Arabian horse

Earliest improved breed of horse, valued for its speed, stamina, beauty, intelligence, and gentleness. Its long history has been obscured by legend, but it was developed in Arabia by the 7th century AD. It has contributed its qualities to most modern breeds of light horses. It is compact and relatively small, with a small head, protruding eyes, wide nostrils, marked withers, and a short back. Its average height is about 15 hands (60 in. [152 cm]), its average weight 800–1,000 lbs (360–450 kg). Though many colours are possible, gray is the most common.

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Northwestern part of the Indian Ocean, lying between India and the Arabian Peninsula. It has an area of about 1,491,000 sq miles (3,862,000 sq km) and an average depth of 8,970 feet (2,734 m). The Gulf of Oman connects it with the Persian Gulf via the Strait of Hormuz, while the Gulf of Aden connects it with the Red Sea via the Strait of Mandeb. The Indus is the principal river draining into the Arabian Sea. Socotra, Lakshadweep, and other islands lie within it. Chief ports are Mumbai (Bombay), India; Karachi, Pak.; and Aden, Yemen. The sea has been part of the principal trade route between Europe and India for centuries.

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or Arabia

Peninsular region, southwest Asia. With its offshore islands, it covers about 1 million sq mi (2.6 million sq km). Constituent countries are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, and, the largest, Saudi Arabia. It is generally arid and is covered almost entirely by the Arabian Desert. The modern economy is dominated by the production of petroleum and natural gas. The world's largest proven reserves of petroleum are in the Arabian Peninsula. It was the focal point for the origins and development of the Islamic faith in the 7th century AD. Political consolidation of the region was begun by the Prophet Muhammad, and it was the centre of the caliphate until 661, when that office passed to the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus. After 1517 much of the region was dominated by the Ottoman Empire, though the peninsula's people, who had remained largely tribal and nomadic, revolted repeatedly until World War I (1914–18), when the Ottoman Empire dissolved. Thereafter, individual nation-states followed their own histories, though many maintained close ties with European powers such as the United Kingdom.

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or Gulf War

(1990–91) International conflict triggered by Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. Though justified by Iraqi leader Ssubdotaddām Hsubdotussein on grounds that Kuwait was historically part of Iraq, the invasion was presumed to be motivated by Iraq's desire to acquire Kuwait's rich oil fields and expand its power in the region. The United States, fearing Iraq's broader strategic intentions and acting under UN auspices, eventually formed a broad coalition, which included a number of Arab countries, and began massing troops in northern Saudi Arabia. When Iraq ignored a UN Security Council deadline for it to withdraw from Kuwait, the coalition began a large-scale air offensive (Jan. 16–17, 1991). Ssubdotaddām responded by launching ballistic missiles against neighbouring coalition states as well as Israel. A ground offensive by the coalition (February 24–28) quickly achieved victory. Estimates of Iraqi military deaths range up to 100,000; coalition forces lost about 300 troops. The war also caused extensive damage to the region's environment. The Iraqi regime subsequently faced widespread popular uprisings, which it brutally suppressed. A UN trade embargo remained in effect after the end of the conflict, pending Iraq's compliance with the terms of the armistice. The foremost term was that Iraq destroy its nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons programs. The embargo continued into the 21st century and ceased only after the Iraq War started in 2003.

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Arm of the Arabian Sea. It is about 615 mi (990 km) long and rarely exceeds a depth of 300 ft (90 m). It is connected with the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea through the Strait of Hormuz. It contains the island kingdom of Bahrain and is bordered by Iran, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, and Iraq. It has long been a maritime trade route between the Middle East and South Asia; its modern economy is dominated by petroleum production.

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The Rubayn al-Khali sand desert, most of which lies within Saudi Arabia.

Desert region, Arabian Peninsula. It covers about 900,000 sq mi (2,330,000 sq km), occupying nearly the entire peninsula. It lies largely within Saudi Arabia but large portions extend into Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. Its relief is broken by a number of mountain ranges, with elevations reaching as high as 12,000 ft (3,700 m), and it is bounded on three sides by high escarpments. At least one-third of the desert is covered by sand, including the Rubayn al-Khali, considered to have one of the most inhospitable climates on Earth. There are no perennial bodies of water, though the Tigris-Euphrates river system lies to the northeast and the Wadi Hsubdotajr is located to the south, in Yemen. Humans have inhabited the area since Pleistocene times.

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The Anglo-Arabian horse is a Thoroughbred (prefix Anglo) crossed with an Arabian horse. The cross can be made between a Thoroughbred stallion and Arabian mare, or vice-versa. It can also be a cross between a Thoroughbred and an Anglo-Arab, an Arabian and an Anglo-Arab, or between two Anglo-Arabians. No matter what the cross, the Anglo-Arabian must have at least 12.5% percent Arabian blood to be considered an Anglo-Arabian.

France is one of the greatest producers of Anglo-Arabians. The French Anglo-Arabian has traced back to two stallions: Massoud (an Arabian), and Aslam (a Turkish horse). Imported from Syria, they were crossed with three imported English Thoroughbreds: Comus Mare, Daer, and Selim Mare. Their three daughters, Clovis, Danae, and Delphine became the foundation stock of France's breeding program. The Pompadour National Anglo Arab Stud, part of the French National Stud, is at Château de Pompadour in Arnac-Pompadour, Corrèze. It also has influenced France's main sport horse breed: the Selle Francais.

The Anglo-Arabian has been used by the military, as well as a general riding and sport horse. The breed is also excellent at eventing, with the stamina, jumping ability, and speed. In the United States, the Anglo-Arabian is considered a partbred Arabian horse and is registered in a separate section within the Arabian Horse Association.

Breed Characteristics

As a result of the different crosses that can be made to produce an Anglo-Arabian, their size and appearance is variable, though on average a bit taller than the average Arabian and of somewhat less refined type. The largest horses are usually produced by breeding a Thoroughbred mare to an Arabian stallion. The best examples of this breed inherit the refinement, bone, endurance and stamina of the Arabian, and the speed and scope of the Thoroughbred.

The horses are usually 15.2-16.3 hands high (62 to 69 inches at the withers), and mainly chestnut, bay (sometimes called "brown") or gray. The best of the breed have more of an Arabian-type conformation, though they should not look entirely like either a Thoroughbred or an Arabian. They have a long neck, prominent withers, a short and strong body (more sturdy than the Thoroughbred), and a deep chest. They have fine heads, although not overly dished in profile, and have strong bone.

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