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Anomaly

chromosomal disorder

Syndrome caused by chromosome abnormality. Normally, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, including one pair of sex chromosomes. Any variation from this pattern causes abnormalities. A chromosome may be duplicated (trisomy) or absent (monosomy); one or more extra full sets of chromosomes can be present (see ploidy); or part of a chromosome may be missing (deletion) or transferred to another (translocation). Resulting disorders include Down syndrome, intellectual disability, heart malformation, abnormal sexual development, malignancies, and sex-chromosome disorders (e.g., Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome). Chromosomal disorders occur in 0.5percnt of births; many can now be diagnosed before birth by amniocentesis.

Learn more about chromosomal disorder with a free trial on Britannica.com.

An anomaly is any occurrence or object that is strange, unusual, or unique.

In the following particular contexts it may refer to:

Astronomy

  • Eccentric anomaly, intermediate value used to compute the position of a celestial object as a function of time
  • Flyby anomaly, unexpected energy increase during Earth flybys of satellites
  • Mean anomaly, measure of time in the study of orbital dynamics
  • Pioneer anomaly, observed deviation of the trajectories of various unmanned spacecraft
  • South Atlantic Anomaly, region where Earth's inner van Allen radiation belt makes its closest approach to the planet's surface
  • True anomaly, angle between the direction of periapsis and the current position of an object on its orbit

Geophysics

Biology

  • Congenital vertebral anomaly, any of several malformations of the spine in animals and infants
  • Collie eye anomaly, congenital, inherited, bilateral eye disease of dogs involving the retina, choroid, and sclera
  • Coronary artery anomaly, congenital abnormality in the coronary anatomy of the heart
  • Ebstein's anomaly, congenital heart defect in which the opening of the tricuspid valve is displaced towards the right ventricle of the heart
  • Uhl anomaly, very rare congenital heart disease with a partial or total loss of the myocardial muscle in the right ventricle

Quantum physics

Science fiction

Music

Other

  • Ararat anomaly, object on Mount Ararat claimed to be Noah's Ark
  • Konishi anomaly, violation of the conservation of the Noether current associated with certain transformations
  • Market anomaly, price distortion on a financial market
  • Anomaly in software, anything that differs from expectations, whether the expectations resulted from documentation, experiences or otherwise

See also

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