Patients with end stage renal failure are treated with hemodialysis. In dialysis, blood is withdrawn from an artery or vein, purified, and returned to a vein. The volume of blood is too great for veins to handle, so a vein must be enlarged. An artery and vein, usually in the arm above or below the elbow, are sewn together, to create a fistula, and arterial pressure eventually enlarges the vein. The enlarged vein can accommodate a cannula or large needle.
Normal blood flow in the brachial artery is 85 to 110 milliliters per minute (mL/min). After the creation of a fistula, the blood flow increases to 400 to 500 mL/min immediately, and 700 to 1,000 mL/min within 1 month. A bracheocephalic fistula above the elbow has a greater flow rate than a radiocephalic fistula at the wrist. Both the artery and the vein dilate and elongate in response to the greater blood flow and shear stress, but the vein dilates more and becomes "arterialized". In one study, the cephalic vein increased from 2.3 mm to 6.3 mm diameter after 2 months. When the vein is large enough to allow cannulation, the fistula is defined as "mature."
"Far-Infrared Radiation in Use of Improving Patency of Arteriovenous Fistula, Decreasing Failure of Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation, and Preventing And/ Or Ameliorating Peripheral Artery Diseases" In
Nov 30, 2012; By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Health & Medicine Week -- A patent application by the inventors LIN, Chih-Ching (New...