Armstrong

Armstrong

[ahrm-strawng]
Armstrong, Edwin Howard, 1890-1954, American engineer and radio inventor, b. New York City, grad. Columbia (E.E. 1913). He was associated in research with Michael I. Pupin at Columbia and became professor there in 1934. Armstrong received numerous awards for his contributions to the development of radio, which include the invention of the regenerative circuit (1912); the superheterodyne circuit (1918), the basic circuit of nearly all modern radio receivers; the superregenerative circuit (1920); and wideband frequency modulation (FM) system (1925-33). In 1947 he received the Medal of Merit for his contributions to military communications during World War II.
Armstrong, Henry, 1912-88, American boxer, b. Columbus, Miss. He was originally named Henry Jackson. He began his professional career in 1931, and soon became known as a strong and tireless puncher. Armstrong won the featherweight championship from Petey Sarron in 1936, the welterweight title from Barney Ross in 1938, and in his next fight (10 weeks later) he defeated Lou Ambers to win the lightweight crown. He thus held three titles simultaneously; this prompted the National Boxing Association to rule that a champion must vacate a title if he wins another. In his career (1931-45), Armstrong won 144 matches, scored 97 knockouts, and lost 19 fights. After his retirement he was ordained a minister and devoted himself to helping underprivileged youth; Youthtown at Desert Wells, Ariz., was built through his efforts.

See his autobiography (1956).

Armstrong, John, 1717?-1795, American pioneer, known as the "hero of Kittanning," b. Co. Fermanagh, Ireland. He laid out the town of Carlisle, Pa. In 1756 he led the expedition that destroyed Kittanning, a town of the Delaware on the Allegheny. Later he was a major general in the American Revolution and a member of the Second Continental Congress.
Armstrong, John, 1758-1843, American army officer, U.S. Secretary of War (1813-14), b. Carlisle, Pa.; son of John Armstrong, "hero of Kittanning." In the American Revolution he was on the staff of Horatio Gates. In 1783, Armstrong wrote the "Newburgh Addresses," or "Newburgh Letters"; these anonymously issued appeals urged the restive Continental officers to force Congress to pay salary arrears and adjust other grievances. General Washington denounced the appeals, and the officers soon followed his lead. After marriage (1789) to Alida, sister of Robert R. Livingston, Armstrong moved to Red Hook, N.Y., and became a political supporter of George Clinton and De Witt Clinton. He was U.S. Senator (1800-1802, 1803-4), minister to France (1804-10), and then Secretary of War. In the War of 1812 he was held responsible for the disasters of 1813-14, notably the failure of the expedition to Canada and the British capture of the city of Washington. He resigned in public disfavor. Armstrong wrote Notices of the War of 1812 (1836-40), biographies of Richard Montgomery and Anthony Wayne, and other books.
Armstrong, Lance, 1971-, American cyclist, b. Dallas, Tex. He won (1991) the U.S. amateur cycling championship, turned professional (1992), and by the mid-1990s had won the Tour DuPont twice and was being hailed as the finest U.S. cyclist. In 1996, however, he was diagnosed with testicular cancer, which had spread extensively. Given a 50% chance of survival, he underwent surgery and chemotherapy. In one of the more impressive comebacks in sports history, he returned (1998) to cycling and reached the pinnacle of the sport with seven consecutive victories (1999-2005) in the Tour de France, the sport's toughest and most prestigious race. He also won a bronze medal in the time trial at the 2000 Olympics. Accusations in 2005 that he had engaged in blood doping in 1999 were denied by Armstrong and disputed in 2006 by an International Cycling Union investigation, which found no evidence to support the charges. In 2006, however, two former teammates of Armstrong said that they had engaged in blood doping in 1999 but that they had not seen Armstrong engage in the practice. Armstrong, who had retired from professional racing in 2005, resumed his career in 2009.

See his memoirs, It's Not about the Bike: My Journey Back to Life (2000) and Every Second Counts (2003); D. Coyles, Lance Armstrong's War (2005).

