Bees appear in recent classifications to be a specialized lineage of crabronid wasps that switched to the use of pollen and nectar as larval food, rather than insect prey; this presumably makes Crabronidae a paraphyletic group. Accordingly, bees and sphecoids are now all grouped together in a single superfamily, and the older available name is "Apoidea" rather than "Sphecoidea" (which, like Spheciformes, has been used in the past, but also defined a paraphyletic group and has been abandoned).
As the bees themselves (not including their wasp ancestors) are still considered a monophyletic group, it is still convenient to use a grouping between superfamily and family to unify all bees. A few recent classifications have addressed this problem by lumping all bee families together into a single large family Apidae, though this has not met with widespread acceptance. The alternative classification in more common use is to unite all bees under the name Anthophila (Engel, 2005), which is equivalent to the obsolete name Apiformes (which meant bee-like forms in Latin).
MORPHOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, AND ANTIQUITY OF MELITTOSPHEX BURMENSIS (APOIDEA: MELITTOSPHECIDAE) AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY BEE EVOLUTION
Sep 01, 2011; ABSTRACT - Melittosphex burmensis (Melittosphecidae) is an important apoid fossil from middle Cretaceous (~100 Ma) amber from...
Disribution patterns of species of the Meliponini (hymenoptera: apoidea: apidae) tribe in Mexico/ Patrones de distribucion de las especies de la tribu Meliponini (hymenoptera: apoidea: apidae) en Mexico/ Padroes de distribuicao das especies da tribu Meliponini (hymenoptera: apoidea: apidae) no Mexico.(REPORTS/ COMUNICIONES/ COMUNICACOES)
Jan 01, 2008; SUMMARY Based on the comparison of 43 individual tracks, distributional patterns of Meliponini in Mexico were analyzed by...