Andreas

Andreas

[an-dree-uh, ahn-, ahn-drey-uh]
Hofer, Andreas, 1767-1810, Austrian patriot; son of a Tyrolean innkeeper. After its defeat by Napoleon I in 1805 Austria was forced to cede the Tyrol to France's ally Bavaria. In 1809, when Austria renewed war on France, Hofer led the Tyrolean peasants in rebellion against Bavaria and the French. After several military successes he was made governor of the Tyrol by the Austrians. In Oct., 1809, Austria was obliged by the Treaty of Schönbrunn to abandon the Tyrol, but Hofer continued to resist. He was betrayed to the French, court-martialed, and shot at Mantua.
Gryphius, Andreas, 1616-64, German poet-dramatist, originally named Andreas Greif. He wrote in Latin, new High German, and Silesian dialect. Among his many sonnets, odes, epigrams, and religious lyrics is the famous "Vanitas! Vanitatum Vanitas!" His tragedies include Leo Armenius (1646) and Carolus Stuardus (1649); more noteworthy are his lively satiric comedies, such as Horribilicribrifax (1663) and Peter Squenz (1663).
Schlüter, Andreas, 1664-1714, German sculptor. After studying in France and Italy, he became architect and sculptor to the Hohenzollern at Berlin, where the principal examples of his decorative work were in the royal castle. He was the most important German exponent of the baroque style. Most noted among his sculptures were the statue of King Frederick I in front of the castle at Königsberg and the Great Elector, an equestrian group on the Long Bridge, a pulpit in the Marienkirche, and the tombs of King Frederick I and his consort in the cathedral, all in Berlin. At the end of his life, having lost the favor of his patron, King Frederick I, Schlüter entered the service of Peter the Great of Russia.
Vesalius, Andreas, 1514-64, Flemish anatomist. He made many discoveries in anatomy and became noted as professor of anatomy at the Univ. of Padua. There he produced his chief work, De humani corporis fabrica (1543), based on studies made by dissection of human cadavers; the notable illustrations are attributed to Jan von Calcar. Vesalius's condensation (1543) appeared in English as The Epitome of Andreas Vesalius (1949). His work overthrew many of the hitherto-uncontested doctrines of the second-century anatomist Galen, and caused a storm of criticism from other anatomists. Vesalius's work was revolutionary, as he was among the first to perform thorough cadaver dissections himself. He showed that Galen's anatomy was merely an attempt to apply animal structure to the human body, and was not based on any direct knowledge of human anatomy. He left Padua, becoming physician to Emperor Charles V and to his son Philip II. In 1563, he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and on the return voyage died in Greece.

See biography by C. D. O'Malley (1964); J. B. de C. M. Saunders and C. D. O'Malley, Illustrations from the Works of Andreas Vesalius (1950, repr. 1973).

Caesalpinus, Andreas, Latinized from Andrea Cesalpino, 1519-1603, Italian botanist and physiologist. He was physician to Pope Clement VIII. He described, in part and as a theory only, the circulation of blood. His chief botanical work, De plantis (1583), contains the first classification of plants according to their fruits, based on a comparative study of his large collection. Linnaeus considered him the first true systematist. He was at the Univ. of Pisa and founded its botanical garden.
Osiander, Andreas, 1498-1552, German reformer. His original name was Hosemann or Heiligmann. Ordained a priest in 1520, Osiander joined the cause of the Reformation in 1522. He supported Martin Luther vigorously, participating in the Marburg Conference (1529), the Diet of Augsburg (1530), and the signing of the Schmalkaldic Articles (1537). Frequently during controversies the coarseness and violence of his language aroused personal enmity. In 1548, Osiander's refusal to agree to the Augsburg Interim made it necessary for him to leave Nuremberg, and he joined the theological faculty at the new Univ. of Königsberg. Osiander's mystical interpretation of the Lutheran doctrine of justification by faith led to a disagreement with his colleagues that subsequently involved the whole German Evangelical Church.
Flemish Andries van Wesel

(born Dec. 1514, Brussels—died June 1564, island of Zacynthus, Republic of Venice) Flemish physician. Born into a family of physicians, he studied medicine at the University of Paris. As a lecturer in surgery, he insisted on dissecting corpses himself, instead of relying on untrained assistants, to learn anatomy. Comparing his observations with ancient texts led him to question the theories of Galen, at that time still considered authoritative. Vesalius's own complete textbook of human anatomy, the momentous De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (1543; “Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body”), commonly called the Fabrica, was the most extensive and accurate description of the human body that had ever been published.