Armstrong, Louis (Daniel Louis Armstrong), known as "Satchmo" and "Pops," 1901-1971, American jazz trumpet virtuoso, singer, and bandleader, b. New Orleans. He learned to play the cornet in the band of the Waif's Home in New Orleans, and after playing with Kid Ory's orchestra he made several trips (1918-21) with a Mississippi riverboat band. He joined (1922) King Oliver's group in Chicago, where he met and married the pianist Lilian Hardin. His early playing was noted for improvisation, and his reputation as trumpeter and as vocalist was quickly established. A famous innovator, Armstrong was a major influence on the melodic development of jazz in the 1920s; because of him solo performance attained a position of great importance in jazz. He organized several large bands, worked with most of the masters of jazz (and with many of those in other musical forms), and beginning in 1932 made numerous foreign tours. Armstrong appeared in Broadway shows, at countless jazz festivals, and in several American and foreign films. His archives are housed at Queens College, which also maintains his Queens, N.Y., home as a museum.

See his memoir, Satchmo: My Life in New Orleans (1954, repr. 1986); his selected writings ed. by T. Brothers (1999); biographies by G. Giddens (1988), L. Bergreen (1997), and T. Teachout (2009); study by J. L. Collier (2 vol., 1983-86); J. Berrett, Louis Armstrong Companion (1999).

Armstrong, Neil Alden, 1930-, American astronaut, b. Wapakoneta, Ohio, grad. Purdue Univ. A U.S. Navy fighter pilot during the Korean War, Armstrong became a test pilot for what was then the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in 1955. In 1962, already a veteran of the X-15, Armstrong became a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronaut and served as command pilot of the Gemini 8 mission. As commander of Apollo 11 (July 16-24, 1969), he was the first person (July 20 EDST) to set foot on the moon, saying: "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind" (the "a" was apparently lost in transmission due to static). Armstrong taught aeronautical engineering at the Univ. of Cincinnati from 1971 to 1979. In 1985, President Reagan appointed him to the National Commission on Space and in 1986 named him vice chairman of the panel that investigated the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger earlier that year.

See his First on the Moon (1970), written with G. Farmer and D. Hamblin; biography by J. R. Hansen (2005).

Armstrong, Samuel Chapman, 1839-93, American educator, philanthropist, and soldier, b. Hawaiian Islands, of missionary parents, grad. Williams, 1862. He served in the Union army in the Civil War, rising to the rank of major general. Appointed an agent of the Freedmen's Bureau in Virginia, he quickly realized the need for vocational training for emancipated slaves and persuaded the American Missionary Association to found, in 1868, the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, now the Hampton Institute. Because of Armstrong's interest, Native Americans were later admitted to the institution, which he headed until his death. Armstrong's ideas, particularly on the need for vocational training, influenced Booker T. Washington.

See biography by E. A. Talbot (new ed. 1969); F. G. Peabody, Education for Life (1918), a history of Hampton Institute.

Neil Armstrong, 1969.

(born Aug. 5, 1930, Wapakoneta, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. astronaut. He became a pilot at 16, studied aeronautical engineering, and won three Air Medals in the Korean War. In 1955 he became a civilian research pilot for the forerunner of NASA. He joined the space program in 1962 with the second group of astronauts. In 1966, as command pilot of Gemini 8, he and David Scott completed the first manual space docking maneuver, with an unmanned Agena rocket. On July 20, 1969, as part of the Apollo 11 mission, he became the first person to step onto the Moon, proclaiming “That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.”

Learn more about Armstrong, Neil (Alden) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 18, 1971, Plano, Texas, U.S.) American cyclist and the first rider to win seven Tour de France h1s (1999–2005). Armstrong began his professional cycling career in 1992 when he joined the Motorola team. He won stages of the Tour de France in 1993 and 1995 but withdrew from three of four Tours he attempted from 1993 to 1996. After the 1996 Tour, Armstrong fell ill, suffering from testicular cancer that had spread to his lungs and brain. Months of treatments followed before he could attempt his comeback. In 1998 he won the Tour of Luxembourg, and on July 25, 1999, he became the second American to win the Tour de France and the first to win it for an American team (three-time winner Greg LeMond had raced with European teams). In 2003 Armstrong won his fifth consecutive Tour de France, tying a record set by Miguel Indurain, and the following year he broke the record with his sixth consecutive win. After winning his seventh Tour in 2005, Armstrong announced his retirement.

