Antonio

Antonio

Gaudí i Cornet, Antonio, 1852-1926, Spanish architect. Working mainly in Barcelona, he created startling new architectural forms that paralleled the stylistic development of art nouveau or modernismo. Many of his buildings resemble sculptural configurations; examples are the bizarre structures in the Park Güell (1900-1914) and the undulating facades of the Casa Battló (1905-7) and the Casa Milá (1905-10). Gaudí also introduced color into his facades. Improvising designs from odd bits of material, such as rubble, bricks, and polychrome tiles, he achieved variegated effects, evoking comparisons to abstract expressionism and surrealism. Gaudí is as remarkable for his innovations in technology as for his aesthetic audacity. He ingeniously constructed various devices that enabled him to achieve his unusual building shapes; he is particularly admired for his use of the hyperbolic paraboloid form. The Expiatory Church of the Holy Family (begun 1882) represents the height of Gaudí's achievements. It was never completed, and work continues on the structure.

See biography by G. van Hensbergen (2001); G. R. Collins A Bibliography of Gaudí and the Catalan Movement (1973). See also studies by J. Bergós (1947, tr. 1999); G. Collins (1970), C. Martinelli (1982), G. Sterner (1985), and J. Rohrer et al. (1988).

Genovesi, Antonio, 1712-69, Italian philosopher and economist, a pioneer in writing philosophy in Italian instead of in Latin. Genovesi introduced new ideas, particularly those of Locke, Leibniz, and Hume into Italy, and this introduction was bitterly opposed by the scholastics. In his works he strove for a balancing of idealism and sensualism. His book Lezioni di commercio (1765), the first inclusive work on Italian economics, stressed human wants as the basis of economic theory.
Diabelli, Antonio, 1781-1858, Austrian music publisher. He published works by Beethoven and Schubert and composed the waltz theme of Beethoven's Diabelli Variations.
López de Santa Anna, Antonio: see Santa Anna, Antonio López de.
Sant' Elia, Antonio, 1888-1916, Italian architect. Associated with the movement known as futurism, he created visionary drawings of futurist houses that he likened to gigantic machines. His projects for urban complexes suggest the functional architecture of the 1920s. He died on the battlefield before his plans could be realized.
Moro, Antonio, c.1519-c.1575, Flemish portrait painter, known as Antonis Mor or Moor and as Sir Anthony More. He studied with Jan van Scorel. In 1547 he was a free master at Antwerp and by 1549 was employed as a court painter to the house of Hapsburg. In the early 1550s he visited Italy, Spain, Portugal, and London, painting state portraits, including a famous one of Mary Tudor (1554; Prado). In his later years, while maintaining a house at Utrecht, Moro traveled widely and made additional trips to Italy and Spain. Influenced by Titian, he in turn had a strong effect upon the development of international court portraiture. His figures exhibit an incisive characterization, strong modeling and sharp lighting, and a careful attention to details, textures, and finished surfaces. His portrait subjects include William of Orange (1556; Cassel), Alessandro Farnese (1557; Parma), the artist Hubert Goltzius (1576; Brussels), and a self-portrait (1559; Uffizi).
Guzmán Blanco, Antonio, 1829-99, president of Venezuela, a caudillo who dominated the nation from 1870 to 1888. Son of the founder of the Liberal party, Guzmán Blanco was a magnetic and energetic figure with considerable diplomatic and administrative ability. He became a general in the revolution that deposed José Antonio Páez and was vice president (1863-68) in the Liberal administration that followed. In 1870 he led a successful counterrevolution against Monagas and was elected president. A benevolent despot, he alternately suppressed and supported the Church; he was a foe of civil liberties but made free education compulsory; he reformed governmental administration and instituted many public works that brought material advancement to Venezuela. The egocentric Guzmán Blanco filled Venezuela with portraits and statues of himself. Several times he relinquished his office to make diplomatic and pleasure trips to Europe but kept control of the country through presidential puppets, notably Joaquín Crespo. In 1888, when he was abroad, his power was destroyed by revolution. He spent the rest of his life in Paris.

See biography by G. S. Wise (1951, repr. 1970).

Aliotta, Antonio, 1881-1964, Italian philosopher, b. Salerno. He taught at the universities of Padua and Naples. He wrote a critical analysis of contemporary philosophy, The Idealistic Reaction Against Science (1912, tr. 1914), and then became identified with pragmatism, primarily in opposition to the idealism of Benedetto Croce and Giovanni Gentile. His complete works, in Italian, were published in 7 volumes (1949-54).
Nariño, Antonio, 1765-1823, Colombian revolutionary. A liberal intellectual, Nariño was one of the first to foment revolution against Spain in South America. For secretly translating and distributing copies of The Declaration of the Rights of Man he was condemned to prison (1795), but escaped to France and then to England, returning (1797) to New Granada to continue secret agitation. Arrested, he was released, imprisoned again, and, after an escape, confined at Cartagena. He was freed by the revolutionaries and, returning to Bogotá, became (Sept., 1811) president of Cundinamarca, one of the independent states formed after the dissolution of the vice-royalty of New Granada. Advocating strong central government as the only way of preserving independence, Nariño was opposed by the military juntas of other states, which desired simply a loose federation. He was involved in civil wars with the federalists until he was granted dictatorial powers and succeeded in uniting the patriot forces to repel a royalist invasion. He drove the Spanish from Popayán, but was defeated (May, 1814) at Pasto. He surrendered himself but not his army and was later imprisoned for four years in Cádiz. He was released by Spanish revolutionaries in 1820 and returned to aid Simón Bolívar, who made him vice president of the greater republic of Colombia (1821), but he resigned two months later. Often vilified for his stubborn adherence to his own opinions, Nariño was not recognized until many years later as one of the greatest and most self-sacrificing of the early advocates of independence.

See biography by T. Blossom (1967).

Fogazzaro, Antonio, 1842-1911, Italian novelist and poet. His first work was a verse romance, Miranda (1874). Primarily concerned with moral issues, he was particularly adept at depicting character. His famous novel Malombra (1881, tr. The Woman, 1907) reveals the conflict between the spiritual and the sensual. Piccolo mondo antico (1896, tr. The Patriot, 1906) explores the synthesis of an agnostic wife's moral sense and her husband's deep religious faith; it is considered one of the great Italian novels of the 19th cent. Its sequels were Piccolo mondo moderno (1901, tr. The Sinner, 1907), Il santo (1905, tr. The Saint, 1906), and Leila (1911). Because of their sharp comments on religion and ethics, the last two novels were placed on the Vatican Index, a list of works forbidden to Roman Catholics.
Salandra, Antonio, 1853-1931, Italian premier (1914-16). He entered parliament as a moderate conservative (1886), held various cabinet posts from 1891 to 1910, and succeeded Giolitti as premier in 1914. He initially declared Italian neutrality in World War I but undertook active military preparations. After the failure of his negotiations with Austria, he signed the Treaty of London (1915) with Great Britain, France, and Russia, denounced the Triple Alliance, and finally declared war on Austria. He resigned in 1916 after the Italian retreat in the Trentino. Salandra was a delegate at the Paris Peace Conference (1919) and was the Italian delegate to the League of Nations. He at first supported Fascism, but then opposed it. In 1928, however, he was made a senator.
Salieri, Antonio, 1750-1825, Italian composer and conductor. He received his first training in Italy, going afterward (1766) to Vienna, where he remained as conductor of the opera and later (1788-1824) as court conductor. He was a friend of Haydn, and he taught Beethoven, Schubert, and Liszt. Mozart, however, distrusted him and believed that Salieri tried to poison him. Though Mozart's claim was never substantiated, an opera by Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Mozart et Salieri (1898) and a play by Peter Shaffer, Amadeus (1979; filmed 1984) have depicted Salieri as treacherously jealous of Mozart's genius. The most successful of his 43 operas were Les Danaïdes (1784) and Tarare (1787). He also wrote instrumental pieces and church music.
Magliabechi, Antonio, 1633-1714, Italian librarian, b. Florence. Magliabechi was a trained goldsmith who devoted his life to learning, and mastered Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. He became known throughout Europe for his prodigious memory. In 1673 he was appointed court librarian by Cosimo III de' Medici, grand duke of Tuscany. At his death Magliabechi bequeathed his library of 30,000 volumes to the grand duke, who gave it to the city of Florence, where it now forms part of the National Library.
Scotti, Antonio, 1866-1936, Italian operatic baritone. He made his American debut in Chicago in 1899. From 1899 to 1933 he was immensely popular at the Metropolitan Opera, both for his acting and for his vocal artistry. Among his outstanding roles were Iago in Otello; Scarpia, a role he created, in La Tosca; and Hans Sachs in Die Meistersinger.
Frasconi, Antonio, 1919-, American graphic artist, b. Montevideo, Uruguay. Frasconi emigrated to the United States in 1945, where he has had an influential and revitalizing effect on the art of woodblock printing. His gaily colored, forceful prints of everyday scenes and activities are in many public and private collections. He has designed covers for books, magazines, and records. Among his illustrated books are See and Say (1955), Frasconi Woodcuts (1958), A Whitman Portrait (1960), and A Kaleidoscope in Woodcuts (1968).
Canal, Antonio: see Canaletto.
Canova, Antonio, 1757-1822, Italian sculptor. He was a leading exponent of the neoclassical school whose influence on the art of his time was enormous. Canova's monumental statues and bas-reliefs are executed with extreme grace, polish, and purity of contour. His first important commission was the monument (1782-87) to Clement XIV in the Church of the Apostles, Rome, followed by that to Clement XIII (completed 1792) in St. Peter's. He then received numerous major commissions from many countries. An admirer of Napoleon, Canova executed a bust of the emperor from life and several other portraits, including two where Napoleon is represented nude in the guise of a Roman emperor. His statue (1820) of George Washington for the statehouse at Raleigh, N.C. (destroyed), was dressed in Roman armor. Canova's memorabilia, consisting of sketches, casts, a few oil paintings, and a voluminous correspondence, are divided between the Gipsoteca in Possagno, his birthplace, and the Civic Museum in Bassano.
Cánovas del Castillo, Antonio, 1828-97, Spanish conservative politician, historian, and man of letters. During Spain's recurrent political crises from 1868 to 1874, he took the lead in advocating the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy. When Alfonso XII was proclaimed (1875) king, Cánovas established a regency ministry and became premier for six years (with short interruptions in 1875 and 1879) thereafter. He was the driving force behind the constitution of 1876, which created a conservative parliamentary monarchy with restricted suffrage. He managed to conciliate the Carlists and the Catholics, and to further stabilize the monarchy, he worked out a political arrangement that rotated power between his conservatives and the Liberal party. After 1881 he alternated as premier with the Liberal leader, Sagasta. Politically dominant for two decades, Cánovas began to experience serious difficulties with the rise of working-class opposition and, after 1895, the insurrection in Cuba. He was unsuccessfully attempting to deal with the latter when he was assassinated by an anarchist. The editor of Historia general de España (18 vol., 1891-97), he also wrote several historical and critical works, and must be considered the greatest Spanish statesman of the late 19th cent.
Rosmini-Serbati, Antonio, 1797-1855, Italian theologian. Ordained a priest in 1821, he attempted to establish a philosophical system based on Roman Catholicism but incorporating modern political and social ideas. Politically, he believed in a form of Italian nationalism in which the pope would head the combined states as a perpetual president. He founded (1828) the Institute of the Brethren of Charity (Rosminians), whose members were laymen and clergy devoted to education and charity, a movement that spread to England and the United States. In 1830, Rosmini wrote Nuovo saggio sull origine delle idee (tr. Origin of Ideas, 1883-86), which presented some of his basic philosophical beliefs. In 1848 his Cinque piaghe della Santa Chiesa (tr. The Five Wounds of the Holy Church, 1883) appeared. This book aroused instant opposition, particularly from the Jesuits, and it was placed on the Index, although later released.

See J. F. Bruno, Rosmini's Contribution to Ethical Philosophy (1916); biography by C. Leetham (1959).

