870).

Schnitzler, Arthur, 1862-1931, Austrian dramatist and novelist. The son of a prominent Jewish Viennese physician, he studied and practiced medicine until he attracted critical notice with his drama Anatol (1893, tr. 1982), a cycle of one-act plays concerning a philanderer. He followed a similar format in La Ronde (1900, tr. 1982), a cycle of plays about related sexual liaisons, which later served as inspiration for a 1950 Max Ophuls film and a 1998 David Hare drama. Schnitzler's plays, novellas, and novels of fin-de-siècle Vienna are distinguished by their sparkling wit, brilliant style, and clinical observations of human psychology and social disintegration. His concern is with individual happiness, his approach is subtle and amoral, his tone unsentimental and ironic, and his dramatic problems often focused on love and sexual faithfulness. Among his more significant dramas are Liebelei (1895, tr. The Reckoning, 1907); The Lonely Way (tr. 1915), on artistic dedication; The Vast Domain (1911, tr. 1923); and Professor Bernhardi (tr. 1928) a tragedy about anti-Semitism. Of his novels, The Road to the Open (1908, tr. 1923) is autobiographical; he also wrote several novellas and numerous short stories.

See biography by S. Liptzin (1932); studies by B. Schneider-Halvorson (1983), P. W. Tax and R. H. Lawson, ed. (1984), and P. Gay (2001).

Schopenhauer, Arthur, 1788-1860, German philosopher, b. Danzig (now Gdansk). The bias of his own temperament and experience was germinal to the development of his celebrated philosophy of pessimism, which he presented with such clarity and skill as to gain eventual recognition as one of the great philosophers. He studied at Göttingen, Berlin, and Jena, and he traveled throughout Europe. In Berlin he opposed the teachings of G. W. Hegel and attempted unsuccessfully to establish himself as a lecturer. After 1831, Schopenhauer lived and worked in retirement, chiefly in Frankfurt am Main. He had no friends, never married, and was estranged from his mother, a woman of considerable intellectual ability. Schopenhauer's most important work is The World as Will and Representation (1818, tr. 1958). His other works, mainly elaboration and commentary upon his original thesis, include On the Will in Nature (1836, tr. 1889), The Basis of Morality (1841, tr. 1903), Essays from the Parerga and Paralipomena (1851, tr. 1951), and many lesser essays. Schopenhauer considered himself the true successor of Immanuel Kant. However, he interpreted Kant's unknowable thing-in-itself as a blind, impelling force that is manifest in individuals as a will to live. Intellect and consciousness, in Schopenhauer's view, arise as instruments in the service of the will. Conflict between individual wills is the cause of continual strife and frustration. The world, therefore, is a world of unsatisfied wants and of pain. Pleasure is simply the absence of pain; unable to endure, it brings only ennui. The only possible escape is the renunciation of desire, a negation of the will reminiscent of Buddhism. Temporary relief, however, can be found in philosophy and art. Schopenhauer held that music was unique among the art forms in that it expressed will directly. The ethical side of Schopenhauer's philosophy is based upon sympathy, where the moral will, feeling another's hurt as its own, makes an effort to relieve the pain. His stress on the strength of the impelling will influenced Friedrich Nietzsche and the psychology of Sigmund Freud.

See biography by D. W. Hamlyn (1985); P. Gardiner, Schopenhauer (1963); B. Magee, The Philosophy of Schopenhauer (1988); E. von der Luft, ed., Schopenhauer: New Essays in Honor of His 200th Birthday (1988).

Meighen, Arthur, 1874-1960, Canadian political leader, b. Ontario. A lawyer, he began his career in Manitoba. Entering (1908) the Canadian House of Commons as a Liberal-Conservative, he became solicitor general (1913), secretary of state and minister of mines (1917), and minister of the interior (1917). He was chosen prime minister in 1920 but resigned in 1921 after his defeat in the general election. As leader of the Conservative party, Meighen was again prime minister in 1926 but resigned within the year. In 1932, Richard B. Bennett appointed him to the Senate, from which he resigned in 1941 to contest a seat for the House of Commons. Defeated, he retired to private life.
Giry, Arthur, 1848-99, French historian. His Manuel de diplomatique (new ed. 1925) remains a standard work on the scientific study of documents.
Rubinstein, Arthur, 1887-1983, Polish-American pianist, b. Łódź. Rubinstein studied in Warsaw and Berlin, making his debut in 1900 with the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Joachim. He first played in the United States in 1906, achieving great acclaim there in 1937, especially for his superb lyric interpretations of Chopin's music and his ardent championship of Spanish works. Rubinstein's enormous popularity spanned many decades.

See his autobiography (1973).

Young, Arthur, 1741-1820, English agriculturist. His writings hastened the progress of scientific farming. He traveled widely, always observing techniques of farming. In 1784, Young founded the periodical Annals of Agriculture and edited it through 1808. Among his other works are three accounts of tours in England (1768-71) and Travels during the Years 1787, 1788, 1789, and 1790 (1792-94).

See his autobiography (1898); biography by J. G. Gazley (1973).

Middleton, Arthur, 1742-87, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. near Charleston, S.C.; son of Henry Middleton. He was educated in England, returning to America in 1763. Middleton was elected (1776) to succeed his father as a delegate to the Continental Congress. He also fought at Charleston (1780), where he was captured by the British. After being exchanged, he again served (1781-83) in the Congress.
Fiedler, Arthur, 1894-1979, American conductor, b. Brookline, Mass. Fiedler, who ultimately became a grandfatherly American musical icon, studied violin with his father, a member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He continued his musical studies in Berlin (1909-15), becoming a violinist (and later a violist) with the Boston Symphony upon his return to the United States. He founded the Boston Sinfonietta in 1924, and in 1929 inaugurated an enormously popular series of free outdoor summer concerts of light American and European music featuring musicians from the Symphony. The following year Fiedler was appointed conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra, with whom he performed classical pieces pleasing to general audiences. During the nearly 50 years that he led the group he also appeared as guest conductor with a number of major American symphonies. His spirited style, lively musicality, and the appealingly informal atmosphere in which he presented his concerts made Fiedler his era's great popularizer of light classical music. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977.

See his daughter's biography-autobiography, Arthur Fiedler: Papa, the Pops and Me (1994) by Johanna Fiedler.

Thistlewood, Arthur, 1770-1820, British conspirator. He acquired revolutionary views while traveling in France and America and, after his return to England, joined the revolutionary Spencean Society (see Spence, Thomas) in London. In 1816 he organized a public meeting at Spa Fields, at which a revolution was to be started. However, the meeting was easily dispersed, and Thistlewood was arrested and narrowly escaped conviction for treason. A year later he was imprisoned for challenging Lord Sidmouth, the home secretary, to a duel. Upon his release (1819) Thistlewood, dissatisfied with the milder efforts of his colleagues, plotted the assassination of cabinet members at a cabinet dinner. The government, apprised of the conspiracy, surprised the plotters at their arsenal in a Cato Street loft. Thistlewood was subsequently convicted of treason and executed for his part in what is known as the Cato Street Conspiracy.
Miller, Arthur, 1915-2005, American dramatist, b. New York City, grad. Univ. of Michigan, 1938. One of America's most distinguished playwrights, he has been hailed as the finest realist of the 20th-century stage. Miller's plays are, above all, concerned with morality as they reflect the individual's response to the manifold pressures exerted by the forces of family and society. Recurring themes of his major works involve the overwhelming importance of personal and social responsibility and the moral corruption that results from betraying the dictates of conscience.

Miller's masterpiece, Death of a Salesman (1949; Pulitzer Prize), is the story of a salesman betrayed by his own hollow values and those of American society. The Crucible (1953) is both a dynamic dramatization of the 17th-century Salem witch trials and a parable about the United States in the McCarthy era (see McCarthy, Joseph Raymond); it has been his most frequently produced work. In A View from the Bridge (1955; Pulitzer Prize) Miller studies a Sicilian-American longshoreman whose unacknowledged lust for his niece destroys him and his family. Miller's tumultuous life with his second wife, Marilyn Monroe, to whom he was married from 1956 to 1961, is fictionalized in his After the Fall (1964), and a barely disguised version of the glamorous but troubled actress also appears in his last play, Finishing the Picture (2004).