Learn more about Vesalius, Andreas with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 28, 1804, Landshut, Bavaria—died Sept. 13, 1872, Rechenberg, Ger.) German philosopher. The son of an eminent jurist, he studied under G.W.F. Hegel in Berlin but later abandoned Hegelian idealism for a naturalistic materialism. In Thoughts on Death and Immortality (1830), he attacked the concept of personal immortality. His Abelard and Heloise (1834) and Pierre Bayle (1838) were followed by On Philosophy and Christianity (1839), in which he claimed that “Christianity has in fact long vanished not only from the reason but from the life of mankind.” In The Essence of Christianity (1841), he proposed that God is merely the outward projection of mankind's inward nature. Some of his views were later endorsed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Learn more about Feuerbach, Ludwig (Andreas) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 23, 1867, Silkeborg, Den.—died Jan. 30, 1928, Copenhagen) Danish pathologist. He found that rats that had suffered stomach-tissue inflammation caused by the larvae of a worm infecting cockroaches the rats had eaten subsequently developed stomach tumours, and he induced tumours in mice and rats by feeding them infected cockroaches. His work, for which he received a 1926 Nobel Prize, supported the prevailing concept that cancer is caused by tissue irritation and led to production of chemical carcinogens for use in cancer research.

Learn more about Fibiger, Johannes Andreas Grib with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 23, 1867, Silkeborg, Den.—died Jan. 30, 1928, Copenhagen) Danish pathologist. He found that rats that had suffered stomach-tissue inflammation caused by the larvae of a worm infecting cockroaches the rats had eaten subsequently developed stomach tumours, and he induced tumours in mice and rats by feeding them infected cockroaches. His work, for which he received a 1926 Nobel Prize, supported the prevailing concept that cancer is caused by tissue irritation and led to production of chemical carcinogens for use in cancer research.

Learn more about Fibiger, Johannes Andreas Grib with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 28, 1804, Landshut, Bavaria—died Sept. 13, 1872, Rechenberg, Ger.) German philosopher. The son of an eminent jurist, he studied under G.W.F. Hegel in Berlin but later abandoned Hegelian idealism for a naturalistic materialism. In Thoughts on Death and Immortality (1830), he attacked the concept of personal immortality. His Abelard and Heloise (1834) and Pierre Bayle (1838) were followed by On Philosophy and Christianity (1839), in which he claimed that “Christianity has in fact long vanished not only from the reason but from the life of mankind.” In The Essence of Christianity (1841), he proposed that God is merely the outward projection of mankind's inward nature. Some of his views were later endorsed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Learn more about Feuerbach, Ludwig (Andreas) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Flemish Andries van Wesel

(born Dec. 1514, Brussels—died June 1564, island of Zacynthus, Republic of Venice) Flemish physician. Born into a family of physicians, he studied medicine at the University of Paris. As a lecturer in surgery, he insisted on dissecting corpses himself, instead of relying on untrained assistants, to learn anatomy. Comparing his observations with ancient texts led him to question the theories of Galen, at that time still considered authoritative. Vesalius's own complete textbook of human anatomy, the momentous De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (1543; “Seven Books on the Structure of the Human Body”), commonly called the Fabrica, was the most extensive and accurate description of the human body that had ever been published.

Learn more about Vesalius, Andreas with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Andreas is a common male name in Cyprus, Denmark, Austria, Germany, Greece, Flanders, Norway and Sweden. In the Greek language, from which it derives it means valiant. See article on Andrew for more information.

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