Rossellino, Antonio, 1427-c.1478, Florentine sculptor, whose name was Antonio di Matteo di Domenico Gambarelli. He was the youngest and most celebrated of four brothers, of whom the eldest was the architect Bernardo Rossellino, who designed the Rucellai Palace and who carved the sculpture for Leonardo Bruni's tomb in Santa Croce, Florence. Antonio was well known for his tomb monuments. In such works as his monument to the cardinal of Portugal in San Miniato al Monte (Florence) and the tomb of Mary of Aragon (Naples), he created masterful combinations of sculpture and architecture. He carved vigorous portraits, such as those of Matteo Palmieri (Bargello Mus., Florence) and Giovanni Chellini (Victoria and Albert Mus., London). Rossellino also produced many picturesque reliefs, exemplified by the Nativity (Mt. Oliveto, Naples) and scenes for the cathedral pulpit at Prato. Two Madonnas in the Metropolitan Museum and the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City, are ascribed to him as well.
Vieira, Antonio, 1608-97, Portuguese Jesuit orator and missionary. Born in Lisbon, he grew up in Brazil. He was sent by the Jesuits to Portugal to salute the new king, John IV, and there he became court preacher and an ambassador. Returning (1652) to Brazil as a missionary, he championed the exploited natives until he was expelled by the colonists. Back in Portugal he experienced varying fortunes and was imprisoned (1665-67) by the Inquisition. Vieira spent the years 1669-75 in Rome, where he was papal preacher and pled for the persecuted Jews of Portugal. In 1681 he returned to Portugal. His voluminous letters and sermons are couched in a classical although occasionally florid style, and his gracefully flowing phrases are quite vivid. He is now generally considered the foremost prose writer of 17th-century Portugal as well as one of the great preachers of his day.
Villaraigosa, Antonio, 1953-, American politician, b. Los Angeles as Antonio Villar; he changed his name in 1987 when he married Corina Raigosa. A liberal Democrat and labor lawyer, he was elected to the California state assembly in 1994, becoming majority leader in 1996 and assembly speaker in 1998. In 2001 he was a candidate for mayor of Los Angeles but lost to James Hahn. He won a Los Angeles city council seat in 2003, and two years later he defeated Hahn to become the city's first Hispanic mayor since 1872.
Segni, Antonio, 1891-1972, Italian political leader. A lawyer, he entered national politics in 1919 as a leader of the Popular party, the forerunner of the Christian Democratic party. For many years he was a professor at various universities. After World War II he was elected to the constituent assembly and then to parliament in 1948. He held numerous ministerial posts, serving twice as premier (1955-57, 1959-60). Elected president of Italy in 1962 he resigned in Dec., 1964, after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage.
García Gutiérrez, Antonio, 1813?-1884, Spanish romantic playwright. He was a soldier when his best-known play, El trovador, was staged in 1836. This play and his Simón Bocanegra (1843) were adapted by Verdi for the operas Il Trovatore (1852) and Simon Boccanegra (two versions: 1857 and 1881). His last major plays were Venganze catalana (1864) and his masterpiece Juan Lorenzo (1865).
Vivaldi, Antonio, 1678-1741, Italian composer. He was the greatest master of Italian baroque, particularly of violin music and the concerto grosso. Vivaldi received his early training from his father, a violinist at St. Mark's, Venice, and later studied with Giovanni Legrenzi. Ordained a priest in 1703, Vivaldi spent most of his life after 1709 in Venice, teaching and playing the violin and writing music for the Pietà, one of Venice's four music conservatories for orphaned girls. Although he produced quantities of vocal music (including 46 operas), he is remembered chiefly for his instrumental music—sonatas; concerti grossi, including four famous ones known as The Four Seasons; and 447 concertos for violin and other instruments. Vivaldi's style is characterized by driving rhythm, clarity, and lyrical melody. He helped standardize the three-movement concerto form later used by J. S. Bach and others. Vivaldi's brilliant allegros and impassioned slow movements were greatly admired by Bach, who arranged 10 of the solo concertos for other instruments. After Vivaldi's death his music was forgotten, but in the early 20th cent. his works were rediscovered.

See biographies by W. Kolneder (tr. 1971) and A. Kendall (exp. ed. 1989).

Maura y Montaner, Antonio, 1853-1925, Spanish politician. He entered the Cortes in 1881 as a liberal but later joined the Conservative party. As premier (1903-4, 1907-9), he attempted to carry through an ambitious but reactionary program for reform (a "revolution from above"), but he was fiercely opposed by the liberals. He fell from power after the brutal suppression of an uprising in Barcelona in 1909 (caused by the call-up of Catalan troops to fight in Morocco). His great abilities and authoritarian personality made him the hero of a semi-Fascistic youth movement. But when he later (1918, 1919, 1921-22) headed coalition cabinets, he did nothing to advance non-democratic solutions. Although many of his followers joined the Primo de Riveira dictatorship, he personally isolated himself from it.
Machado, Antonio, 1875-1939, Spanish poet of the Generation of '98. He spent most of his life in Castile and his best poetry was influenced by its sober and dramatic landscape. His Poesías completas appeared in 1936. Forced to leave Spain because of his support of the Loyalist cause during the Spanish civil war, he crossed the Pyrenees on foot and died in France a month later. With his brother, the poet Manuel Machado (1874-1947), he also wrote plays and translated Rostand's L'Aiglon and Hugo's Hernani.

See studies by H. T. Young (1964) and C. W. Cobb (1972).

