Arthur

Arthur

[ahr-ther]
Dobbs, Arthur, 1689-1765, British colonial governor of North Carolina (1753-65), b. Co. Antrim, Ireland. A member of the Irish House of Commons (1727-30) and surveyor general of Ireland (1730), he wrote An Essay on the Trade and Improvement of Ireland (1729), in which he advocated certain land reforms. He also became interested in the search for a Northwest Passage and was largely responsible for the expedition (1741-42) under Christopher Middleton. He was appointed governor of North Carolina in 1753, arriving at the colony a year and a half later. His administration was marked by conflicts with the assembly arising out of his frequent arbitrary assertions of power. A capable administrator, he attempted to serve the interests of both the crown and the colonists and consequently drew the heavy criticism of both.

See biography by D. Clarke (1958).

Arthur, king of Britain: see Arthurian legend.
Arthur, Chester Alan, 1829-86, 21st President of the United States (1881-85), b. Fairfield, Vt. He studied law and before the Civil War practiced in New York City. In the war he was (1861-63) quartermaster general of New York State. In 1871, President Grant appointed him collector of the port of New York. Although Arthur was a loyal party man and a believer in the spoils system, he administered this office honestly and efficiently. President Hayes, bent on civil service reform, displaced Arthur in 1878, thus defying Senator Conkling and the New York Republican machine. At the Republican national convention of 1880, Garfield was nominated for President, and the Conkling "Stalwarts," who had supported Grant, were placated by the nomination of Arthur for Vice President. Garfield's assassination soon after his inauguration made Arthur President. He came into office handicapped by a record in machine politics and grave doubt as to his ability and integrity, but his administration proved honest, efficient, and dignified. He effectively supported the civil service reform act of 1883, vetoed a Chinese exclusion bill that violated a treaty with China, and vigorously prosecuted the Star Route trials, in which several prominent Republicans were found guilty of swindling the Post Office Department. Serious illness kept Arthur from actively seeking renomination in 1884.

See biography by T. C. Reeves (1975).

Lee, Arthur, 1740-92, American Revolutionary diplomat, b. Westmoreland co., Va.; brother of Francis L. Lee, Richard H. Lee, and William Lee. Educated in Great Britain, he returned to Virginia to practice medicine, but soon decided to study law and went (1768) to London. There, like William Lee, he became a partisan of John Wilkes and a political pamphleteer. In 1770 he became agent for Massachusetts in London. After the outbreak of the American Revolution, he was made a commissioner for the Continental Congress to seek foreign aid. In 1777 he went to Spain, but was unable to obtain a formal treaty; he was also refused recognition at the Prussian court in Berlin. With Benjamin Franklin and Silas Deane he helped persuade Pierre de Beaumarchais to act as agent for supplying aid to the rebellious colonials. In Paris, however, he quarreled with Franklin and Deane, and his unfavorable reports to Congress resulted in the recall of Deane and a halt on payments to Beaumarchais. In 1779 he was recalled. He later served in the Continental Congress.

See B. J. Hendrick, The Lees of Virginia (1935).

Nikisch, Arthur, 1855-1922, Hungarian conductor and violinist, grad. Vienna Conservatory, 1873. He played in Wagner's orchestra at the dedication of the Festspielhaus at Bayreuth and with the Vienna court orchestra. In 1878 he became conductor of the Leipzig Opera, remaining until 1889, when he became conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He conducted (1893-95) the Budapest Opera and afterward was conductor of the Leipzig Gewandhaus and the Berlin Philharmonic until his death.
Hinsley, Arthur, 1865-1943, English prelate, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Born in Yorkshire, he attended Catholic schools in England and Rome. He was ordained in 1893 and spent several decades as a schoolmaster and rector. He served as a missionary in Africa, first as visitor apostolic (1926-30) and then as archbishop of Sardis and apostolic delegate (1930-34). In 1934 he retired but was called from retirement in 1935 to be enthroned as archbishop of Westminster, primate of the Roman Catholic Church in England. He was created cardinal in 1937. Cardinal Hinsley was noted as a foe of German and Italian fascism.
Elphinstone, Arthur, 6th Baron Balmerino: see Balmerino, Arthur Elphinstone, 6th Baron.
Waley, Arthur, 1889-1966, English orientalist, b. London as Arthur David Schloss, educated at Cambridge. He was and still is considered one of the world's great Asian scholars. His most important works include his translations of Chinese poetry and of the Japanese novel, The Tale of Genji (1925-33) by Murasaki Shikibu. Among his other works are The No Plays of Japan (1921), The Poetry and Career of Li Po (1959) and The Secret History of the Mongols and Other Pieces (1964). He never traveled to Asia.

See his bibliography by F. A. Johns (1968).

Griffith, Arthur, 1872-1922, Irish statesman, founder of Sinn Féin. He joined the nationalist movement as a young man. In 1899 he founded the United Irishman, in which he advocated that Irish members of Parliament withdraw from Westminster and organize their own assembly. His goal was the creation of a dual monarchy of England and Ireland, like that of Austria-Hungary. His ideas found adherents who, in 1905, formed the Sinn Féin. Griffith took no part in the Easter Rebellion of 1916, but he was imprisoned several times (1916-18) by the British. Elected to Parliament in 1918, he joined the other Sinn Féiners in forming Dáil Éireann and was elected its vice president. He led the Irish delegation that negotiated the treaty (1921) establishing the Irish Free State. When Eamon De Valera, president of the Dáil, rejected the treaty, Griffith succeeded to his office. He died suddenly at the beginning of the civil war.

See biographies by P. Colum (1959) and V. E. Glandon (1985); study by C. Younger, A State of Disunion (1972).

Morrison, Arthur, 1863-1945, English novelist. A journalist, he worked on the National Observer for William Ernest Henley. His stories of life in the London slums include Tales of Mean Street (1894), A Child of the Jago (1896), and A Hole in the Wall (1902). He was also the author of a series of detective stories.
Rackham, Arthur, 1867-1939, English illustrator and watercolorist. He is known for imaginative, delicately colored, and cheerful pen drawings, especially for children's books. Among these are Peter Pan (1906), Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1907), and A Christmas Carol (1915).

See study by D. Hudson (1960, repr. 1974).

Honegger, Arthur, 1892-1955, Swiss-French composer, studied at the conservatories of Zürich and Paris. One of the group of Parisian composers called Les Six, he wrote music ranging from satire to intensely religious works that are marked by incisive rhythms and sharp dissonances, often the result of his use of polytonality. Besides Pacific 231 (1923)—the first of three mouvements symphoniques—his outstanding works are of a theatrical nature, such as ballets, the operas Judith (1926) and Antigone (1927, libretto by Jean Cocteau), music for films, including Mayerling (1935), and the stage oratorio King David (1921). He also set texts of Paul Claudel to music.
Rimbaud, Arthur, 1854-91, French poet who had a great influence on the symbolists and subsequent modern poets, b. Charleville. A defiant and precocious youth, Rimbaud at 16 sent some poems to Verlaine, who liked his work and invited him to Paris. In 1872-73 the two poets lived together in London and Brussels. In a drunken quarrel Verlaine fired a pistol, wounding Rimbaud, and their relationship ended. Rimbaud returned home and finished Une Saison en enfer (1873), a confessional autobiography in which he renounces his former hellish life and his work. At an undetermined time he produced Les Illuminations, consisting of prose poems that transcend all traditional syntax and narrative elements.

Rimbaud is thought to have stopped writing poetry at the age of 19, and he never wrote another literary work. Thereafter, he wandered throughout Europe and N Africa, working in various jobs, from circus cashier to commercial traveler to African gunrunner, and engaging in numerous business ventures. Six months after the amputation of his leg due to cancer, he died in Marseilles at 37. Rimbaud's poetry has been called hallucinatory because the poet seems to write not of material reality but of his dreamworld; his technique anticipates the symbolists in its suggestiveness, its abstract verbal music, and its images drawn from the subconscious. "Le Bateau ivre" ("The Drunken Boat") is an outstanding example. Rimbaud's works were published by Verlaine in several posthumous editions, the first complete collection appearing in 1898.

See W. Mason, ed. and tr., Rimbaud Complete (2002) and I Promise to Be Good: The Letters of Arthur Rimbaud (2003); biographies by E. Starkie (3d ed. 1961, repr. 1968), G. Robb (2000), and E. White (2008); studies by W. M. Frohock (1963), W. Fowlie (1966), R. G. Cohn (1974), K. Ross (1980), C. A. Hackett (1981), and C. Nicholl (1999).

St. Clair, Arthur, 1734-1818, American general, b. Thurso, Scotland. He left the Univ. of Edinburgh to become (1757) an ensign in the British army and served in the French and Indian War at Louisburg and Quebec. In 1762 he resigned his commission and settled in Pennsylvania, where he purchased a vast estate and held a number of civil offices. In the American Revolution he served in the expedition to Canada as colonel of a regiment of militia which he had raised (1775). He was made a brigadier general and, authorized by George Washington to organize the New Jersey militia, fought in the battles of Trenton and Princeton. As major general, St. Clair took command (1777) at Fort Ticonderoga, which he evacuated without a fight to superior British forces. A court-martial in 1778 cleared him of blame, and he served afterward in several minor capacities. After serving as a delegate to Congress (1785-87), St. Clair was appointed (1787) the first governor of the Northwest Territory. He established its capital at Cincinnati and became (1791) commander in chief of the forces fighting the Native Americans. The Native Americans, led by Little Turtle, surprised and defeated St. Clair near the Miami villages. The defeat led him to resign his commission (1792), although a congressional investigating committee later exonerated him. St. Clair's arbitrary rule as governor gained him many enemies, and in 1802 he was removed by Thomas Jefferson after condemning the act making Ohio a state. He published in 1812 a defense of his military conduct and spent his later years in poverty.

See W. H. Smith, ed., The St. Clair Papers (2 vol., 1882, repr. 1971); biography by F. E. Wilson (1944).

