They were established in 1926 and played in the Doncaster Senior League before joining the Northern Counties East Football League Division Two North in 1983. In their first season, they finished 2nd in Division 1 North, a league reshuffle moved Armthorpe into Division 1 Central, Armthorpe were champions of this division and were promoted up to the Premier Division. In 1988, Armthorpe missed out on the league title on goal difference to Emley. They have remained in the Premier Division ever since.
In the FA Cup, Armthorpe's best performance was in 1986-87, reaching the 3rd Qualifying Round.
In the FA Vase, Arnthorpe reached the 3rd Round in 1984-85.
Armthorpe won the West Riding Challenge Cup in 1982 and 1983.
They are currently members of the Northern Counties East Football League Premier Division.