Stradivari, Antonio, or Antonius Stradivarius, 1644-1737, Italian violin maker of Cremona; pupil of Niccolò Amati. He was apprenticed to Amati c.1658 and may have remained with him until Amati's death in 1684. Stradivari's earliest extant label is dated 1666 and his last 1737. His finest instruments were made after 1700. He produced at least 1,116 instruments, of which 540 violins, 12 violas, and 50 cellos were known. He also made fine viols, guitars, and mandolins. His workmanship brought the violin to perfection, and later artisans have tried to imitate his instruments. His commissions included those from James II of England and Charles III of Spain. Many of his instruments have acquired names, often for buyers or players, e.g., the violins the Paganini (1680), the Viotti (1709), the Lipinski (1715), and the Khevenhüller (1733) and the cello the Davidov (1712), now played by Yo-Yo Ma. Two of Stradivari's sons, Francesco Stradivari (1671-1743) and Omobono Stradivari (1679-1742), worked with him and continued the craft after his death, producing a number of fine instruments.

See studies by A. E. and W. H. Hill (1902) and H. K. Goodkind (1973); T. Faber, Stradivari's Genius (2005).

Gramsci, Antonio, 1891-1937, Italian political leader and theoretician. Originally a member of the Socialist party and a cofounder (1919) of the left-wing paper L'Ordine Nuovo, Gramsci helped to establish (1921) the Italian Communist party. When Benito Mussolini outlawed the party, Gramsci was imprisoned (1926-37). His posthumously published prison writings, Lettere del carcere (1947), present his theory of hegemony, which explains how a dominant class controls society and emphasizes a less dogmatic form of Communism that many intellectuals preferred to the increasingly ossified version represented by the former Soviet Union.
Zucchi, Antonio, 1726-95, Venetian painter. Robert and James Adam made Zucchi's acquaintance in Venice, traveled with him in Italy, and persuaded him (c.1766) to come to England to collaborate in their architectural works. Zucchi executed many wall and ceiling decorations for their interiors, notably at Syon House. He was elected associate of the Royal Academy in 1770. In 1781 he married the Swiss painter Angelica Kauffmann and moved with her to Italy, where he spent the rest of his life.
Pérez, Antonio, b. 1534 or 1539, d. 1611, Spanish politician. Ambitious and unscrupulous, he became secretary to King Philip II and was, with the princesa de Éboli, a center of court intrigues. In 1578, Juan de Escobedo, secretary to Don John of Austria, then governor of the Netherlands, was assassinated, and the following year Pérez was arrested for the murder. What actually happened is a matter of historical speculation, but the most probable train of events is that Perez instigated the murder after Escobedo threatened to reveal Pérez's political intrigues (possibly the fact that he was negotiating with the Dutch rebels) to the king. The suspicious Philip was probably told by Pérez that Escobedo was plotting treason, and the king almost certainly approved the murder. Pérez was prosecuted on various charges until in 1590 he fled to Zaragoza, where he placed himself in the hands of the top authority of his native Aragón, the justiciero. He then openly accused Philip of having ordered Escobedo's murder. The king contested the right of the justiciero to protect him and ordered the Inquisition to claim jurisdiction, accusing Pérez of heresy. The case became a struggle between Philip and the people of Aragón, who, jealous of their privileges, sided with Pérez and revolted; the rising was ruthlessly suppressed (1591). Pérez fled (1591) to France and later England.

See biography by G. Marañón (tr. 1955).

Caldara, Antonio, c.1670-1736, Italian composer. In 1714, Caldara obtained a position at the imperial court in Vienna, where he remained until his death. He composed many operas and oratorios, other sacred and secular vocal music, and chamber works. His canons were especially popular. Franz Joseph Haydn was influenced by Caldara.

(born Feb. 18, 1745, Como, Lombardy—died March 5, 1827, Como) Italian scientist. In 1775 he invented the electrophorus, a device used to generate static electricity. He taught physics at the University of Pavia (1779–1804). After Luigi Galvani in 1780 produced an electric current by connecting two different metals with the muscle of a frog, Volta began experimenting in 1794 with metals alone and found that animal tissue was not needed to produce current. He demonstrated the first electric battery in 1800. In 1801 he demonstrated the battery's generation of current before Napoleon, who made him a count and senator of the kingdom of Lombardy. In 1815 he was appointed director of the philosophical faculty at the University of Padua. The volt was named in his honour in 1881.

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(born March 4, 1678, Venice, Republic of Venice—died July 28, 1741, Vienna, Austria) Italian composer. He was taught violin by his father. In 1703 he was ordained a priest (and later became known as the “Red Priest” for his red hair). He spent most of his career teaching violin and leading the orchestra at a Venetian girls' orphanage. After circa 1718 he became more involved in opera as both composer and impresario. His concertos were highly influential in setting the genre's three-movement (fast-slow-fast) form, with a returning theme (ritornello) for the larger group set off by contrasting material for the soloists, and he popularized effects such as pizzicato and muting. His L'estro armonico (1711), a collection of concerti grossi, attracted international attention. His La stravaganza (circa 1714) was eagerly awaited, as were its successors, including The Four Seasons (1725). In all he wrote more than 500 concertos. His most popular sacred vocal work is the Gloria (1708). Though often accused of repeating himself, Vivaldi was in fact highly imaginative, and his works exercised a strong influence on Johann Sebastian Bach.

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(born 1644?, Cremona, Duchy of Milan—died Dec. 18, 1737, Cremona) Italian musical-instrument maker. An apprentice of Nicolò Amati (from circa 1666), he established his own business in Cremona, eventually working with his sons Francesco (1671–1743) and Omobono (1679–1742). Though he made other instruments (including harps, lutes, mandolins, and guitars), few survive, and after 1680 he concentrated on violins. Moving away from the Amati style, he developed (circa 1690) the “long Strad.” The Stradivari method of violin making created a standard for subsequent times; he devised the modern form of the violin bridge and set the proportions of the modern violin, with its shallower body that yields a more powerful and penetrating tone than earlier violins. The period 1700–20 is considered the peak of his productivity and quality.

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City (pop., 2000: 1,144,646), south-central Texas, U.S. It is situated at the headwaters of the San Antonio River. Founded in 1718 by the Spanish as a mission on the site of a Coahuiltecan Indian village, it was laid out as a town in 1731. The mission, called the Alamo, became a military post in 1794; it was the site of a historic siege in 1836. In the late 19th century, as the starting point of the Chisholm Trail, the town became a major cattle centre. Military installations, especially for aviation and aerospace, spurred the city's rapid growth after 1940. The economy is now diversified—government, business, manufacturing, education, and tourism are all important aspects of San Antonio's growth.

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(born Aug. 18, 1750, Legnago, Republic of Venice—died May 7, 1825, Vienna, Austria) Italian composer. He moved to Vienna in 1766 with the imperial court composer Florian Gassmann (1729–74), and he remained there most of his career. On Gassmann's death, Salieri became composer and conductor of the Italian opera at the imperial court, and later court kapellmeister (1788). Vienna's most popular opera composer for much of the last quarter of the 18th century, he had many important students, including Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, and Franz Liszt. In addition to his more than 40 operas, he wrote much other secular and sacred music. Though he and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were rivals, there is no basis to the story that he poisoned Mozart, and it is unlikely that he claimed to have done so.

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(born Dec. 22, 1858, Lucca, Tuscany—died Nov. 29, 1924, Brussels, Belg.) Italian composer. Born into a family of organists and choirmasters, he was inspired to write operas after hearing Giuseppe Verdi's Aïda in 1876. At the Milan Conservatory he studied with Amilcare Ponchielli (1834–86). Puccini entered his first opera, Le villi (1883), in a competition; though it lost, a group of his friends subsidized its production, and its premiere took place with immense success. His second, Edgar (1889), was a failure, but Manon Lescaut (1893) brought him international recognition. His mature operas included La Bohème (1896), Tosca (1900), Madam Butterfly (1904), and The Girl of the Golden West (1910). All four are tragic love stories; his use of the orchestra was refined, and he established a dramatic structure that balanced action and conflict with moments of repose, contemplation, and lyricism. They remained exceedingly popular into the 21st century. He was the most popular opera composer in the world at the time of his death; his unfinished Turandot was completed by Franco Alfano (1875–1954).

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(born Feb. 11, 1938, Panama City, Pan.) Panamanian general who was the actual power behind a civilian president. Born into a poor family, he attended military school in Peru and joined Panama's National Guard on his return. As chief of military intelligence in the 1970s, he cooperated with the Central Intelligence Agency and negotiated the release of U.S. freighter crews held by Cuba, but he was tainted by persistent reports of drug trafficking and brutality. In 1989, as head of the armed forces, he canceled election results that displeased him. The U.S. government then invaded Panama, primarily to capture Noriega. He was brought to trial in the U.S., convicted of racketeering, drug trafficking, and money laundering, and sentenced to 40 years in prison. His jail term was later reduced. Noriega completed his sentence on Sept. 9, 2007, but he remained in prison as he appealed his extradition to France, where in 1999 he had been tried in absentia and convicted of money laundering and other crimes.