Miller's other plays include The Man Who Had All the Luck (1940), All My Sons (1947), Incident at Vichy (1965), The Price (1968), The Creation of the World and Other Business (1972), The American Clock (1980), The Ride down Mount Morgan (1991), Broken Glass (1994), and Resurrection Blues (2002). He also wrote the screenplay for The Misfits (1961); the television dramas Playing for Time (1980) and Clara (1991); a novel, Focus (1945); and two books of short stories (1967, 2007). Miller's The Theater Essays (1971, rev. ed. 1996) is a collection of writings about the craft of playwriting and the nature of modern tragedy, and Echoes down the Corridor (2000) is a collection of essays (1944-2000), many of them autobiographical. He collaborated with his third wife, the photographer Inge Morath (1923-2002), on several books; their In Russia (1969) is a study of the Soviet Union.

See his autobiography, Timebends (1987); M. C. Roudane, Conversations with Arthur Miller (1987), S. Centola, Arthur Miller in Conversation (1993), M. Gussow, Conversations with Miller (2002); biographies by M. Gottfried (2003) and C. Bigsby (2008); studies by B. Nelson (1970), R. Hayman (1972), J. J. Martine, ed. (1979), D. Welland (1979, repr. 1985), L. Moss (rev. ed. 1980), H. Bloom, ed. (1987), J. Schlueter and J. K. Flanagan (1987), N. Carson (1988), P. Singh (1990), S. R. Centola, ed. (1995), A. Griffin (1996), T. Otten (2002), C. Bigsby (2004), and E. Brater, ed. (2005).

MacArthur, Arthur, 1845-1912, American army officer, b. Springfield, Mass.; father of Douglas MacArthur. Raised in Wisconsin, he served with the 24th Wisconsin Volunteers in the Civil War and fought in many Western campaigns and in the Chattanooga campaign of 1863. He received the Medal of Honor for gallantry. Joining the regular army after the war, he fought in both Cuba and the Philippines in the Spanish-American War and was (1900-1901) military governor of the Philippines. He had risen (1906) to the rank of lieutenant general when he retired in 1909.
Machen, Arthur, 1863-1947, British author, b. Wales. He wrote a series of semiautobiographical fantasies, notably The Hill of Dreams (1907) and Far Off Things (1922), and tales of horror and the supernatural. Machen achieved transient fame during World War I with "The Bowman," a tale relating how St. George and his ghostly archers rescue the British army and slaughter the Germans.

See his autobiography, ed. by M. Bishop (1951); biography by W. D. Sweetser (1964).

Seyss-Inquart, Arthur, 1892-1946, Austrian National Socialist leader. In Feb., 1938, Chancellor Schuschnigg of Austria was forced by German pressure to appoint him minister of the interior. Seyss-Inquart became chancellor a few hours before German troops entered (Mar. 11) Austria. The Anschluss [union] of Austria and Germany was announced on Mar. 15, and Seyss-Inquart was made governor of Austria. In 1940 he was appointed German high commissioner in the occupied Netherlands, where he ruthlessly exterminated the Dutch Jews and deported many thousands to slave-labor camps. He was convicted as a war criminal and was hanged.
Cayley, Arthur, 1821-95, English mathematician. He was admitted to the bar in 1849. In 1863 he was appointed first Sadlerian professor of mathematics at Cambridge. His researches, which covered the field of pure mathematics, included especially the theory of matrices and the theory of invariants. The algebra of matrices was the tool Heisenberg used in 1925 for his revolutionary work in quantum mechanics. The concept of invariance is important in modern physics, particularly in the theory of relativity. Cayley's collected papers were published in 13 volumes (1889-98).
Goldberg, Arthur, 1908-90, American labor lawyer and jurist, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1962-65), b. Chicago. He received his law degree from Northwestern Univ. in 1929. A corporation lawyer, he became a labor specialist after representing the Chicago newspaper guild in a strike (1938) against the Hearst papers. In World War II he served in the Office of Strategic Services as contact man with the European underground labor movement. He was (1945-48) professor of law at the John Marshall Law School in Chicago. In 1948 he was appointed by Philip Murray to be general counsel of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) and the United Steelworkers Union. Goldberg was a central figure in the merger (1955) of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the CIO, and he led the fight to expel the International Brotherhood of Teamsters from the AFL-CIO. Appointed U.S. Secretary of Labor in 1961, he was credited with settling several serious labor disputes. In 1962 he was appointed by President Kennedy to the Supreme Court, where he was one of its more liberal members. He resigned (1965) when President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed him U.S. representative to the United Nations; he held that post until 1968. In 1970, he was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for governor of New York state. He wrote AFL-CIO: Labor United (1956).
Golding, Arthur, c.1536-c.1605, English translator. He translated many Latin classics, including Caesar's Gallic War and Ovid's Metamorphoses. A Calvinist, Golding tried to infuse the Metamorphoses with a stern moral tone. He also translated noted French works.
Görgey, Arthur, 1818-1916, Hungarian revolutionary general. He fought the Austrians in 1848-49 as a commander of the Hungarian republican army and distinguished himself as a strategist. He captured Buda (May, 1849), but when Russia sent aid to the Austrians, Görgey decided to surrender to the Russians rather than continue a lost cause. He forced Louis Kossuth, with whom he had often differed, to resign. Görgey was interned in Austria until 1867.
Symons, Arthur, 1865-1945, English poet and critic. A leader of the symbolists in England, Symons interpreted French decadent poetry to the English through translations, criticism, and his own imitative poems. He was editor of the Savoy (1896) until a period of insanity, movingly described in his Confessions (1930), incapacitated him from 1908 to 1910. After that time he was forced to live very quietly. His chief critical work is The Symbolist Movement in Literature (1899); others are The Romantic Movement in English Poetry (1909) and studies of Baudelaire, Blake, and Rossetti. His poetry includes Days and Nights (1889), Poems (1902), and Love's Cruelty (1923).

See biography by K. Beckson (1987); studies by J. M. Munro (1969) and L. W. Market (1987).

Henderson, Arthur, 1863-1935, British statesman, organizer and leader of the British Labour party. In early life he was an ironworker and a labor union leader. Elected (1903) to Parliament, he was chairman of the parliamentary Labour party (1908-10, 1914-17), president of the Board of Education (1915-16), paymaster general (1916), and a member of the war cabinet (1916-17). In Ramsay MacDonald's first ministry (1924) he was home secretary. As foreign secretary (1929-31) Henderson worked to moderate Franco-German problems and supported the League of Nations. He led Labour opposition to the formation of the National government in 1931 and lost his seat in Parliament. From 1932 until his death he was president of the World Disarmament Conference, and he was awarded the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize. His writings include The Aims of Labour (1919).

See biography by M. A. Hamilton (1938); study by D. Carlton (1970).

Hertzberg, Arthur, 1921-2006, American rabbi, scholar, and Jewish community leader, b. Poland. His family emigrated to the United States in 1926. He attended Johns Hopkins, the Jewish Theological Seminary (grad. 1943), and Columbia (Ph.D., 1946). Rabbi of Temple Emanu-El, Englewood, N.J. (1956-85) and a noted leader of Conservative Judaism, he also taught at several colleges and served as president of the American Jewish Congress (1972-78) and vice president of the World Jewish Congress (1975-91). Hertzberg was known for his generally liberal and often contrarian political and religious views and for his strong support of civil rights. A committed Zionist, editor of The Zionist Idea (1959, repr. 1970, 1972, 1997), he nonetheless frequently criticized Israeli policies and favored a separate Palestinian state. His numerous books include The French Enlightenment and the Jews (1968), The Jews in America (1989), Jews: The Essence and Character of a People (1998), and a memoir, A Jew in America (2002).
Koestler, Arthur, 1905-83, English writer, b. Budapest of Hungarian parents. Koestler spent his early years in Vienna and Palestine. An influential Communist journalist in Berlin in the early 1930s, Koestler was subsequently captured by Franco's forces during the Spanish Civil War; Spanish Testament (1937) relates his experiences. Released in 1937, he edited an anti-Nazi and anti-Soviet French weekly and served in the French Foreign Legion (1939-40). After the German invasion he was interned in a concentration camp, but escaped from France in 1940 and lived thereafter in England. Koestler broke with Communism as a result of the Soviet purge trials of the late 1930s. Darkness at Noon (1941), his most important novel, vividly describes the execution of an old Bolshevik for "deviationist" belief in the individual. Other significant accounts of the evil of Stalinism include The Yogi and the Commissar (1945), and a famous essay in The God That Failed (ed. by R. H. Crossman, 1951). In his later years Koestler ranged over a wide variety of subjects. His later novels include Thieves in the Night (1946), a powerful description of the conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine, The Age of Longing (1951), and The Call Girls: A Tragicomedy (1973). He wrote extensively on science in such works as The Lotus and the Robot (1960), The Act of Creation (1964), The Ghost in the Machine (1968), The Case of the Midwife Toad (1971), and The Roots of Coincidence (1972). Greatly concerned in later life with euthanasia and the right to die, Koestler and his wife committed a joint suicide in 1983. Koestler combined a brilliant journalistic style with an understanding of the great movements of his times and a participant's sense of commitment.

See his autobiography in 3 vol., Arrow in the Blue (1952), The Invisible Writing (1954), and Janus: A Summing Up (1978); biographies by D. Cesarani (1999) and M. Scammell (2009); studies by W. Mays (1973), S. Pearson (1978), and P. J. Keane (1980).

Kornberg, Arthur, 1918-2007, American biochemist, b. Brooklyn, grad. College of the City of New York (B.S., 1937) and Univ. of Rochester (M.D., 1941). In 1942 he joined the U.S. Public Health Service and became (1951) medical director. He was a staff member (1942-52) of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. He taught at Washington Univ., St. Louis, from 1953 and was chairman (1959-69) of the department of biochemistry at Stanford, where he remained until his death. Kornberg shared the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Severo Ochoa for their work in the discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Kornberg's discovery of polymerase, an enzyme used to synthesize nucleic acid, contributed to development of genetic engineering.
Krock, Arthur, 1886-1974, American journalist, b. Glasgow, Ky. He left Princeton to take up reporting and worked in Louisville and Washington. In 1927 he joined the New York Times, becoming Washington correspondent in 1932. Krock's pungent and controversial columns generally espoused a conservative viewpoint. He won four Pulitzer awards, two prizes (1935, 1938), a special commendation, and a special citation. His books include Sixty Years On The Firing Line (1968), In the Nation: 1932-1966 (1969), The Consent of the Governed and Other Deceits (1971), and Myself When Young: Growing Up in the 1890s (1973).
Mitchell, Arthur, 1934-, American dancer, b. New York City. Mitchell studied in New York City and appeared on Broadway and with various companies at home and abroad. He joined the New York City Ballet in 1956, becoming a soloist in 1959. The first black principal dancer of a major company in history, he remained with the company for 20 years. His performance as Puck in A Midsummer Night's Dream (1964) was especially acclaimed. He also performed with distinction in Western Symphony, Agon, Afternoon of a Faun, and Ebony Concerto. In 1968, Mitchell founded a ballet school in Harlem, New York City, in order to provide classical academic training to black students. By 1970 under his direction the school developed into the Dance Theatre of Harlem, the first black classical ballet company. His works include Rhythmetron (1968) and Ode to Otis (1969).
Arthur is a village in Douglas County and Moultrie County in Illinois; Arthur's primary street, Vine Street, is the county line. The population was 2,203 at the 2000 census. The Arthur area is home to the largest and oldest Amish community in Illinois, which was founded in the 1860s.

Geography

Arthur is located at (39.715323, -88.470071).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.3 square miles (3.3 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,203 people, 915 households, and 619 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,726.7 people per square mile (664.5/km²). There were 951 housing units at an average density of 745.4/sq mi (286.9/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 99.64% White, 0.05% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.05% Asian, and 0.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.27% of the population.

There were 915 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.3% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.90.

In the village the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, and 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 86.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $37,438, and the median income for a family was $47,827. Males had a median income of $32,358 versus $20,948 for females. The per capita income for the village was $19,683. About 4.6% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.8% of those under age 18 and 4.4% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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