is the sentiment in the history of China
held against Manchus
who were present in the region, especially against the Qing Dynasty
ruling administration, which was often resented for being foreign rulers, despite a degree of cultural integration. This ethnic-based sentiment tended to be a subset of the greater anti-Qing sentiment
Sun Yat Sen was the founder of Chinese Republic who overthrew the Qing Dynasty which ruled over all of China from 1644 to 1911 proclaimed as such when he launch his rebellion against the Qing Dynasty which was ruled by Manchus:
In order to restore our national independence, we must first restore the Chinese nation. In order to restore the Chinese nation, we must drive the barbarian Manchus back to the Changbai Mountains. In order to get rid of the barbarians, we must first overthrow the present tyrannical, dictatorial, ugly, and corrupt Qing government. Fellow countrymen, a revolution is the only means to overthrow the Qing government! Sun Yat Sen
- BILLETER, TERENCE: L’empereur jaune: Une tradition politique chinoise (2005). Les Indes savantes.
- CHOW, KAI-WING: Narrating Nation, Race and National Culture: Imagining the Hanzu Identity in Modern China, in: CHOW KAI-WING, DOAK, KEVIN M. und POSHEK FU (ed.): Constructing nationhood in modern East Asia (2001). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 47-84.
- HARRELL, PAULA: Sowing the Seeds of Change – Chinese Students, Japanese Teachers, 1895-1905 (1992). Stanford/California: Stanford University Press.
- JUDGE, JOAN: Talent, Virtue and Nation: Chinese Nationalism and Female Subjectivities in the Early Twentieth Century, in: The American Historical Review (Vol. 106, No. 3, June 2001, pp. 765-803).
- LIU QINGFENG [劉青峰] (ed.): Minzuzhuyi yu Zhongguo xiandaihua [民族主義與中國現代化] (1994). Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
- LUST, JOHN: The Su-pao Case: An Episode in the Early Chinese Nationalist Movement, in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. XXVII, Part 2, pp. 408-429.
- SHEN SUNG-CHIAO [沈松僑]: Wo yi wo xue jian Xuanyuan – Huangdi shenhua yu wan Qing de guozu jiangou [我以我血薦軒轅─ 黃帝神話與晚清的國族建構], in: Taiwan shehui yanjiu jikan, Ausgabe 28, Dezember 1997, pp. 1-77.
- SHEN SUNG-CHIAO (together with QIAN YONGXIANG [錢永祥]): Delimiting China: Discourses of 'Guomin' (國民) and the Construction of Chinese Nationality in Late Qing, paper presented at the Conference on Nationalism: The East Asia Experience, May 25-27, 1999, ISSP, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 20pp.（沈松僑/中研院近代史所助理研究員）.
- SAKAMOTO HIROKO [坂元ひろ子]: Chūgoku minzokushugi no shinwa: jinshu – shintai – jendā [中国民族主義の神話 : 人種・身体・ジェンダー] (2004). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.