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(baptized May 15, 1567, Cremona, Duchy of Milan—died Nov. 29, 1643, Venice) Italian composer. The first of his nine books of madrigals appeared in 1587, the second in 1590. He visited the court of the Gonzagas in Mantua, and his next book (1592) shows freer use of dissonance and close coordination of music and words. He married in 1599 and settled in Mantua. Attacked in 1600 for the even freer dissonance in his newest works, he replied that music now had two “practices,” the stricter first practice for sacred works and the more expressive second practice for secular music. It was his first opera, Orfeo, performed in 1607, that finally established him as a composer of large-scale music rather than of exquisite miniature works. In 1610 he completed his great Vespers. Having long tried to obtain his release from Mantua, he was finally granted it in 1612, and the next year he was put in charge of music at San Marco Basilica, Venice. After the first opera house opened in Venice (1637), he wrote his last three operas, including Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria (1640) and the remarkable Incoronazione di Poppea (1643). Monteverdi is the first great figure of Baroque music, a remarkable innovator who synthesized the elements of the new style to create the first Baroque masterpieces of both sacred and secular music.

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(born Jan. 23, 1891, Ales, Sardinia—died April 27, 1937, Rome, Italy) Italian intellectual and politician. After entering the University of Turin, he joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1914. In 1921 he left the Socialists to found the Italian Communist Party (see Democratic Party of the Left), and he spent two years in the Soviet Union. In 1924 he became head of the party and was elected to the national legislature. The party was outlawed by the fascist government of Benito Mussolini in 1926, and Gramsci was arrested and imprisoned for 11 years; in poor health, he was released to die at 46. His influential Letters from Prison (1947) and other writings outline a version of communism less dogmatic than Soviet communism. His work has influenced sociology, political theory, and international relations.

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(born Dec. 22, 1858, Lucca, Tuscany—died Nov. 29, 1924, Brussels, Belg.) Italian composer. Born into a family of organists and choirmasters, he was inspired to write operas after hearing Giuseppe Verdi's Aïda in 1876. At the Milan Conservatory he studied with Amilcare Ponchielli (1834–86). Puccini entered his first opera, Le villi (1883), in a competition; though it lost, a group of his friends subsidized its production, and its premiere took place with immense success. His second, Edgar (1889), was a failure, but Manon Lescaut (1893) brought him international recognition. His mature operas included La Bohème (1896), Tosca (1900), Madam Butterfly (1904), and The Girl of the Golden West (1910). All four are tragic love stories; his use of the orchestra was refined, and he established a dramatic structure that balanced action and conflict with moments of repose, contemplation, and lyricism. They remained exceedingly popular into the 21st century. He was the most popular opera composer in the world at the time of his death; his unfinished Turandot was completed by Franco Alfano (1875–1954).

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(baptized May 15, 1567, Cremona, Duchy of Milan—died Nov. 29, 1643, Venice) Italian composer. The first of his nine books of madrigals appeared in 1587, the second in 1590. He visited the court of the Gonzagas in Mantua, and his next book (1592) shows freer use of dissonance and close coordination of music and words. He married in 1599 and settled in Mantua. Attacked in 1600 for the even freer dissonance in his newest works, he replied that music now had two “practices,” the stricter first practice for sacred works and the more expressive second practice for secular music. It was his first opera, Orfeo, performed in 1607, that finally established him as a composer of large-scale music rather than of exquisite miniature works. In 1610 he completed his great Vespers. Having long tried to obtain his release from Mantua, he was finally granted it in 1612, and the next year he was put in charge of music at San Marco Basilica, Venice. After the first opera house opened in Venice (1637), he wrote his last three operas, including Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria (1640) and the remarkable Incoronazione di Poppea (1643). Monteverdi is the first great figure of Baroque music, a remarkable innovator who synthesized the elements of the new style to create the first Baroque masterpieces of both sacred and secular music.

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(born 1644?, Cremona, Duchy of Milan—died Dec. 18, 1737, Cremona) Italian musical-instrument maker. An apprentice of Nicolò Amati (from circa 1666), he established his own business in Cremona, eventually working with his sons Francesco (1671–1743) and Omobono (1679–1742). Though he made other instruments (including harps, lutes, mandolins, and guitars), few survive, and after 1680 he concentrated on violins. Moving away from the Amati style, he developed (circa 1690) the “long Strad.” The Stradivari method of violin making created a standard for subsequent times; he devised the modern form of the violin bridge and set the proportions of the modern violin, with its shallower body that yields a more powerful and penetrating tone than earlier violins. The period 1700–20 is considered the peak of his productivity and quality.