Learn more about Armstrong, Lance with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 26, 1893, Sandbach, Cheshire, Eng.—died Sept. 7, 1979, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire) English critic and poet. While a lecturer at Cambridge, Richards wrote influential works, including Principles of Literary Criticism (1924), in which he introduced a new way of reading poetry that led to the New Criticism. A student of psychology, he concluded that poetry performs a therapeutic function by coordinating various human impulses into an aesthetic whole. In the 1930s he spent much of his time developing Basic English, a language system of 850 basic words that he believed would promote international understanding. He taught at Harvard University from 1944.

Learn more about Richards, I(vor) A(rmstrong) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

George Armstrong Custer.

(born Dec. 5, 1839, New Rumley, Ohio, U.S.—died June 25, 1876, Little Bighorn River, Montana Territory) U.S. cavalry officer. He graduated from West Point and at age 23 became a brigadier general. His vigorous pursuit of Confederate troops under Gen. Robert E. Lee in retreat from Richmond hastened Lee's surrender in 1865. In 1874 he led U.S. troops to investigate rumours of gold in South Dakota's Black Hills, a sacred Indian hunting ground. The resulting gold rush led to hostile encounters with the Indians. In 1876 the 36-year-old Custer commanded one of two columns of a planned attack against Indians camped near Montana's Little Bighorn River. He rashly decided to attack without the other column, and in the Battle of the Little Bighorn he and all his troops were killed.

Learn more about Custer, George Armstrong with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 18, 1890, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 31/Feb. 1, 1954, New York City) U.S. inventor. He studied at Columbia University, where he devised a feedback circuit that brought in signals with a thousandfold amplification (1912). At its highest amplification, the circuit shifted from being a receiver to being a primary generator of radio waves, and as such it is at the heart of all radio and television broadcasting. It earned him the Franklin Medal, the highest U.S. scientific honour. His 1933 invention of circuits that produced the carrier waves for frequency modulation (FM) made high-fidelity broadcasting possible.

Learn more about Armstrong, Edwin H(oward) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

George Armstrong Custer.

(born Dec. 5, 1839, New Rumley, Ohio, U.S.—died June 25, 1876, Little Bighorn River, Montana Territory) U.S. cavalry officer. He graduated from West Point and at age 23 became a brigadier general. His vigorous pursuit of Confederate troops under Gen. Robert E. Lee in retreat from Richmond hastened Lee's surrender in 1865. In 1874 he led U.S. troops to investigate rumours of gold in South Dakota's Black Hills, a sacred Indian hunting ground. The resulting gold rush led to hostile encounters with the Indians. In 1876 the 36-year-old Custer commanded one of two columns of a planned attack against Indians camped near Montana's Little Bighorn River. He rashly decided to attack without the other column, and in the Battle of the Little Bighorn he and all his troops were killed.

Learn more about Custer, George Armstrong with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Neil Armstrong, 1969.

(born Aug. 5, 1930, Wapakoneta, Ohio, U.S.) U.S. astronaut. He became a pilot at 16, studied aeronautical engineering, and won three Air Medals in the Korean War. In 1955 he became a civilian research pilot for the forerunner of NASA. He joined the space program in 1962 with the second group of astronauts. In 1966, as command pilot of Gemini 8, he and David Scott completed the first manual space docking maneuver, with an unmanned Agena rocket. On July 20, 1969, as part of the Apollo 11 mission, he became the first person to step onto the Moon, proclaiming “That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.”