Tappan, Arthur, 1786-1865, American abolitionist, b. Northampton, Mass. He made a fortune in the dry-goods business in New York City and with his brother and partner Lewis Tappan gave generously of his time and money to various causes, especially to the antislavery movement. He contributed to the establishment of Kenyon and Oberlin colleges in Ohio, was elected (1833) the first president of the American Anti-Slavery Society, and, after splitting with William Lloyd Garrison, helped organize (1840) and became president of the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society.

See biography by L. Tappan (1870).

Schnitzler, Arthur, 1862-1931, Austrian dramatist and novelist. The son of a prominent Jewish Viennese physician, he studied and practiced medicine until he attracted critical notice with his drama Anatol (1893, tr. 1982), a cycle of one-act plays concerning a philanderer. He followed a similar format in La Ronde (1900, tr. 1982), a cycle of plays about related sexual liaisons, which later served as inspiration for a 1950 Max Ophuls film and a 1998 David Hare drama. Schnitzler's plays, novellas, and novels of fin-de-siècle Vienna are distinguished by their sparkling wit, brilliant style, and clinical observations of human psychology and social disintegration. His concern is with individual happiness, his approach is subtle and amoral, his tone unsentimental and ironic, and his dramatic problems often focused on love and sexual faithfulness. Among his more significant dramas are Liebelei (1895, tr. The Reckoning, 1907); The Lonely Way (tr. 1915), on artistic dedication; The Vast Domain (1911, tr. 1923); and Professor Bernhardi (tr. 1928) a tragedy about anti-Semitism. Of his novels, The Road to the Open (1908, tr. 1923) is autobiographical; he also wrote several novellas and numerous short stories.

See biography by S. Liptzin (1932); studies by B. Schneider-Halvorson (1983), P. W. Tax and R. H. Lawson, ed. (1984), and P. Gay (2001).

Schopenhauer, Arthur, 1788-1860, German philosopher, b. Danzig (now Gdansk). The bias of his own temperament and experience was germinal to the development of his celebrated philosophy of pessimism, which he presented with such clarity and skill as to gain eventual recognition as one of the great philosophers. He studied at Göttingen, Berlin, and Jena, and he traveled throughout Europe. In Berlin he opposed the teachings of G. W. Hegel and attempted unsuccessfully to establish himself as a lecturer. After 1831, Schopenhauer lived and worked in retirement, chiefly in Frankfurt am Main. He had no friends, never married, and was estranged from his mother, a woman of considerable intellectual ability. Schopenhauer's most important work is The World as Will and Representation (1818, tr. 1958). His other works, mainly elaboration and commentary upon his original thesis, include On the Will in Nature (1836, tr. 1889), The Basis of Morality (1841, tr. 1903), Essays from the Parerga and Paralipomena (1851, tr. 1951), and many lesser essays. Schopenhauer considered himself the true successor of Immanuel Kant. However, he interpreted Kant's unknowable thing-in-itself as a blind, impelling force that is manifest in individuals as a will to live. Intellect and consciousness, in Schopenhauer's view, arise as instruments in the service of the will. Conflict between individual wills is the cause of continual strife and frustration. The world, therefore, is a world of unsatisfied wants and of pain. Pleasure is simply the absence of pain; unable to endure, it brings only ennui. The only possible escape is the renunciation of desire, a negation of the will reminiscent of Buddhism. Temporary relief, however, can be found in philosophy and art. Schopenhauer held that music was unique among the art forms in that it expressed will directly. The ethical side of Schopenhauer's philosophy is based upon sympathy, where the moral will, feeling another's hurt as its own, makes an effort to relieve the pain. His stress on the strength of the impelling will influenced Friedrich Nietzsche and the psychology of Sigmund Freud.

See biography by D. W. Hamlyn (1985); P. Gardiner, Schopenhauer (1963); B. Magee, The Philosophy of Schopenhauer (1988); E. von der Luft, ed., Schopenhauer: New Essays in Honor of His 200th Birthday (1988).

Meighen, Arthur, 1874-1960, Canadian political leader, b. Ontario. A lawyer, he began his career in Manitoba. Entering (1908) the Canadian House of Commons as a Liberal-Conservative, he became solicitor general (1913), secretary of state and minister of mines (1917), and minister of the interior (1917). He was chosen prime minister in 1920 but resigned in 1921 after his defeat in the general election. As leader of the Conservative party, Meighen was again prime minister in 1926 but resigned within the year. In 1932, Richard B. Bennett appointed him to the Senate, from which he resigned in 1941 to contest a seat for the House of Commons. Defeated, he retired to private life.
Giry, Arthur, 1848-99, French historian. His Manuel de diplomatique (new ed. 1925) remains a standard work on the scientific study of documents.
Rubinstein, Arthur, 1887-1983, Polish-American pianist, b. Łódź. Rubinstein studied in Warsaw and Berlin, making his debut in 1900 with the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Joachim. He first played in the United States in 1906, achieving great acclaim there in 1937, especially for his superb lyric interpretations of Chopin's music and his ardent championship of Spanish works. Rubinstein's enormous popularity spanned many decades.

See his autobiography (1973).

Young, Arthur, 1741-1820, English agriculturist. His writings hastened the progress of scientific farming. He traveled widely, always observing techniques of farming. In 1784, Young founded the periodical Annals of Agriculture and edited it through 1808. Among his other works are three accounts of tours in England (1768-71) and Travels during the Years 1787, 1788, 1789, and 1790 (1792-94).

See his autobiography (1898); biography by J. G. Gazley (1973).

Middleton, Arthur, 1742-87, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. near Charleston, S.C.; son of Henry Middleton. He was educated in England, returning to America in 1763. Middleton was elected (1776) to succeed his father as a delegate to the Continental Congress. He also fought at Charleston (1780), where he was captured by the British. After being exchanged, he again served (1781-83) in the Congress.
Fiedler, Arthur, 1894-1979, American conductor, b. Brookline, Mass. Fiedler, who ultimately became a grandfatherly American musical icon, studied violin with his father, a member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. He continued his musical studies in Berlin (1909-15), becoming a violinist (and later a violist) with the Boston Symphony upon his return to the United States. He founded the Boston Sinfonietta in 1924, and in 1929 inaugurated an enormously popular series of free outdoor summer concerts of light American and European music featuring musicians from the Symphony. The following year Fiedler was appointed conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra, with whom he performed classical pieces pleasing to general audiences. During the nearly 50 years that he led the group he also appeared as guest conductor with a number of major American symphonies. His spirited style, lively musicality, and the appealingly informal atmosphere in which he presented his concerts made Fiedler his era's great popularizer of light classical music. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977.

See his daughter's biography-autobiography, Arthur Fiedler: Papa, the Pops and Me (1994) by Johanna Fiedler.

Thistlewood, Arthur, 1770-1820, British conspirator. He acquired revolutionary views while traveling in France and America and, after his return to England, joined the revolutionary Spencean Society (see Spence, Thomas) in London. In 1816 he organized a public meeting at Spa Fields, at which a revolution was to be started. However, the meeting was easily dispersed, and Thistlewood was arrested and narrowly escaped conviction for treason. A year later he was imprisoned for challenging Lord Sidmouth, the home secretary, to a duel. Upon his release (1819) Thistlewood, dissatisfied with the milder efforts of his colleagues, plotted the assassination of cabinet members at a cabinet dinner. The government, apprised of the conspiracy, surprised the plotters at their arsenal in a Cato Street loft. Thistlewood was subsequently convicted of treason and executed for his part in what is known as the Cato Street Conspiracy.
Miller, Arthur, 1915-2005, American dramatist, b. New York City, grad. Univ. of Michigan, 1938. One of America's most distinguished playwrights, he has been hailed as the finest realist of the 20th-century stage. Miller's plays are, above all, concerned with morality as they reflect the individual's response to the manifold pressures exerted by the forces of family and society. Recurring themes of his major works involve the overwhelming importance of personal and social responsibility and the moral corruption that results from betraying the dictates of conscience.

Miller's masterpiece, Death of a Salesman (1949; Pulitzer Prize), is the story of a salesman betrayed by his own hollow values and those of American society. The Crucible (1953) is both a dynamic dramatization of the 17th-century Salem witch trials and a parable about the United States in the McCarthy era (see McCarthy, Joseph Raymond); it has been his most frequently produced work. In A View from the Bridge (1955; Pulitzer Prize) Miller studies a Sicilian-American longshoreman whose unacknowledged lust for his niece destroys him and his family. Miller's tumultuous life with his second wife, Marilyn Monroe, to whom he was married from 1956 to 1961, is fictionalized in his After the Fall (1964), and a barely disguised version of the glamorous but troubled actress also appears in his last play, Finishing the Picture (2004).

Miller's other plays include The Man Who Had All the Luck (1940), All My Sons (1947), Incident at Vichy (1965), The Price (1968), The Creation of the World and Other Business (1972), The American Clock (1980), The Ride down Mount Morgan (1991), Broken Glass (1994), and Resurrection Blues (2002). He also wrote the screenplay for The Misfits (1961); the television dramas Playing for Time (1980) and Clara (1991); a novel, Focus (1945); and two books of short stories (1967, 2007). Miller's The Theater Essays (1971, rev. ed. 1996) is a collection of writings about the craft of playwriting and the nature of modern tragedy, and Echoes down the Corridor (2000) is a collection of essays (1944-2000), many of them autobiographical. He collaborated with his third wife, the photographer Inge Morath (1923-2002), on several books; their In Russia (1969) is a study of the Soviet Union.

See his autobiography, Timebends (1987); M. C. Roudane, Conversations with Arthur Miller (1987), S. Centola, Arthur Miller in Conversation (1993), M. Gussow, Conversations with Miller (2002); biographies by M. Gottfried (2003) and C. Bigsby (2008); studies by B. Nelson (1970), R. Hayman (1972), J. J. Martine, ed. (1979), D. Welland (1979, repr. 1985), L. Moss (rev. ed. 1980), H. Bloom, ed. (1987), J. Schlueter and J. K. Flanagan (1987), N. Carson (1988), P. Singh (1990), S. R. Centola, ed. (1995), A. Griffin (1996), T. Otten (2002), C. Bigsby (2004), and E. Brater, ed. (2005).

