Mato Grosso do Sul is one of the states of Brazil.
Neighbouring states are (from north clockwise) Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. It also borders the countries of Paraguay and Bolivia to the west. Mato Grosso do Sul literally means "Southern Thick Forest", a name inherited from its northern neighbour state of Mato Grosso, of which it was part until split in the 1970s. It is not uncommon for people to mistakenly refer to Mato Grosso do Sul as simply "Mato Grosso", which has prompted the government to consider changing its name to "Pantanal", a reference to its best known geographical feature (see below). Mato Grosso do Sul is famous for its natural beauty. The Pantanal covers 12 municipalities and presents an enormous variety of flora and fauna, with forests, natural sand banks, savannahs, open pasture, fields and bushes. The city Bonito, in the mountain of Bodoquena, has prehistoric caverns, natural rivers, waterfalls, swimming pools and the Blue Lake cavern. Bisected in the south by the Tropic of Capricorn, Mato Grosso do Sul has borders with Bolivia and Paraguay, what it explains the popularity of the gastronomy of those countries in the region..
Mato Grosso do Sul has humid Subtropical
and tropical climate
. The annual rainfall is 1.500 mm. January is the warmest month, with mean maxima of 34°C (93.2°F) and minima of 24°C (75.2°F) and more rain
; July experiences the coldest temperatures, with mean maxima of 25°C (77°F) and minima of 15°C (59°F) and sun
The "cerrado" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation. Humid fields and "buriti" palm paths are found where the water table is near the surface. Alpine pastures occur at higher altitudes and mesophytic forests on more fertile soils. The "cerrado" trees have characteristic twisted trunks covered by a thick bark, and leaves which are usually broad and rigid. Many herbaceous plants have extensive roots to store water and nutrients. The plant's thick bark and roots serve as adaptations for the periodic fires which sweep the cerrado landscape. The adaptations protect the plants from destruction and make them capable of sprouting again after the fire.
The state is located in western Brazil, in a region mostly occupied by the inland marshes of the Pantanal. The highest elevation is the 1,065 m high Morro Grande.
In 1977 the state was created by dividing the state of Mato Grosso. Its status as a state went into full effect two years later on January 1
According to the IBGE of 2007, there were 2,304,000 people residing in the state. The population density was 6.4 hab./km².
Urbanization: 84.7% (2006); Population growth: 1.7% (1991-2000); Houses: 689,000 (2006).
The last PNAD (National Research for Sample of Domiciles) census revealed the following numbers: 1,179,000 White people (52.2%), 963,000 Pardo (Brown) people (30.8%), 122,000 Black people (5.3%), 39,000 Asian or Amerindian people (1.7%).
In the Cerrado areas, mostly in the south, central and east, there is a predominance of Southern Brazilian farmers of German and Italian descent. The areas covered by the Amazon rainforest in the north has a predominance of Mixed-race people with Amerindian features.
The service sector
is the largest component of GDP
at 46.1%, followed by the industrial sector
at 22.7%. Agriculture
represents 31.2%, of GDP
(2004). Mato Grosso do Sul exports: soybean
of cattle 13.7%, ores
Share of the Brazilian economy: 1% (2005).
: 677,484 (March
: 1.5 million (April
: 471 thousand (April
: 78 (2007).
Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.
Campo Grande Film Festival
It's a film
festival held annually in the months of January and February and has been arranged since 2004. It focuses on the independent cinema
presenting Brazilian films and foreign films as well. It also presents regional films and short films.
Bonito’s Winter Festival
"Festival de Inverno de Bonito" (Bonito
Winter Festival) is held every year for a week during July or August, with music
performances and ecological videos
and fine arts exhibitions.
Aquidauana’s biggest event is the Pantanal Micareta, which attracts thousands of tourists to Dr. Sabino Avenue, annually.
Tourism and recreation
The great concentration of lime in the soil
around the area where Bonito
is located is responsible for the transparency of the waters
and for the existence of a wide variety of geological formations. The best way to appreciate the local natural features is by going on an adventure tour. The most popular activities include diving in caverns
, observing the underwater fauna
and walking along trails in the forest
. Places like Gruta Lago Azul (Blue Lake Cave) and the Fazenda Estancia Mimosa, Aquario Natural (Natural Aquarium), and the rivers
Sucuri, Prata, and Formoso, are the most popular.
is an ecological paradise right in the heart of Brazil. It is the largest flooded lowland on the planet
and the third largest environmental reserve in the world
. Its ecological importance is immense, since it is home to one of the richest ecosystems
ever found to date, with periodically flooded seasonal forests
. It displays the largest concentration of neo-tropical fauna
, including several endangered species – mammals
– and it also serves as habitat for an enormous variety of native birds
, as well as those migrating from other areas in the Americas
. The Pantanal
is one of the best places in Brazil
observation and for fishing – permitted only between March and October – due to its abundance of animals
. It has a total area of 230 thousand square kilometres, covering 12 townships in the States of Mato Grosso
and Mato Grosso do Sul. To the North, there are the Paracis, Azul and Roncador mountains
. To the East, the Maracaju Mountain Range. To the South, the Dodoquena Mountain Range. And, to the West, the Paraguayan and Bolivian swamps. The Pantanal is so diverse that researchers subdivided it in sub-regions. Each “Pantanal” – North and South – has its own natural features, activities and ideal period for visitation.
The operation of Campo Grande International Airport is shared with the Campo Grande Air Base. The airport has two runways.
Construction of the main runway, made of concrete, began in 1950 and was finished in 1953. The passenger terminal was concluded in 1964, and in 1967 concrete aprons were built for both military and civilian aircraft.
As commercial aviation demand grew, it became necessary to widen the civil aircraft apron, which was completed 12 years after its construction. The airport has been administered by Infraero since 1975.
Corumbá International Airport, located just 3 km (1.86 mi) from the city center, was opened on September 21, 1960, the city's anniversary. Built on a land plot of 290 hectares and at an elevation of 140 meters above sea, it has an asphalt runway measuring 1660 x 30 meters, with one of its thresholds reinforced with concrete for an additional 60 meters. Corumbá International Airport has been administered by Infraero since February 1975.
Ponta Porã International Airport, has been administered by Infraero.
- Dourados Regional Airport
- Bonito Airport
is one of the 18 remaining candidates to host games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup
, for which Brazil
is the only South American
Mato Grosso do Sul's flag was designed by Mauro Michael Munhoz. A white stripe divides an upper left green corner from a bottom right blue space with a yellow star. White symbolizes hope, green is an allusion to the state's rich flora, blue represents its vast sky, while the yellow star adds balance, force and serenity.