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(born Aug. 18, 1750, Legnago, Republic of Venice—died May 7, 1825, Vienna, Austria) Italian composer. He moved to Vienna in 1766 with the imperial court composer Florian Gassmann (1729–74), and he remained there most of his career. On Gassmann's death, Salieri became composer and conductor of the Italian opera at the imperial court, and later court kapellmeister (1788). Vienna's most popular opera composer for much of the last quarter of the 18th century, he had many important students, including Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Schubert, and Franz Liszt. In addition to his more than 40 operas, he wrote much other secular and sacred music. Though he and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were rivals, there is no basis to the story that he poisoned Mozart, and it is unlikely that he claimed to have done so.

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(born March 4, 1678, Venice, Republic of Venice—died July 28, 1741, Vienna, Austria) Italian composer. He was taught violin by his father. In 1703 he was ordained a priest (and later became known as the “Red Priest” for his red hair). He spent most of his career teaching violin and leading the orchestra at a Venetian girls' orphanage. After circa 1718 he became more involved in opera as both composer and impresario. His concertos were highly influential in setting the genre's three-movement (fast-slow-fast) form, with a returning theme (ritornello) for the larger group set off by contrasting material for the soloists, and he popularized effects such as pizzicato and muting. His L'estro armonico (1711), a collection of concerti grossi, attracted international attention. His La stravaganza (circa 1714) was eagerly awaited, as were its successors, including The Four Seasons (1725). In all he wrote more than 500 concertos. His most popular sacred vocal work is the Gloria (1708). Though often accused of repeating himself, Vivaldi was in fact highly imaginative, and his works exercised a strong influence on Johann Sebastian Bach.

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(born Jan. 23, 1891, Ales, Sardinia—died April 27, 1937, Rome, Italy) Italian intellectual and politician. After entering the University of Turin, he joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1914. In 1921 he left the Socialists to found the Italian Communist Party (see Democratic Party of the Left), and he spent two years in the Soviet Union. In 1924 he became head of the party and was elected to the national legislature. The party was outlawed by the fascist government of Benito Mussolini in 1926, and Gramsci was arrested and imprisoned for 11 years; in poor health, he was released to die at 46. His influential Letters from Prison (1947) and other writings outline a version of communism less dogmatic than Soviet communism. His work has influenced sociology, political theory, and international relations.

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(born Feb. 18, 1745, Como, Lombardy—died March 5, 1827, Como) Italian scientist. In 1775 he invented the electrophorus, a device used to generate static electricity. He taught physics at the University of Pavia (1779–1804). After Luigi Galvani in 1780 produced an electric current by connecting two different metals with the muscle of a frog, Volta began experimenting in 1794 with metals alone and found that animal tissue was not needed to produce current. He demonstrated the first electric battery in 1800. In 1801 he demonstrated the battery's generation of current before Napoleon, who made him a count and senator of the kingdom of Lombardy. In 1815 he was appointed director of the philosophical faculty at the University of Padua. The volt was named in his honour in 1881.

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Mike D'Antonio is best known as the bass guitarist and founder of Massachusetts Metalcore band Killswitch Engage.

D'Antonio's metal bass style is influenced by In Flames and Dark Tranquillity, and he cites Cliff Burton and Harley Flanagan of the Cro-Mags as personal influences.

D'Antonio formed the band Killswitch Engage after the demise of his band Overcast in 1998.

All of Killswitch Engage's artwork and merchandise is designed by D'Antonio, who is a graphic artist. D'Antonio's company, DarkicoN, designs and produces artwork for bands such as Shadows Fall, Unearth and All That Remains.

D'Antonio uses his signature Ibanez basses with an Mesa Boogie bass rig. In the past he used Ampeg

When at live gigs, D'Antonio will usually point out to someone in the crowd he can see enjoying themselves, or doing something unusual. On Killswitch Engage's DVD (Set This) World Ablaze, he claims to do this to raise the level of interaction with the band and the fans, and also because he feels that showing individual fans he recognises them amongst a crowd could potentially raise the 'respect' between band and fan. He also takes a long stand against racism, believing fans all over the world have a special place in his heart. He is also a vegetarian.

References

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