MacArthur, Arthur, 1845-1912, American army officer, b. Springfield, Mass.; father of Douglas MacArthur. Raised in Wisconsin, he served with the 24th Wisconsin Volunteers in the Civil War and fought in many Western campaigns and in the Chattanooga campaign of 1863. He received the Medal of Honor for gallantry. Joining the regular army after the war, he fought in both Cuba and the Philippines in the Spanish-American War and was (1900-1901) military governor of the Philippines. He had risen (1906) to the rank of lieutenant general when he retired in 1909.
Machen, Arthur, 1863-1947, British author, b. Wales. He wrote a series of semiautobiographical fantasies, notably The Hill of Dreams (1907) and Far Off Things (1922), and tales of horror and the supernatural. Machen achieved transient fame during World War I with "The Bowman," a tale relating how St. George and his ghostly archers rescue the British army and slaughter the Germans.

See his autobiography, ed. by M. Bishop (1951); biography by W. D. Sweetser (1964).

Seyss-Inquart, Arthur, 1892-1946, Austrian National Socialist leader. In Feb., 1938, Chancellor Schuschnigg of Austria was forced by German pressure to appoint him minister of the interior. Seyss-Inquart became chancellor a few hours before German troops entered (Mar. 11) Austria. The Anschluss [union] of Austria and Germany was announced on Mar. 15, and Seyss-Inquart was made governor of Austria. In 1940 he was appointed German high commissioner in the occupied Netherlands, where he ruthlessly exterminated the Dutch Jews and deported many thousands to slave-labor camps. He was convicted as a war criminal and was hanged.
Cayley, Arthur, 1821-95, English mathematician. He was admitted to the bar in 1849. In 1863 he was appointed first Sadlerian professor of mathematics at Cambridge. His researches, which covered the field of pure mathematics, included especially the theory of matrices and the theory of invariants. The algebra of matrices was the tool Heisenberg used in 1925 for his revolutionary work in quantum mechanics. The concept of invariance is important in modern physics, particularly in the theory of relativity. Cayley's collected papers were published in 13 volumes (1889-98).
Goldberg, Arthur, 1908-90, American labor lawyer and jurist, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1962-65), b. Chicago. He received his law degree from Northwestern Univ. in 1929. A corporation lawyer, he became a labor specialist after representing the Chicago newspaper guild in a strike (1938) against the Hearst papers. In World War II he served in the Office of Strategic Services as contact man with the European underground labor movement. He was (1945-48) professor of law at the John Marshall Law School in Chicago. In 1948 he was appointed by Philip Murray to be general counsel of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) and the United Steelworkers Union. Goldberg was a central figure in the merger (1955) of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the CIO, and he led the fight to expel the International Brotherhood of Teamsters from the AFL-CIO. Appointed U.S. Secretary of Labor in 1961, he was credited with settling several serious labor disputes. In 1962 he was appointed by President Kennedy to the Supreme Court, where he was one of its more liberal members. He resigned (1965) when President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed him U.S. representative to the United Nations; he held that post until 1968. In 1970, he was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate for governor of New York state. He wrote AFL-CIO: Labor United (1956).
Golding, Arthur, c.1536-c.1605, English translator. He translated many Latin classics, including Caesar's Gallic War and Ovid's Metamorphoses. A Calvinist, Golding tried to infuse the Metamorphoses with a stern moral tone. He also translated noted French works.
Görgey, Arthur, 1818-1916, Hungarian revolutionary general. He fought the Austrians in 1848-49 as a commander of the Hungarian republican army and distinguished himself as a strategist. He captured Buda (May, 1849), but when Russia sent aid to the Austrians, Görgey decided to surrender to the Russians rather than continue a lost cause. He forced Louis Kossuth, with whom he had often differed, to resign. Görgey was interned in Austria until 1867.
Symons, Arthur, 1865-1945, English poet and critic. A leader of the symbolists in England, Symons interpreted French decadent poetry to the English through translations, criticism, and his own imitative poems. He was editor of the Savoy (1896) until a period of insanity, movingly described in his Confessions (1930), incapacitated him from 1908 to 1910. After that time he was forced to live very quietly. His chief critical work is The Symbolist Movement in Literature (1899); others are The Romantic Movement in English Poetry (1909) and studies of Baudelaire, Blake, and Rossetti. His poetry includes Days and Nights (1889), Poems (1902), and Love's Cruelty (1923).

See biography by K. Beckson (1987); studies by J. M. Munro (1969) and L. W. Market (1987).

Henderson, Arthur, 1863-1935, British statesman, organizer and leader of the British Labour party. In early life he was an ironworker and a labor union leader. Elected (1903) to Parliament, he was chairman of the parliamentary Labour party (1908-10, 1914-17), president of the Board of Education (1915-16), paymaster general (1916), and a member of the war cabinet (1916-17). In Ramsay MacDonald's first ministry (1924) he was home secretary. As foreign secretary (1929-31) Henderson worked to moderate Franco-German problems and supported the League of Nations. He led Labour opposition to the formation of the National government in 1931 and lost his seat in Parliament. From 1932 until his death he was president of the World Disarmament Conference, and he was awarded the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize. His writings include The Aims of Labour (1919).

See biography by M. A. Hamilton (1938); study by D. Carlton (1970).

Hertzberg, Arthur, 1921-2006, American rabbi, scholar, and Jewish community leader, b. Poland. His family emigrated to the United States in 1926. He attended Johns Hopkins, the Jewish Theological Seminary (grad. 1943), and Columbia (Ph.D., 1946). Rabbi of Temple Emanu-El, Englewood, N.J. (1956-85) and a noted leader of Conservative Judaism, he also taught at several colleges and served as president of the American Jewish Congress (1972-78) and vice president of the World Jewish Congress (1975-91). Hertzberg was known for his generally liberal and often contrarian political and religious views and for his strong support of civil rights. A committed Zionist, editor of The Zionist Idea (1959, repr. 1970, 1972, 1997), he nonetheless frequently criticized Israeli policies and favored a separate Palestinian state. His numerous books include The French Enlightenment and the Jews (1968), The Jews in America (1989), Jews: The Essence and Character of a People (1998), and a memoir, A Jew in America (2002).
Koestler, Arthur, 1905-83, English writer, b. Budapest of Hungarian parents. Koestler spent his early years in Vienna and Palestine. An influential Communist journalist in Berlin in the early 1930s, Koestler was subsequently captured by Franco's forces during the Spanish Civil War; Spanish Testament (1937) relates his experiences. Released in 1937, he edited an anti-Nazi and anti-Soviet French weekly and served in the French Foreign Legion (1939-40). After the German invasion he was interned in a concentration camp, but escaped from France in 1940 and lived thereafter in England. Koestler broke with Communism as a result of the Soviet purge trials of the late 1930s. Darkness at Noon (1941), his most important novel, vividly describes the execution of an old Bolshevik for "deviationist" belief in the individual. Other significant accounts of the evil of Stalinism include The Yogi and the Commissar (1945), and a famous essay in The God That Failed (ed. by R. H. Crossman, 1951). In his later years Koestler ranged over a wide variety of subjects. His later novels include Thieves in the Night (1946), a powerful description of the conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine, The Age of Longing (1951), and The Call Girls: A Tragicomedy (1973). He wrote extensively on science in such works as The Lotus and the Robot (1960), The Act of Creation (1964), The Ghost in the Machine (1968), The Case of the Midwife Toad (1971), and The Roots of Coincidence (1972). Greatly concerned in later life with euthanasia and the right to die, Koestler and his wife committed a joint suicide in 1983. Koestler combined a brilliant journalistic style with an understanding of the great movements of his times and a participant's sense of commitment.

See his autobiography in 3 vol., Arrow in the Blue (1952), The Invisible Writing (1954), and Janus: A Summing Up (1978); biographies by D. Cesarani (1999) and M. Scammell (2009); studies by W. Mays (1973), S. Pearson (1978), and P. J. Keane (1980).

Kornberg, Arthur, 1918-2007, American biochemist, b. Brooklyn, grad. College of the City of New York (B.S., 1937) and Univ. of Rochester (M.D., 1941). In 1942 he joined the U.S. Public Health Service and became (1951) medical director. He was a staff member (1942-52) of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. He taught at Washington Univ., St. Louis, from 1953 and was chairman (1959-69) of the department of biochemistry at Stanford, where he remained until his death. Kornberg shared the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Severo Ochoa for their work in the discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Kornberg's discovery of polymerase, an enzyme used to synthesize nucleic acid, contributed to development of genetic engineering.
Krock, Arthur, 1886-1974, American journalist, b. Glasgow, Ky. He left Princeton to take up reporting and worked in Louisville and Washington. In 1927 he joined the New York Times, becoming Washington correspondent in 1932. Krock's pungent and controversial columns generally espoused a conservative viewpoint. He won four Pulitzer awards, two prizes (1935, 1938), a special commendation, and a special citation. His books include Sixty Years On The Firing Line (1968), In the Nation: 1932-1966 (1969), The Consent of the Governed and Other Deceits (1971), and Myself When Young: Growing Up in the 1890s (1973).
Mitchell, Arthur, 1934-, American dancer, b. New York City. Mitchell studied in New York City and appeared on Broadway and with various companies at home and abroad. He joined the New York City Ballet in 1956, becoming a soloist in 1959. The first black principal dancer of a major company in history, he remained with the company for 20 years. His performance as Puck in A Midsummer Night's Dream (1964) was especially acclaimed. He also performed with distinction in Western Symphony, Agon, Afternoon of a Faun, and Ebony Concerto. In 1968, Mitchell founded a ballet school in Harlem, New York City, in order to provide classical academic training to black students. By 1970 under his direction the school developed into the Dance Theatre of Harlem, the first black classical ballet company. His works include Rhythmetron (1968) and Ode to Otis (1969).

(born May 1, 1769, Dublin, Ire.—died Sept. 14, 1852, Walmer Castle, Kent, Eng.) British general. Son of the Irish earl of Mornington, he entered the army in 1787 and served in the Irish Parliament (1790–97). Sent to India in 1796, he commanded troops to victories in the Maratha War (1803). Back in England, he served in the British House of Commons and as chief secretary in Ireland (1807–09). Commanding British troops in the Peninsular War, he won battles against the French in Portugal and Spain and invaded France to win the war in 1814, for which he was promoted to field marshal and created a duke. After Napoleon renewed the war against the European powers, the “Iron Duke” commanded the Allied armies to victory at the Battle of Waterloo (1815). Richly rewarded by English and foreign sovereigns, he became one of the most honoured men in Europe. After commanding the army of occupation in France (1815–18) and serving in the Tory cabinet as master general of ordnance (1818–27), he served as prime minister (1828–30), but he was forced to resign after opposing any parliamentary reform. He was honoured on his death by a monumental funeral and burial in St. Paul's Cathedral alongside Horatio Nelson.

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Evelyn Waugh, photograph by Mark Gerson, 1964.

(born Oct. 28, 1903, London, Eng.—died April 10, 1966, Combe Florey, near Taunton, Somerset) English novelist. After an Oxford education, he devoted himself to solitary, observant travel and the writing of novels, soon earning a wide reputation for sardonic wit and technical brilliance. His finest satirical novels are Decline and Fall (1928), Vile Bodies (1930), Black Mischief (1932), A Handful of Dust (1934), Scoop (1938), and The Loved One (1948). He converted to Roman Catholicism in 1930, and his Catholicism is insistently reflected in his novels from then on. After service in World War II he led a retired life, growing increasingly conservative and misanthropic. His later works, more serious and ambitious but written with less élan, include Brideshead Revisited (1945) and the Sword of Honour trilogy—Men at Arms (1952), Officers and Gentlemen (1955), and Unconditional Surrender (1961).

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(born March 22, 1884, Grand Rapids, Mich., U.S.—died April 18, 1951, Grand Rapids) U.S. politician. Editor of the Grand Rapids Herald (1906–28), he was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate (1928–51). He was a critic of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt's foreign policy but revised his isolationist position after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In a 1945 Senate speech he advocated U.S. participation in international alliances, and he was a delegate to the UN organizing conference. He led Republican congressional support for legislative measures introduced by Pres. Harry Truman, including the Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, and NATO.

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(born July 11, 1890, Glenguin, Stirling, Scot.—died June 3, 1967, Banstead, Surrey, Eng.) British air marshal. He joined the British army in 1913, transferred to the Royal Flying Corps in 1916, and after World War I commanded a branch of the Royal Air Force (RAF). As head of the RAF Middle East Command in World War II, he commanded Allied air operations in North Africa and Italy, and in 1944 he was appointed head of Allied air operations in western Europe. His policy of bombing German communications and providing close air support of ground operations contributed significantly to the success of the Normandy Campaign and the Allied advance into Germany. He later became the first peacetime chief of the air staff (1946–50).

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(born May 22, 1786, Northampton, Mass., U.S.—died July 23, 1865, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. merchant and philanthropist. He operated various businesses, including a silk-importing firm in New York (1826–37) with his brother Lewis Tappan (1788–1873); they also founded the first commercial credit-rating service (1841). He used his wealth to support missionary societies and the abolitionist crusade, helping found the American Anti-Slavery Society and serving as its first president (1833–40). After breaking with William Lloyd Garrison, he created the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (1840). The Tappan brothers later supported the Underground Railroad.

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(born Feb. 28, 1865, Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, Eng.—died Jan. 22, 1945, Wittersham, Kent) English poet and critic. He contributed to The Yellow Book, an avant-garde journal, and edited The Savoy (1896). His Symbolist Movement in Literature (1899), the first English work championing the French Symbolist movement in poetry, summed up a decade of interpretation and influenced William Butler Yeats and T.S. Eliot. His poetry, mainly disillusioned in feeling, appears in such volumes as Silhouettes (1892) and London Nights (1895). He also translated the poetry of Paul Verlaine and wrote travel pieces. After a nervous breakdown in 1908, he produced little apart from Confessions (1930), a moving account of his illness.

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(born May 13, 1842, London, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1900, London) British composer. He attended the Royal Academy and the Leipzig Conservatory, then supported himself by teaching, playing organ, and composing for provincial festivals. His music for The Tempest (1861) achieved great success and was followed by his Irish Symphony (1866) and songs such as “Onward, Christian Soldiers” and “The Lost Chord.” In 1871 he first collaborated in comic opera with playwright W.S. Gilbert, and in 1875 their Trial by Jury became a hit, setting the course for both their careers. Their collaboration continued with The Sorceror (1877), H.M.S. Pinafore (1878), The Pirates of Penzance (1879), Patience (1881), Iolanthe (1882), Princess Ida (1883), The Mikado (1885), Ruddigore (1887), The Yeomen of the Guard (1888), The Gondoliers (1889), and others, many of which would continue to delight international audiences for more than a century.

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(born May 24, 1855, London, Eng.—died Nov. 23, 1934, London) British playwright. He entered the theatrical world as an actor with Henry Irving's theatre company. His first play, £200 a Year, was produced in 1877. He wrote a series of successful farces such as The Magistrate (1885) before turning to dramas of social issues. The Second Mrs. Tanqueray (1893), the first of his plays depicting women confronting their situation in society, established his reputation, and he followed it with works such as The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith (1895) and Trelawny of the “Wells” (1898), becoming the most successful playwright of his time.

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(born Dec. 5, 1875, Napperton, Ont., Can.—died Nov. 30, 1933, Montreal, Que.) Canadian military leader. He was a businessman in Victoria, B.C., before enlisting in the militia. Given command of a battalion in 1914, he won distinction in several battles of World War I; within three years he was promoted to lieutenant general and given command of the four divisions of the Canadian Corps. After the war he served as the first general in the Canadian army. In 1920 he became principal and vice chancellor of McGill University.

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(born Nov. 21, 1863, Bodmin, Cornwall, Eng.—died May 12, 1944, Fowey, Cornwall) English poet, novelist, and anthologist. Educated at Oxford, he worked as a journalist and editor in London before settling in his native Cornwall. He taught at Cambridge from 1912. He is noted for compiling The Oxford Book of English Verse 1250–1900 (1900; revised 1939) and The Oxford Book of Ballads (1910). His works, written in a clear and apparently effortless style, include many novels and short stories, verse, and criticism, including On the Art of Writing (1916) and On the Art of Reading (1920).

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Arthur Stanley Eddington.

(born Dec. 28, 1882, Kendal, Westmorland, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1944, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) British astronomer, physicist, and mathematician. At the University of Cambridge he won every mathematical honour. He was chief assistant at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich (1906–13); in 1914 he became director of the Cambridge observatory. Religious and pacifistic, he declared that the world's meaning could not be discovered by science. His greatest contributions were in astrophysics, where his studies included stellar structure, subatomic sources of stellar energy, white dwarf stars, and diffuse matter in interstellar space. His philosophical ideas led him to believe that unifying quantum theory and general relativity would permit the calculation of certain universal constants.

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(born May 13, 1842, London, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1900, London) British composer. He attended the Royal Academy and the Leipzig Conservatory, then supported himself by teaching, playing organ, and composing for provincial festivals. His music for The Tempest (1861) achieved great success and was followed by his Irish Symphony (1866) and songs such as “Onward, Christian Soldiers” and “The Lost Chord.” In 1871 he first collaborated in comic opera with playwright W.S. Gilbert, and in 1875 their Trial by Jury became a hit, setting the course for both their careers. Their collaboration continued with The Sorceror (1877), H.M.S. Pinafore (1878), The Pirates of Penzance (1879), Patience (1881), Iolanthe (1882), Princess Ida (1883), The Mikado (1885), Ruddigore (1887), The Yeomen of the Guard (1888), The Gondoliers (1889), and others, many of which would continue to delight international audiences for more than a century.

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(born April 14, 1904, London, Eng.—died May 21, 2000, near Aylesbury) British actor and director. He made his London debut in 1921 and joined the Old Vic company in 1929, becoming widely acclaimed for a series of Shakespearean performances, notably Hamlet and Richard II, and also excelling in plays such as The School for Scandal, The Importance of Being Earnest, The Seagull, and Tiny Alice. He directed several repertory seasons in the 1940s and toured the world with the solo recital Ages of Man (1958–59). He appeared in many films, including Arthur (1981, Academy Award) and Shine (1996).

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(born July 8, 1851, Nash Mills, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died July 11, 1941, Youlbury, near Oxford, Oxfordshire) British archaeologist. Son of the archaeologist Sir John Evans, he served as a curator (1884–1908) at Oxford's Ashmolean Museum. Beginning in 1899 he devoted several decades to excavating the ruins of the ancient city of Knossos in Crete, uncovering evidence of a sophisticated Bronze Age civilization that he named Minoan. His work, one of archaeology's major achievements, greatly advanced the study of European and eastern Mediterranean prehistory. He published his definitive account in The Palace of Minos, 4 vol. (1921–36).

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(born Aug. 2, 1891, London, Eng.—died March 27, 1975, London) British composer. He studied with Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst. Though he was compositionally adventurous at first, he later adopted a conservative, Romantic style. His works include A Colour Symphony (1922), Pastoral (1928), the choral symphony Morning Heroes (1930), Music for Strings (1936), and the ballets Checkmate (1937) and Miracle in the Gorbals (1944).

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Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, detail of a portrait by H.L. Gates, 1927; in the National Portrait Gallery, elipsis

(born May 22, 1859, Edinburgh, Scot.—died July 7, 1930, Crowborough, Sussex, Eng.) Scottish writer. He became a doctor and practiced until 1891, studying with Dr. Joseph Bell, who was the model for his fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes. Conan Doyle was knighted for his medical work in the second South African War and his public defense of the war. Holmes first appeared in “A Study in Scarlet” (1887). Collections of Holmes stories began with The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1892). Tiring of Holmes, Conan Doyle devised his death in 1893, only to be forced by public demand to restore him to life. His other Holmes novels include The Sign of Four (1890), The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902), and The Valley of Fear (1915). His historical romances include The White Company (1890). Late in life, Conan Doyle devoted himself to spiritualism.

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(born July 22, 1892, Stannern, near Iglau, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary—died Oct. 16, 1946, Nürnberg, Ger.) Austrian Nazi leader. He served in the Austro-Hungarian army during World War I and was seriously wounded. Later a lawyer in Vienna, he became a leader of the moderate faction of the Austrian Nazis and served on the federal council of state (1937–38). In response to German pressure, he was named minister of interior and security and then replaced Kurt von Schuschnigg as chancellor (1938). He welcomed the Anschluss by Germany and became governor of the Austrian administration (1938–39). In World War II he was German high commissioner of The Netherlands (1940–45) and carried out the Nazi policy against Dutch Jews. He was tried at the Nürnberg trials and executed as a war criminal.

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Arthur Schopenhauer, 1855.

(born Feb. 22, 1788, Danzig, Prussia—died Sept. 21, 1860, Frankfurt am Main) German philosopher. His father was a banker and his mother a novelist. He studied in several fields before earning his doctorate in philosophy. He regarded the Upanishads, together with the works of Plato and Immanuel Kant, as the foundation of his philosophical system, a metaphysical doctrine of the will developed in reaction to the idealism of G.W.F. Hegel. His magnum opus, The World as Will and Representation (1819), consists of two comprehensive series of reflections on the theory of knowledge and the philosophy of nature, aesthetics, and ethics. By turning away from spirit and reason to the powers of intuition, creativity, and the irrational, he influenced (partly via Friedrich Nietzsche) the ideas and methods of vitalism, life philosophy, existentialism, and anthropology. His other works include On the Will in Nature (1836), The Two Main Problems of Ethics (1841), and Parerga and Paralipomena (1851). An unhappy and solitary man, his works earned him the sobriquet “the philosopher of pessimism.”

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(born May 15, 1862, Vienna, Austria—died Oct. 21, 1931, Vienna) Austrian playwright and novelist. Schnitzler practiced medicine in Vienna most of his life, and he also studied psychiatry. He became known for his psychological dramas and for his fearlessness in depicting the erotic lives of his characters, beginning with the early play Anatol (1893). His best-known play, Reigen (Merry-Go-Round, 1897), was a cycle of 10 dramatic dialogues that traced the links connecting the partners in a series of sexual encounters; considered scandalous when first performed in 1920, it was filmed as La Ronde by Max Ophüls in 1950. His drama Playing with Love (1896) and his most successful novel, None but the Brave (1901), revealed the hollowness of the Austrian military code of honour.

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Bertrand Russell, 1960

(born May 18, 1872, Trelleck, Monmouthshire, Eng.—died Feb. 2, 1970, near Penrhyndeudraeth, Merioneth, Wales) British logician and philosopher. He is best known for his work in mathematical logic and for his advocacy on behalf of a variety of social and political causes, especially pacifism and nuclear disarmament. He was born into the British nobility as the grandson of Earl Russell, who was twice prime minister of Britain in the mid-19th century. He studied mathematics and philosophy at Cambridge University, where he came under the influence of the idealist philosopher J.M.E. McTaggart, though he soon rejected idealism in favour of an extreme Platonic realism. In an early paper, “On Denoting” (1905), he solved a notorious puzzle in the philosophy of language by showing how phrases such as “The present king of France,” which have no referents, function logically as general statements rather than as proper names. Russell later regarded this discovery, which came to be known as the “theory of descriptions,” as one of his most important contributions to philosophy. In The Principles of Mathematics (1903) and the epochal Principia Mathematica (3 vol., 1910–13), which he wrote with Alfred North Whitehead, he sought to demonstrate that the whole of mathematics derives from logic. For his pacifism in World War I he lost his lectureship at Cambridge and was later imprisoned. (He would abandon pacifism in 1939 in the face of Nazi aggression.) Russell's best-developed metaphysical doctrine, logical atomism, strongly influenced the school of logical positivism. His later philosophical works include The Analysis of Mind (1921), The Analysis of Matter (1927), and Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits (1948). His A History of Western Philosophy (1945), which he wrote for a popular audience, became a best-seller and was for many years the main source of his income. Among his many works on social and political topics are Roads to Freedom (1918); The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism (1920), a scathing critique of Soviet communism; On Education (1926); and Marriage and Morals (1929). In part because of the controversial views he espoused in the latter work, he was prevented from accepting a teaching position at the City College of New York in 1940. After World War II he became a leader in the worldwide campaign for nuclear disarmament, serving as first president of the international Pugwash Conferences on nuclear weapons and world security and of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. In 1961, at the age of 89, he was imprisoned for a second time for inciting civil disobedience. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950.

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Rimbaud, detail from “Un Coin de table,” oil painting by Henri Fantin-Latour, 1872; in elipsis

(born Oct. 20, 1854, Charleville, France—died Nov. 10, 1891, Marseille) French poet and adventurer. The provincial son of an army captain, he had begun by age 16 to write violent, blasphemous poems, and he formulated an aesthetic doctrine stating that a poet must become a seer, break down the restraints and controls on personality, and thus become the instrument for the voice of the eternal. He was invited to Paris by Paul Verlaine, with whom he had a homosexual relationship and engaged in a wild and dissipated life. The Drunken Boat (written 1871), perhaps his finest poem, displays his astonishing verbal virtuosity and a daring choice of images and metaphors. In Les Illuminations (written 1872–74), a collection of mainly prose poems, he tried to abolish the distinction between reality and hallucination. A Season in Hell (1873), which alternates prose passages with dazzling lyrics, became his farewell to poetry at age 19. After they had a falling-out, Verlaine shot and wounded Rimbaud; afterward their final meeting ended in a violent quarrel. Rimbaud abandoned literature and from 1875 led an international vagabond life as a merchant and trader, mainly in Ethiopia; he died at age 37 after his leg was amputated. The Dionysian power of his verse and his liberation of language from the constraints of form greatly influenced the Symbolist movement and 20th-century poetry.

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(born Sept. 19, 1867, London, Eng.—died Sept. 6, 1939, Limpsfield, Surrey) British artist and illustrator. While a staff artist for a London newspaper, he also began illustrating books. He became skillful using the new halftone process, and his highly detailed drawings revealed a unique imagination. He achieved renown with a 1900 edition of Grimm's Fairy Tales, and his illustrations for Rip Van Winkle (1905) brought him recognition in America as well. Altogether he illustrated more than 60 books, including classics of children's literature as well as works by William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, John Milton, Richard Wagner, and Edgar Allan Poe.

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(born Nov. 21, 1863, Bodmin, Cornwall, Eng.—died May 12, 1944, Fowey, Cornwall) English poet, novelist, and anthologist. Educated at Oxford, he worked as a journalist and editor in London before settling in his native Cornwall. He taught at Cambridge from 1912. He is noted for compiling The Oxford Book of English Verse 1250–1900 (1900; revised 1939) and The Oxford Book of Ballads (1910). His works, written in a clear and apparently effortless style, include many novels and short stories, verse, and criticism, including On the Art of Writing (1916) and On the Art of Reading (1920).

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(born May 24, 1855, London, Eng.—died Nov. 23, 1934, London) British playwright. He entered the theatrical world as an actor with Henry Irving's theatre company. His first play, £200 a Year, was produced in 1877. He wrote a series of successful farces such as The Magistrate (1885) before turning to dramas of social issues. The Second Mrs. Tanqueray (1893), the first of his plays depicting women confronting their situation in society, established his reputation, and he followed it with works such as The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith (1895) and Trelawny of the “Wells” (1898), becoming the most successful playwright of his time.

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(born Aug. 9, 1922, Coventry, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Dec. 2, 1985, Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire) English poet. Educated at Oxford, Larkin became a librarian at the University of Hull, Yorkshire, in 1955; he would remain a librarian the rest of his life. He wrote two novels before becoming well known with his third volume of verse, The Less Deceived (1955), which expressed the antiromantic sensibility prevalent in English verse of his time. Later poetry volumes are The Whitsun Weddings (1964), High Windows (1974), and Aubade (1980). All What Jazz (1970) contains essays he wrote as a jazz critic for The Daily Telegraph (1961–71).

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(born March 27, 1934, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. dancer, choreographer, and director of the Dance Theatre of Harlem. He studied at the High School for the Performing Arts in New York City. He began dancing in Broadway musicals and worked with several ballet companies before joining the New York City Ballet in 1956 as its first African American dancer. He created roles in several of George Balanchine's ballets, including A Midsummer Night's Dream (1962) and Agon (1967), before leaving the company in 1972. In 1968 he cofounded a ballet school, and its company, the Dance Theatre of Harlem, made its debut in 1971. He has continued as its director and choreographer.

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Arthur Miller, photograph by Inge Morath

(born Oct. 17, 1915, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 10, 2005, Roxbury, Conn.) U.S. playwright. He began writing plays while a student at the University of Michigan. His first important play, All My Sons (1947), was followed by his most famous work, Death of a Salesman (1949, Pulitzer Prize), the tragedy of a man destroyed by false values that are in large part the values of his society. Noted for combining social awareness with a searching concern for his characters' inner lives, Miller wrote many other plays, including The Crucible (1953), which uses a plot about the Salem witch trials to attack McCarthyism, A View from the Bridge (1955), After the Fall (1964), The Last Yankee (1992), and Resurrection Blues (2002). He also wrote short stories, essays, and the screenplay for The Misfits (1961), which starred his second wife, Marilyn Monroe.

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(born Aug. 9, 1922, Coventry, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Dec. 2, 1985, Kingston upon Hull, Yorkshire) English poet. Educated at Oxford, Larkin became a librarian at the University of Hull, Yorkshire, in 1955; he would remain a librarian the rest of his life. He wrote two novels before becoming well known with his third volume of verse, The Less Deceived (1955), which expressed the antiromantic sensibility prevalent in English verse of his time. Later poetry volumes are The Whitsun Weddings (1964), High Windows (1974), and Aubade (1980). All What Jazz (1970) contains essays he wrote as a jazz critic for The Daily Telegraph (1961–71).

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(born March 3, 1918, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 26, 2007, Stanford, Calif.) U.S. biochemist and physician. He studied at the University of Rochester. In 1959 he joined the faculty at Stanford University. While studying how living organisms manufacture nucleotides, his research led him to the problem of how nucleotides are strung together to form DNA molecules. Adding radioactive nucleotides to an enzyme mixture prepared from cultures of E. coli, he found evidence of a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme that adds nucleotides to a preexisting DNA chain. He was the first to accomplish the cell-free synthesis of DNA. He shared a 1959 Nobel Prize with Severo Ochoa. His son Roger D. Kornberg won the 2006 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

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(born Sept. 5, 1905, Budapest, Hung.—found dead March 3, 1983, London, Eng.) Hungarian-British novelist, journalist, and critic. He is best known for Darkness at Noon (1940); a political novel examining the moral danger in a totalitarian system that sacrifices means to an end, it reflects the events leading to his break with the Communist Party and his experience as a correspondent imprisoned by the fascists in the Spanish Civil War. He also wrote of his break with the party in the essay collection The God That Failed (1949). His later works, mostly concerning science and philosophy, include The Act of Creation (1964) and The Ghost in the Machine (1967). Suffering from leukemia and Parkinson's disease and believing in voluntary euthanasia, he died with his wife in a suicide pact.

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James Baldwin

(born Aug. 2, 1924, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 1, 1987, Saint-Paul, France) U.S. essayist, novelist, and playwright. He grew up in poverty in the New York City district of Harlem and became a preacher while in his teens. After 1948 he lived alternately in France and the U.S. His semiautobiographical first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), regarded as his finest, was followed by the essay collections Notes of a Native Son (1955) and Nobody Knows My Name (1961); the novels Giovanni's Room (1956), a story of homosexual life, and Another Country (1962); the long polemical essay The Fire Next Time (1963), prophesying widespread racial violence; and the play Blues for Mister Charlie (produced 1964). His eloquence and passion on the subject of race made him for years perhaps the country's most prominent black writer.

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(born March 10, 1892, Le Havre, France—died Nov. 27, 1955, Paris) French composer. Born to Swiss-French parents, he studied in Zürich, then at the Paris Conservatory. One of the group known as Les Six, though not truly in sympathy with its aims, he first gained international renown for his oratorio Le Roi David (1921). His exciting orchestral piece Pacific 231 (1923), portraying a locomotive, caused a sensation. Prolific throughout his life, he composed five symphonies (including Symphony No. 3 known as Liturgique, for the end of World War II), the oratorio Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher (1938), and numerous scores for ballet, theatre, and films (including Abel Gance's Napoleon).

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(born June 14, 1958, Madison, Wis., U.S.) U.S. speed skater. He became the first American to win the world speed-skating championship, and he retained the h1 for three years (1977–79). In the 1980 Winter Olympics he became the first person to win gold medals in all five speed-skating events. He later turned to competitive cycling.

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(born March 31, 1871, Dublin, Ire.—died Aug. 12, 1922, Dublin) Irish journalist and nationalist, principal founder of Sinn Féin. As a young man, he edited political newspapers and urged passive resistance to British rule. He lost influence with the extreme nationalists when he did not participate in the Easter Rising (1916) but regained it when the British jailed him with other Sinn Féin members. In 1918 the Irish members of the House of Commons declared a republic and chose Eamon de Valera as president and Griffith as vice president. In 1921 Griffith led the Irish delegation to the self-government treaty conference and was the first Irish delegate to accept partition, embodied in the Anglo-Irish Treaty (1921). When the Dáil narrowly approved it in 1922, de Valera resigned and Griffith was elected president. Exhausted from overwork, he died soon after.

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(born April 14, 1904, London, Eng.—died May 21, 2000, near Aylesbury) British actor and director. He made his London debut in 1921 and joined the Old Vic company in 1929, becoming widely acclaimed for a series of Shakespearean performances, notably Hamlet and Richard II, and also excelling in plays such as The School for Scandal, The Importance of Being Earnest, The Seagull, and Tiny Alice. He directed several repertory seasons in the 1940s and toured the world with the solo recital Ages of Man (1958–59). He appeared in many films, including Arthur (1981, Academy Award) and Shine (1996).

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(born Dec. 17, 1894, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died July 10, 1979, Brookline, Mass.) U.S. conductor. Son of a distinguished violinist, he was trained in Berlin and joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1915. In the 1920s he began conducting and recording with his own Boston Sinfonietta and various choral groups. In 1929 he organized a series of open-air concerts, which was successful enough to eventually become an institution, the Boston Pops. Thereafter his name was inextricably linked with the Pops, which achieved enormous success under his direction.

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Evelyn Waugh, photograph by Mark Gerson, 1964.

(born Oct. 28, 1903, London, Eng.—died April 10, 1966, Combe Florey, near Taunton, Somerset) English novelist. After an Oxford education, he devoted himself to solitary, observant travel and the writing of novels, soon earning a wide reputation for sardonic wit and technical brilliance. His finest satirical novels are Decline and Fall (1928), Vile Bodies (1930), Black Mischief (1932), A Handful of Dust (1934), Scoop (1938), and The Loved One (1948). He converted to Roman Catholicism in 1930, and his Catholicism is insistently reflected in his novels from then on. After service in World War II he led a retired life, growing increasingly conservative and misanthropic. His later works, more serious and ambitious but written with less élan, include Brideshead Revisited (1945) and the Sword of Honour trilogy—Men at Arms (1952), Officers and Gentlemen (1955), and Unconditional Surrender (1961).

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(born July 8, 1851, Nash Mills, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died July 11, 1941, Youlbury, near Oxford, Oxfordshire) British archaeologist. Son of the archaeologist Sir John Evans, he served as a curator (1884–1908) at Oxford's Ashmolean Museum. Beginning in 1899 he devoted several decades to excavating the ruins of the ancient city of Knossos in Crete, uncovering evidence of a sophisticated Bronze Age civilization that he named Minoan. His work, one of archaeology's major achievements, greatly advanced the study of European and eastern Mediterranean prehistory. He published his definitive account in The Palace of Minos, 4 vol. (1921–36).

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(born June 14, 1958, Madison, Wis., U.S.) U.S. speed skater. He became the first American to win the world speed-skating championship, and he retained the h1 for three years (1977–79). In the 1980 Winter Olympics he became the first person to win gold medals in all five speed-skating events. He later turned to competitive cycling.

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Arthur Stanley Eddington.

(born Dec. 28, 1882, Kendal, Westmorland, Eng.—died Nov. 22, 1944, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) British astronomer, physicist, and mathematician. At the University of Cambridge he won every mathematical honour. He was chief assistant at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich (1906–13); in 1914 he became director of the Cambridge observatory. Religious and pacifistic, he declared that the world's meaning could not be discovered by science. His greatest contributions were in astrophysics, where his studies included stellar structure, subatomic sources of stellar energy, white dwarf stars, and diffuse matter in interstellar space. His philosophical ideas led him to believe that unifying quantum theory and general relativity would permit the calculation of certain universal constants.

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(born Dec. 5, 1875, Napperton, Ont., Can.—died Nov. 30, 1933, Montreal, Que.) Canadian military leader. He was a businessman in Victoria, B.C., before enlisting in the militia. Given command of a battalion in 1914, he won distinction in several battles of World War I; within three years he was promoted to lieutenant general and given command of the four divisions of the Canadian Corps. After the war he served as the first general in the Canadian army. In 1920 he became principal and vice chancellor of McGill University.

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Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, detail of a portrait by H.L. Gates, 1927; in the National Portrait Gallery, elipsis

(born May 22, 1859, Edinburgh, Scot.—died July 7, 1930, Crowborough, Sussex, Eng.) Scottish writer. He became a doctor and practiced until 1891, studying with Dr. Joseph Bell, who was the model for his fictional detective, Sherlock Holmes. Conan Doyle was knighted for his medical work in the second South African War and his public defense of the war. Holmes first appeared in “A Study in Scarlet” (1887). Collections of Holmes stories began with The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (1892). Tiring of Holmes, Conan Doyle devised his death in 1893, only to be forced by public demand to restore him to life. His other Holmes novels include The Sign of Four (1890), The Hound of the Baskervilles (1902), and The Valley of Fear (1915). His historical romances include The White Company (1890). Late in life, Conan Doyle devoted himself to spiritualism.

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(born Sept. 10, 1892, Wooster, Ohio, U.S.—died March 15, 1962, Berkeley, Calif.) U.S. physicist. He taught at the University of Chicago (1923–45) and later served as chancellor (1945–54) and professor (1953–61) at Washington University. He is best known for his discovery and explanation of the Compton effect, for which he shared with C.T.R. Wilson the 1927 Nobel Prize for Physics. He was later instrumental in initiating the Manhattan Project, and he directed the development of the first nuclear reactors.

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(born Oct. 5, 1829, North Fairfield, Vt., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1886, New York, N.Y) 21st president of the U.S. (1881–85). He practiced law in New York City from 1854, later becoming a close associate of Sen. Roscoe Conkling, the Republican boss of New York. With Conkling's backing, he was appointed customs collector for the port of New York (1871–78), an office long known for its use of the spoils system. He conducted the business of the office with integrity but continued to pad its payroll with Conkling loyalists. At the Republican national convention in 1880, Arthur was the compromise choice for vice president on a ticket with James Garfield; he became president on Garfield's assassination. As president, Arthur displayed unexpected independence by vetoing measures that rewarded political patronage. He also signed the Pendleton Civil Service Act, which created a civil-service system based on merit. He and his navy secretary recommended appropriations that later helped transform the U.S. Navy into one of the world's great fleets. He failed to win his party's nomination for a second term.

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(born March 18, 1869, Birmingham, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Nov. 9, 1940, Heckfield, near Reading, Hampshire) British prime minister (1937–40). Son of Joseph Chamberlain and half brother of Austen Chamberlain, he prospered in the metalworking industry in Birmingham; as the city's lord mayor (1915–16) he organized England's first municipal bank. He was a member of the House of Commons (1918–40), during which he served in Conservative governments as minister of health and chancellor of the Exchequer. As prime minister (1937–40), he sought to prevent the outbreak of a general European war over Adolf Hitler's demand that Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland to Germany. In 1938 he and France's Édouard Daladier granted most of Hitler's demands in the Munich agreement, after which he returned to England a popular hero, speaking of “peace in our time.” He repudiated appeasement after Hitler seized the rest of Czechoslovakia, and when Germany attacked Poland, he declared war. He lost the support of many Conservatives after the failure of a British expedition to Norway and resigned in 1940.

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(born Dec. 7, 1888, Londonderry, Ire.—died March 29, 1957, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.) British novelist. Cary studied art in Edinburgh and Paris before graduating from the University of Oxford. After serving in West Africa in World War I, he began publishing short stories, then novels, some set in Africa, including An American Visitor (1933) and Mister Johnson (1939). The Horse's Mouth (1944), his best-known novel, was the third in a trilogy in which each volume is narrated by one of three protagonists. Other works include a second trilogy, A Prisoner of Grace (1952), Except the Lord (1953), and Not Honour More (1955).

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(born Aug. 2, 1891, London, Eng.—died March 27, 1975, London) British composer. He studied with Ralph Vaughan Williams and Gustav Holst. Though he was compositionally adventurous at first, he later adopted a conservative, Romantic style. His works include A Colour Symphony (1922), Pastoral (1928), the choral symphony Morning Heroes (1930), Music for Strings (1936), and the ballets Checkmate (1937) and Miracle in the Gorbals (1944).

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Bertrand Russell, 1960

(born May 18, 1872, Trelleck, Monmouthshire, Eng.—died Feb. 2, 1970, near Penrhyndeudraeth, Merioneth, Wales) British logician and philosopher. He is best known for his work in mathematical logic and for his advocacy on behalf of a variety of social and political causes, especially pacifism and nuclear disarmament. He was born into the British nobility as the grandson of Earl Russell, who was twice prime minister of Britain in the mid-19th century. He studied mathematics and philosophy at Cambridge University, where he came under the influence of the idealist philosopher J.M.E. McTaggart, though he soon rejected idealism in favour of an extreme Platonic realism. In an early paper, “On Denoting” (1905), he solved a notorious puzzle in the philosophy of language by showing how phrases such as “The present king of France,” which have no referents, function logically as general statements rather than as proper names. Russell later regarded this discovery, which came to be known as the “theory of descriptions,” as one of his most important contributions to philosophy. In The Principles of Mathematics (1903) and the epochal Principia Mathematica (3 vol., 1910–13), which he wrote with Alfred North Whitehead, he sought to demonstrate that the whole of mathematics derives from logic. For his pacifism in World War I he lost his lectureship at Cambridge and was later imprisoned. (He would abandon pacifism in 1939 in the face of Nazi aggression.) Russell's best-developed metaphysical doctrine, logical atomism, strongly influenced the school of logical positivism. His later philosophical works include The Analysis of Mind (1921), The Analysis of Matter (1927), and Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits (1948). His A History of Western Philosophy (1945), which he wrote for a popular audience, became a best-seller and was for many years the main source of his income. Among his many works on social and political topics are Roads to Freedom (1918); The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism (1920), a scathing critique of Soviet communism; On Education (1926); and Marriage and Morals (1929). In part because of the controversial views he espoused in the latter work, he was prevented from accepting a teaching position at the City College of New York in 1940. After World War II he became a leader in the worldwide campaign for nuclear disarmament, serving as first president of the international Pugwash Conferences on nuclear weapons and world security and of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. In 1961, at the age of 89, he was imprisoned for a second time for inciting civil disobedience. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950.

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(born Sept. 16, 1881, East Shefford, Berkshire, Eng.—died Sept. 17, 1964, London) British art critic. He studied at Cambridge University and in Paris. In 1907 he married Vanessa Stephen, sister of Virginia Woolf; with Virginia's husband, Leonard Woolf, and Roger Fry, they formed the core of the Bloomsbury group. Bell's most important aesthetic ideas were published in Art (1914) and Since Cézanne (1922), in which he promoted his theory of “significant form” (the quality that distinguishes works of art from all other objects). His assertion that art appreciation involves an emotional response to purely formal qualities, independent of subject matter, was influential for several decades.

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Arthur James Balfour, circa 1900.

(born July 25, 1848, Whittinghame, East Lothian, Scot.—died March 19, 1930, Woking, Surrey, Eng.) British statesman. The nephew of the marquess of Salisbury, Balfour served in Parliament (1874–1911) and in his uncle's government as secretary for Ireland (1887–91). From 1891 he was the Conservative Party's leader in Parliament and succeeded his uncle as prime minister (1902–05). He helped form the Entente Cordiale (1904). His most famous action came in 1917 when, as foreign secretary (1916–19), he wrote the so-called Balfour Declaration, which expressed official British approval of Zionism. He served as lord president of the council (1919–22, 1925–29) and drafted the Balfour Report (1926), which defined relations between Britain and the dominions expressed in the Statute of Westminster.

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James Baldwin

(born Aug. 2, 1924, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 1, 1987, Saint-Paul, France) U.S. essayist, novelist, and playwright. He grew up in poverty in the New York City district of Harlem and became a preacher while in his teens. After 1948 he lived alternately in France and the U.S. His semiautobiographical first novel, Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), regarded as his finest, was followed by the essay collections Notes of a Native Son (1955) and Nobody Knows My Name (1961); the novels Giovanni's Room (1956), a story of homosexual life, and Another Country (1962); the long polemical essay The Fire Next Time (1963), prophesying widespread racial violence; and the play Blues for Mister Charlie (produced 1964). His eloquence and passion on the subject of race made him for years perhaps the country's most prominent black writer.

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(born July 10, 1943, Richmond, Va., U.S.—died Feb. 6, 1993, New York, N.Y.) U.S. tennis player. He won his first grand-slam singles h1 (the 1968 U.S. Open) as an amateur. The first African American member of the U.S. Davis Cup team, he helped win five championships (1963, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1978). In 1975 he won the Wimbledon singles h1 and received World Championship Tennis top ranking. He retired in 1980 and became captain of the U.S. Davis Cup team (to 1985). Off the court he was a critic of racial injustice, including South Africa's apartheid policy. In 1992 he revealed that he had been infected with HIV by a transfusion following surgery, and he thereafter devoted time to increasing public awareness of AIDS. The U.S. Open is now played at Arthur Ashe Stadium, which opened at the National Tennis Center in Flushing, N.Y., in 1997.

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(born Oct. 5, 1829, North Fairfield, Vt., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1886, New York, N.Y) 21st president of the U.S. (1881–85). He practiced law in New York City from 1854, later becoming a close associate of Sen. Roscoe Conkling, the Republican boss of New York. With Conkling's backing, he was appointed customs collector for the port of New York (1871–78), an office long known for its use of the spoils system. He conducted the business of the office with integrity but continued to pad its payroll with Conkling loyalists. At the Republican national convention in 1880, Arthur was the compromise choice for vice president on a ticket with James Garfield; he became president on Garfield's assassination. As president, Arthur displayed unexpected independence by vetoing measures that rewarded political patronage. He also signed the Pendleton Civil Service Act, which created a civil-service system based on merit. He and his navy secretary recommended appropriations that later helped transform the U.S. Navy into one of the world's great fleets. He failed to win his party's nomination for a second term.

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(born Feb. 28, 1865, Milford Haven, Pembrokeshire, Eng.—died Jan. 22, 1945, Wittersham, Kent) English poet and critic. He contributed to The Yellow Book, an avant-garde journal, and edited The Savoy (1896). His Symbolist Movement in Literature (1899), the first English work championing the French Symbolist movement in poetry, summed up a decade of interpretation and influenced William Butler Yeats and T.S. Eliot. His poetry, mainly disillusioned in feeling, appears in such volumes as Silhouettes (1892) and London Nights (1895). He also translated the poetry of Paul Verlaine and wrote travel pieces. After a nervous breakdown in 1908, he produced little apart from Confessions (1930), a moving account of his illness.

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(born May 1, 1769, Dublin, Ire.—died Sept. 14, 1852, Walmer Castle, Kent, Eng.) British general. Son of the Irish earl of Mornington, he entered the army in 1787 and served in the Irish Parliament (1790–97). Sent to India in 1796, he commanded troops to victories in the Maratha War (1803). Back in England, he served in the British House of Commons and as chief secretary in Ireland (1807–09). Commanding British troops in the Peninsular War, he won battles against the French in Portugal and Spain and invaded France to win the war in 1814, for which he was promoted to field marshal and created a duke. After Napoleon renewed the war against the European powers, the “Iron Duke” commanded the Allied armies to victory at the Battle of Waterloo (1815). Richly rewarded by English and foreign sovereigns, he became one of the most honoured men in Europe. After commanding the army of occupation in France (1815–18) and serving in the Tory cabinet as master general of ordnance (1818–27), he served as prime minister (1828–30), but he was forced to resign after opposing any parliamentary reform. He was honoured on his death by a monumental funeral and burial in St. Paul's Cathedral alongside Horatio Nelson.

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(born Oct. 13, 1909, Toledo, Ohio, U.S.—died Nov. 5, 1956, Los Angeles, Calif.) U.S. jazz pianist. Tatum was blind from birth. Influenced by Fats Waller and Earl Hines, his playing represents a synthesis of stride and swing piano traditions. He developed an unprecedented technical and harmonic control on the instrument and was capable of astonishing speed and intricate elaborations of melody. By 1937 he was recognized as the outstanding pianist in jazz. He formed a trio with guitar and bass in 1943 but frequently made solo performances that showcased his unique mastery.

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(born May 22, 1786, Northampton, Mass., U.S.—died July 23, 1865, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. merchant and philanthropist. He operated various businesses, including a silk-importing firm in New York (1826–37) with his brother Lewis Tappan (1788–1873); they also founded the first commercial credit-rating service (1841). He used his wealth to support missionary societies and the abolitionist crusade, helping found the American Anti-Slavery Society and serving as its first president (1833–40). After breaking with William Lloyd Garrison, he created the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (1840). The Tappan brothers later supported the Underground Railroad.

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(born July 22, 1892, Stannern, near Iglau, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary—died Oct. 16, 1946, Nürnberg, Ger.) Austrian Nazi leader. He served in the Austro-Hungarian army during World War I and was seriously wounded. Later a lawyer in Vienna, he became a leader of the moderate faction of the Austrian Nazis and served on the federal council of state (1937–38). In response to German pressure, he was named minister of interior and security and then replaced Kurt von Schuschnigg as chancellor (1938). He welcomed the Anschluss by Germany and became governor of the Austrian administration (1938–39). In World War II he was German high commissioner of The Netherlands (1940–45) and carried out the Nazi policy against Dutch Jews. He was tried at the Nürnberg trials and executed as a war criminal.

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Arthur Schopenhauer, 1855.

(born Feb. 22, 1788, Danzig, Prussia—died Sept. 21, 1860, Frankfurt am Main) German philosopher. His father was a banker and his mother a novelist. He studied in several fields before earning his doctorate in philosophy. He regarded the Upanishads, together with the works of Plato and Immanuel Kant, as the foundation of his philosophical system, a metaphysical doctrine of the will developed in reaction to the idealism of G.W.F. Hegel. His magnum opus, The World as Will and Representation (1819), consists of two comprehensive series of reflections on the theory of knowledge and the philosophy of nature, aesthetics, and ethics. By turning away from spirit and reason to the powers of intuition, creativity, and the irrational, he influenced (partly via Friedrich Nietzsche) the ideas and methods of vitalism, life philosophy, existentialism, and anthropology. His other works include On the Will in Nature (1836), The Two Main Problems of Ethics (1841), and Parerga and Paralipomena (1851). An unhappy and solitary man, his works earned him the sobriquet “the philosopher of pessimism.”

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(born May 15, 1862, Vienna, Austria—died Oct. 21, 1931, Vienna) Austrian playwright and novelist. Schnitzler practiced medicine in Vienna most of his life, and he also studied psychiatry. He became known for his psychological dramas and for his fearlessness in depicting the erotic lives of his characters, beginning with the early play Anatol (1893). His best-known play, Reigen (Merry-Go-Round, 1897), was a cycle of 10 dramatic dialogues that traced the links connecting the partners in a series of sexual encounters; considered scandalous when first performed in 1920, it was filmed as La Ronde by Max Ophüls in 1950. His drama Playing with Love (1896) and his most successful novel, None but the Brave (1901), revealed the hollowness of the Austrian military code of honour.

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(born July 10, 1943, Richmond, Va., U.S.—died Feb. 6, 1993, New York, N.Y.) U.S. tennis player. He won his first grand-slam singles h1 (the 1968 U.S. Open) as an amateur. The first African American member of the U.S. Davis Cup team, he helped win five championships (1963, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1978). In 1975 he won the Wimbledon singles h1 and received World Championship Tennis top ranking. He retired in 1980 and became captain of the U.S. Davis Cup team (to 1985). Off the court he was a critic of racial injustice, including South Africa's apartheid policy. In 1992 he revealed that he had been infected with HIV by a transfusion following surgery, and he thereafter devoted time to increasing public awareness of AIDS. The U.S. Open is now played at Arthur Ashe Stadium, which opened at the National Tennis Center in Flushing, N.Y., in 1997.

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(born Sept. 19, 1867, London, Eng.—died Sept. 6, 1939, Limpsfield, Surrey) British artist and illustrator. While a staff artist for a London newspaper, he also began illustrating books. He became skillful using the new halftone process, and his highly detailed drawings revealed a unique imagination. He achieved renown with a 1900 edition of Grimm's Fairy Tales, and his illustrations for Rip Van Winkle (1905) brought him recognition in America as well. Altogether he illustrated more than 60 books, including classics of children's literature as well as works by William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, John Milton, Richard Wagner, and Edgar Allan Poe.

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(born March 27, 1934, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. dancer, choreographer, and director of the Dance Theatre of Harlem. He studied at the High School for the Performing Arts in New York City. He began dancing in Broadway musicals and worked with several ballet companies before joining the New York City Ballet in 1956 as its first African American dancer. He created roles in several of George Balanchine's ballets, including A Midsummer Night's Dream (1962) and Agon (1967), before leaving the company in 1972. In 1968 he cofounded a ballet school, and its company, the Dance Theatre of Harlem, made its debut in 1971. He has continued as its director and choreographer.

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Arthur Miller, photograph by Inge Morath

(born Oct. 17, 1915, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 10, 2005, Roxbury, Conn.) U.S. playwright. He began writing plays while a student at the University of Michigan. His first important play, All My Sons (1947), was followed by his most famous work, Death of a Salesman (1949, Pulitzer Prize), the tragedy of a man destroyed by false values that are in large part the values of his society. Noted for combining social awareness with a searching concern for his characters' inner lives, Miller wrote many other plays, including The Crucible (1953), which uses a plot about the Salem witch trials to attack McCarthyism, A View from the Bridge (1955), After the Fall (1964), The Last Yankee (1992), and Resurrection Blues (2002). He also wrote short stories, essays, and the screenplay for The Misfits (1961), which starred his second wife, Marilyn Monroe.

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(born March 3, 1918, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—died Oct. 26, 2007, Stanford, Calif.) U.S. biochemist and physician. He studied at the University of Rochester. In 1959 he joined the faculty at Stanford University. While studying how living organisms manufacture nucleotides, his research led him to the problem of how nucleotides are strung together to form DNA molecules. Adding radioactive nucleotides to an enzyme mixture prepared from cultures of E. coli, he found evidence of a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme that adds nucleotides to a preexisting DNA chain. He was the first to accomplish the cell-free synthesis of DNA. He shared a 1959 Nobel Prize with Severo Ochoa. His son Roger D. Kornberg won the 2006 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

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(born Sept. 5, 1905, Budapest, Hung.—found dead March 3, 1983, London, Eng.) Hungarian-British novelist, journalist, and critic. He is best known for Darkness at Noon (1940); a political novel examining the moral danger in a totalitarian system that sacrifices means to an end, it reflects the events leading to his break with the Communist Party and his experience as a correspondent imprisoned by the fascists in the Spanish Civil War. He also wrote of his break with the party in the essay collection The God That Failed (1949). His later works, mostly concerning science and philosophy, include The Act of Creation (1964) and The Ghost in the Machine (1967). Suffering from leukemia and Parkinson's disease and believing in voluntary euthanasia, he died with his wife in a suicide pact.

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(born March 10, 1892, Le Havre, France—died Nov. 27, 1955, Paris) French composer. Born to Swiss-French parents, he studied in Zürich, then at the Paris Conservatory. One of the group known as Les Six, though not truly in sympathy with its aims, he first gained international renown for his oratorio Le Roi David (1921). His exciting orchestral piece Pacific 231 (1923), portraying a locomotive, caused a sensation. Prolific throughout his life, he composed five symphonies (including Symphony No. 3 known as Liturgique, for the end of World War II), the oratorio Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher (1938), and numerous scores for ballet, theatre, and films (including Abel Gance's Napoleon).

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(born Sept. 10, 1892, Wooster, Ohio, U.S.—died March 15, 1962, Berkeley, Calif.) U.S. physicist. He taught at the University of Chicago (1923–45) and later served as chancellor (1945–54) and professor (1953–61) at Washington University. He is best known for his discovery and explanation of the Compton effect, for which he shared with C.T.R. Wilson the 1927 Nobel Prize for Physics. He was later instrumental in initiating the Manhattan Project, and he directed the development of the first nuclear reactors.

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(born March 22, 1884, Grand Rapids, Mich., U.S.—died April 18, 1951, Grand Rapids) U.S. politician. Editor of the Grand Rapids Herald (1906–28), he was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate (1928–51). He was a critic of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt's foreign policy but revised his isolationist position after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In a 1945 Senate speech he advocated U.S. participation in international alliances, and he was a delegate to the UN organizing conference. He led Republican congressional support for legislative measures introduced by Pres. Harry Truman, including the Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, and NATO.

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(born March 31, 1871, Dublin, Ire.—died Aug. 12, 1922, Dublin) Irish journalist and nationalist, principal founder of Sinn Féin. As a young man, he edited political newspapers and urged passive resistance to British rule. He lost influence with the extreme nationalists when he did not participate in the Easter Rising (1916) but regained it when the British jailed him with other Sinn Féin members. In 1918 the Irish members of the House of Commons declared a republic and chose Eamon de Valera as president and Griffith as vice president. In 1921 Griffith led the Irish delegation to the self-government treaty conference and was the first Irish delegate to accept partition, embodied in the Anglo-Irish Treaty (1921). When the Dáil narrowly approved it in 1922, de Valera resigned and Griffith was elected president. Exhausted from overwork, he died soon after.

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(born Dec. 17, 1894, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died July 10, 1979, Brookline, Mass.) U.S. conductor. Son of a distinguished violinist, he was trained in Berlin and joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1915. In the 1920s he began conducting and recording with his own Boston Sinfonietta and various choral groups. In 1929 he organized a series of open-air concerts, which was successful enough to eventually become an institution, the Boston Pops. Thereafter his name was inextricably linked with the Pops, which achieved enormous success under his direction.

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Arthur is a village in Douglas County and Moultrie County in Illinois; Arthur's primary street, Vine Street, is the county line. The population was 2,203 at the 2000 census. The Arthur area is home to the largest and oldest Amish community in Illinois, which was founded in the 1860s.

Geography

Arthur is located at (39.715323, -88.470071).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.3 square miles (3.3 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,203 people, 915 households, and 619 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,726.7 people per square mile (664.5/km²). There were 951 housing units at an average density of 745.4/sq mi (286.9/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 99.64% White, 0.05% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.05% Asian, and 0.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.27% of the population.

There were 915 households out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.3% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.90.

In the village the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, and 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 86.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $37,438, and the median income for a family was $47,827. Males had a median income of $32,358 versus $20,948 for females. The per capita income for the village was $19,683. About 4.6% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.8% of those under age 18 and 4.4% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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