Learn more about Armstrong, Neil (Alden) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 18, 1971, Plano, Texas, U.S.) American cyclist and the first rider to win seven Tour de France h1s (1999–2005). Armstrong began his professional cycling career in 1992 when he joined the Motorola team. He won stages of the Tour de France in 1993 and 1995 but withdrew from three of four Tours he attempted from 1993 to 1996. After the 1996 Tour, Armstrong fell ill, suffering from testicular cancer that had spread to his lungs and brain. Months of treatments followed before he could attempt his comeback. In 1998 he won the Tour of Luxembourg, and on July 25, 1999, he became the second American to win the Tour de France and the first to win it for an American team (three-time winner Greg LeMond had raced with European teams). In 2003 Armstrong won his fifth consecutive Tour de France, tying a record set by Miguel Indurain, and the following year he broke the record with his sixth consecutive win. After winning his seventh Tour in 2005, Armstrong announced his retirement.

Learn more about Armstrong, Lance with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 18, 1890, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 31/Feb. 1, 1954, New York City) U.S. inventor. He studied at Columbia University, where he devised a feedback circuit that brought in signals with a thousandfold amplification (1912). At its highest amplification, the circuit shifted from being a receiver to being a primary generator of radio waves, and as such it is at the heart of all radio and television broadcasting. It earned him the Franklin Medal, the highest U.S. scientific honour. His 1933 invention of circuits that produced the carrier waves for frequency modulation (FM) made high-fidelity broadcasting possible.

Learn more about Armstrong, Edwin H(oward) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Armstrong is a city in Emmet County, Iowa, United States. The population was 979 at the 2000 census. It was originally known as Armstrong Grove.

Geography

Armstrong is located at (43.395722, -94.480750).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.8 square miles (2.1 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 979 people, 422 households, and 268 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,192.7 people per square mile (461.0/km²). There were 456 housing units at an average density of 555.5/sq mi (214.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 98.88% White, 0.20% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.10% from other races, and 0.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.31% of the population.

There were 422 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 5.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.3% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.83.

In the city the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 21.1% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 25.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,446, and the median income for a family was $45,563. Males had a median income of $31,210 versus $19,732 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,221. About 3.0% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.1% of those under age 18 and 16.5% of those age 65 or over.

Historical Timeline

  • 1856--Thomas Armstrong first arrived in area to trap
  • 1859--Emmet County Organized
  • 1864--First Permanent settlers arrived in Armstrong Grove
  • 1872--First Fourth of July celebration held
  • 1883--'Armstrong's Grove' post office became 'Armstrong'
  • 1891--Site for town of Armstrong chosen
  • 1892--First locomotive arrived in Armstrong
  • 1893--Town of Armstrong incorporated
  • 1894--First Schoolhouse erected & fire dept organized
  • 1896--First waterworks&telephone systems
  • 1903--Gaslights put in business area & Opera House opened
  • 1913--Electricity came to Armstrong
  • 1916--Brick School replaced 1894 building
  • 1939--Armstrong's first swimming pool opened
  • 1945--Armstrong Public Library founded
  • 1956--Art's Way's first plant in downtown area
  • 1960--Opera House demolished to expand City Park
  • 1962--New Post Office dedicated
  • 1964--Old R.R. Depot torn down
  • 1965--Doug Pfeil opens Teen A-Go-Go on Main Street
  • 1969--New library and park shelterhouse built
  • 1988--Dean Irmiter graduates from Armstrong-Ringsted High School
  • 1989--Armstrong Heritage Museum founded
  • 1993--Armstrong centennial celebration
  • 2001--St. Mary's Catholic Church lowered 18 inches
  • 2001--Old First Trust Bank building and East Side Cafe torn down for new Bank Midwest building
  • 2003--Elementary building built in 1915 torn down to build new Junior High
  • 2007--Wind storm knocks down tree that destroys park equipment at City Park
  • 2007--Armstrong-Ringsted High School finishes second in 8-Man Football at the Iowa High School Athletic Association State Tournament. It is the first state tournament appearance for ARHS.

References

External links

Search another word or see Armstrongon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature