(literally "formation of joint
") is an operative procedure of orthopaedic surgery
performed, in which the arthritic or dysfunctional joint surface is replaced with something better or by remodeling or realigning the joint by osteotomy
or some other procedure. Previously, a popular form of arthroplasty was interpositional arthroplasty
with interposition of some other tissue
to keep inflammatory
surfaces apart or excisional arthroplasty
in which the joint surface and bone was removed leaving scar
tissue to fill in the gap. Other forms of arthroplasty include resection(al) arthroplasty
, resurfacing arthroplasty
, mold arthroplasty
, cup arthroplasty
, silicone replacement arthroplasty
, etc. Osteotomy to restore or modify joint congruity is also an arthroplasty.
For the last 45 years the most successful and common form of arthroplasty is the surgical replacement of arthritic or destructive or necrotic joint or joint surface with prosthesis. For example a hip joint that is affected by osteoarthritis may be replaced entirely (total hip arthroplasty) with a prosthetic hip. This would involve replacing both the acetabulum (hip socket) and the head and neck of the femur. The purpose of this procedure is to relieve pain, to restore range of motion and to improve walking ability, thus leading to the improvement of muscle strength.
Indications for arthroplasty include: