Andrea

Andrea

[an-dree-uh, ahn-, ahn-drey-uh]
Pisano, Andrea, c.1290-c.1348, Italian sculptor, also called Andrea da Pontedera. His most important work, the first bronze doors of the baptistery in Florence, was begun in 1330. In 28 panels he depicted scenes from the life of John the Baptist. Through Andrea, Italian sculpture came under the influence of the painter and architect Giotto, whom he succeeded as head of the work on the cathedral and the campanile in Florence. It is still debated whether the design for the campanile reliefs is to be credited to Giotto or to Andrea. Andrea spent his last year in Orvieto, directing work on the facade of the cathedral.
Mantegna, Andrea, 1431-1506, Italian painter of the Paduan school. He was adopted by Squarcione, whose apprentice he remained until 1456, when he procured his release. In 1454 he had married the daughter of Jacopo Bellini and by 1460 he had entered the service of the Gonzagas in Mantua, in which he continued all his life. Mantegna was one of the greatest and most celebrated artists of N Italy. His passion for the antique is evidenced in all his work, and he was one of the first artists to make an extensive collection of Greek and Roman works. A rigorous draftsman and anatomist and a perfectionist in perspective, he nevertheless gave to his statuesque forms an intense and dramatic life. Among his early works the most celebrated are his frescoes of the lives of St. James and St. Christopher (Church of the Eremitani, Padua, destroyed in World War II); St. Luke altarpiece (Milan); and San Zeno altarpiece (Verona; parts are at the Louvre and Tours). In Mantua he decorated the bridal chamber of the Gonzaga palace with frescoes portraying many members of the family and other notables (completed 1474). On the ceiling he created the illusion of sky, a form of decoration that became very popular in the baroque period. Mantegna also painted nine cartoons depicting the Triumph of Caesar (Hampton Court Palace) and a Pietà (Milan). About 1497 he executed for Isabella d'Este Parnassus and Triumph of Virtue (Louvre). The Metropolitan Museum has his Adoration of the Shepherds. Mantegna is also noted for his drawings and copper-plate engravings. Early in his career he illustrated two manuscripts intended for René, duke of Anjou. In his initial letters for Strabo's Geography, he recaptured the art of Roman inscriptions. His lettering had a great influence on the development of printing. Among his engravings are Virgin and Child, Battle of the Sea Gods, and the Entombment.

See Complete Paintings of Mantegna, ed. by L. Coletti (1970); L. Berti, Mangegna (1964).

Cesalpino, Andrea: see Caesalpinus, Andreas.
Sansovino, Andrea, c.1460-1529, Florentine sculptor and architect of the High Renaissance, b. Monte Sansavino. His real name was Andrea Contucci. He trained under Antonio Pollaiuolo and worked in Florence, Rome, and Loreto. His tombs of Cardinals Sforza and Basso in Rome and his statues and reliefs for church decoration, such as the graceful Virgin and Child with St. Anne (1512) at San Agostino, were greatly admired.
Contucci, Andrea: see Sansovino, Andrea.
Riccio, Andrea: see Briosco, Andrea.
Sacchi, Andrea, 1599-1661, Italian baroque painter, b. Rome. He studied in Rome and in Bologna under Francesco Albani. His masterpiece, an allegory of Divine Wisdom (c.1629-33; ceiling fresco, Barberini Palace, Rome) typifies his classical treatment of composition. Inspired by Raphael's ideal art, Sacchi was associated with Poussin and Algardi in the championing of classical theory, in contrast to the dynamic approach of Pietro da Cortona and Bernini. Sacchi's foremost pupil was Maratti.
Palladio, Andrea, 1508-80, Italian architect of the Renaissance. Originally a stonemason, he was trained as an architect in Vicenza, and later in Rome he examined the remains of Roman architecture. The measured drawings he made of these were published with compositions of his own and, based on the treatise of Vitruvius, a description of practical systems of design and proportioning. This famous work, I quattro libri dell'architectura (1570, tr. The Four Books of Architecture, 1716), has been reissued many times.

Palladio's buildings, chiefly town palaces and villas, were executed mostly in Vicenza and its vicinity. Usually they were made of humble materials that contrasted with their formal classicism. Palladio's first important work (begun 1549) was to rebuild the medieval town hall, the basilica at Vicenza. He designed arches supported on minor columns and framed between larger engaged columns. Each of these arch-and-column compositions formed what is termed a "Palladian motif" and was much imitated. The characteristic facade of many of Palladio's country houses displayed the classic temple front—superimposed pilasters or columns or often a colossal order two stories in height and supported by a rusticated ground story. Generally in his buildings he systematized the ground plan, designing a central hall around which other rooms were grouped in absolute symmetry.

Among his best-known houses (built in the 1550s and 1560s) are the Villa Rotonda (overlooking Vicenza), the Chiericati Palace and the Valmarana Palace (both: Vicenza), and the Villa Barbaro (Maser). At Venice he adapted the classical motif to three church facades, in his designs for San Francesco della Vigna, San Giorgio Maggiore, and Il Redentore. Just before his death Palladio planned the Teatro Olimpico, in which he incorporated a permanent scenic background, built in architectural perspective.

Reviving and redesigning the ancient Roman villa for a new humanist age, Palladio set the vocabulary of architectural pattern, proportion, and ornament for much of Western domestic architecture for centuries to come. His books and buildings exerted an unparalleled influence on European and American architecture. In the 17th cent., Inigo Jones imported Palladio's classic grandeur of design into England and profoundly influenced the course of English architecture. Subsequently, William Kent, Colin Campbell, Sir Christopher Wren, Sir William Chambers, and others created a great body of works termed Palladian. In the United States his influence can be seen in the manor houses of southern plantations, e.g., Thomas Jefferson's Monticello.

See R. Wittkower, Palladio and Palladianism (1974); J. Ackerman, Palladio (2d ed. 1977); W. Rybczynski, The Perfect House (2002); G. Giaconi and K. Williams, The Villas of Palladio (2003); L. Capellini, The Hand of Palladio (2009).

Gabrieli, Andrea, c.1510-1586, Italian organist and composer; possibly a pupil of Adrian Willaert. In 1536 he was a chorister at St. Mark's Cathedral, Venice, where, in 1566, he became organist at the second organ. He composed madrigals, motets, masses, and ricercari and canzones for organ. He was important in the development of multiple-choir technique, and he was the teacher of Hans Leo Hassler and of his nephew Giovanni Gabrieli, c.1555-1612. Giovanni was for a time a singer in the court choir under Lasso in Munich and became (1585) second organist at St. Mark's, succeeding to first organ on the death of his uncle two years later. He brought the multiple-choir technique to its highest development, and he was most important in the development of the concerto style, i.e., differentiation of choral and solo ensembles. His Sonata pian'e forte (pub. in Sacrae symphoniae, 1597), the first piece of printed instrumental music containing dynamic indications, and the indication of specific instrumentation in his posthumously published works represent the beginnings of modern orchestration.

See studies by E. F. Kenton (1967) and D. Arnold (1979).

Briosco, Andrea, 1470?-1532, Italian architect and sculptor, known also as Andrea Riccio [curly-headed], b. Padua. As an architect, he created models for the church of Santa Giustina and for a chapel in Sant' Antonio in Padua. His fame rests chiefly on his bronze sculpture. In close contact with Paduan humanists, he carried out involved allegorical programs in his Paschal candlestick (Sant' Antonio) and the Della Torre monument (Verona). Drawing upon mythological themes, he combined delightful fantasy with a first-rate knowledge of antiquity.
Doria, Andrea, b. 1466 or 1468, d. 1560, Italian admiral and statesman, of an ancient family prominent in the history of Genoa. He started his career as a condottiere and in the Italian Wars fought for Francis I of France. In 1528 he fell out with Francis and went over to Charles V, Holy Roman emperor and King of Spain, under the condition that the independence of Genoa be preserved. Doria became (1528) virtual dictator of Genoa, but even under the constitution that he imposed the republican institutions were preserved. He mercilessly suppressed conspiracies against himself (1547, 1548) and ended factional strife. As admiral of the fleet, Doria assisted the Spanish against the Turks and the pirate Barbarossa. He helped Charles V in taking Tunis from Barbarossa in 1535 but failed at Algiers in 1541. In 1559 he recovered, with French aid, Corsica for Genoa.
Appiani, Andrea, 1754-1817, Italian neoclassical painter and Italian court painter of Napoleon I, active in Lombardy. His frescoes include work in churches and palaces of Milan. In his portraits his style anticipated the romantic approach. Portraits of Napoleon (1796; Bellagio) and Canova are among his oils.

Bartolomeo Colleoni, bronze statue by Andrea del Verrocchio, 1483–88; in Campo di elipsis

(born 1435, Florence—died 1488, Venice) Italian sculptor and painter. Little is certain about his early life. His most important works were executed in his final two decades under the patronage of the Medici in his native Florence. His reputation as a master spread early, and many well-known artists studied at his studio, including Leonardo da Vinci and Perugino; the young Leonardo probably painted an angel and part of the distant landscape in Verrocchio's Baptism of Christ (circa 1470). Verrocchio's reputation as one of the great relief sculptors of the Renaissance was established with his cenotaph in the cathedral at Pistoia; while it remained unfinished at his death and was later changed by others, the relief's arrangement of figures into a dramatically unified composition anticipates the Baroque sculpture of the 17th century. His bronze statue of the military officer Bartolomeo Colleoni (commissioned 1483, erected in Venice 1496) is one of the greatest equestrian statues of the Renaissance.

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orig. Andrea Contucci

(born circa 1467, Monte San Savino, Republic of Florence—died 1529, Monte San Savino) Italian sculptor. The fine detail and high emotional pitch of his marble Altar of the Sacrament in Florence's Santo Spirito (1485–90) typify his early work; his marble Baptism of Christ (1502), above one of the Baptistery doors in Florence, marks a shift to High Renaissance style with its dignified poses and strong but controlled emotion. His tombs for two cardinals in Rome's Santa Maria del Popolo (completed 1509) were his most influential innovation, with their triumphal-arch form and the novel sleeping attitude of the deceased cardinals. His works display the transition from early to High Renaissance, and his graceful style acted as a counterbalance to Michelangelo's titanic, muscular sculpture throughout the 16th century.

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(born 1599, Nettuno, Papal States—died June 21, 1661, Rome) Italian painter. He studied with Francesco Albani in Bologna and in Rome, where he would work all his life. He was employed, with Pietro da Cortona, to decorate the Sacchetti family villa (1628) and the Barberini Palace, for which he produced the ceiling fresco Allegory of Divine Wisdom (1629–31). His two altarpieces in the church of Santa Maria della Concezione (1631–38) are distinguished by their Classicism. Other notable works include eight canvases in the cupola of the Baptistery of St. John in Rome (1639–45). He was a skilled draftsman and the leading exponent of the Classical tradition in 17th-century Roman painting.

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or Andrea da Pontedera

(born circa 1270–90, Pontedera, near Pisa—died circa 1348/49, Orvieto, Papal States) Italian sculptor and architect. He created the earliest of three bronze doors for the Baptistery of the cathedral of Florence (1330–36). On Giotto's death in 1337, Andrea succeeded him as chief architect of the cathedral's bell tower, to which he added two stories adorned with panel reliefs. In 1347 he was appointed superintending architect of the cathedral of Orvieto. One of the most important Italian sculptors of the 14th century, he is known for his restrained style and skillful arrangement of figures.

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orig. Andrea di Pietro della Gondola

(born Nov. 30, 1508, Padua, Republic of Venice—died August 1580, Vicenza) Italian architect. While a young mason, he was noticed by an Italian scholar and soon found himself studying mathematics, music, philosophy, and Classical authors. From 1541 he made several trips to Rome to study ancient ruins. His first palace design, the Palazzo Civena (1540–46), was innovative for its use of an arcaded area behind the main elevation, in imitation of a Roman forum. In his villas, Palladio tried to re-create the Roman villa based on ancient descriptions. His first, Villa Godi at Lonedo (circa 1540–42), contained elements for which he is famous, including symmetrical wings and a walled court. His most widely copied villa was the Villa Rotonda (1550–51), near Vicenza. Palladio was the first to systematize the plan of a house and to use the ancient Greco-Roman temple front as a portico. His reconstruction of the Basilica (town hall) in Vicenza (begun 1549) employs a two-story arcade with a motif that came to be known as Palladian: rounded arches flanked by rectangular openings. His facades for San Francesco della Vigna (circa 1565), San Giorgio Maggiore (begun 1566), and Il Redentore (begun 1576), all in Venice, became prototypes for attaching Classical temple fronts to basilican churches. Though Palladio absorbed contemporary Mannerist motifs, his plans and elevations always retained a repose and order not associated with Mannerist architecture. His Four Books of Architecture was possibly the most influential architectural pattern book ever printed. His influence climaxed during the 18th-century Classical Revival; the resulting Palladianism spread through Europe and the U.S.

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known as Il Duce

Benito Mussolini.

(born July 29, 1883, Predappio, Italy—died April 28, 1945, near Dongo) Italian dictator (1922–43). An unruly but intelligent youth, he became an ardent socialist and served as editor of the party newspaper, Avanti! (1912–14). When he reversed his opposition to World War I, he was ousted by the party. He founded the pro-war Il Popolo d'Italia, served with the Italian army (1915–17), then returned to his editorship. Advocating government by dictatorship, he formed a political group in 1919 that marked the beginning of fascism. A dynamic and captivating orator at rallies, he organized the March on Rome (1922) to prevent a socialist-led general strike. After the government fell, he was appointed prime minister, the youngest in Italian history. He obtained a law to establish the fascists as the majority party and became known as Il Duce (“The Leader”). He restored order to the country and introduced social reforms and public works improvements that won widespread popular support. His dreams of empire led to the invasion of Abyssinia (later Ethiopia) in 1935. Supported in his fascist schemes by Adolf Hitler but wary of German power, Mussolini agreed to the Rome-Berlin Axis and declared war on the Allies in 1940. Italian military defeats in Greece and North Africa led to growing disillusionment with Mussolini. After the Allied invasion of Sicily (1943), the Fascist Grand Council dismissed him from office. He was arrested and imprisoned but rescued by German commandos, then became head of the Hitler-installed puppet government at Salò in northern Italy. As German defenses in Italy collapsed in 1945, Mussolini tried to escape to Austria but was captured and executed by Italian partisans.

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Arrival of Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga, fresco by Andrea Mantegna, elipsis

(born 1431, Isola di Cartura, near Vicenza, Republic of Venice [Italy]—died Sept. 13, 1506, Mantua, March of Mantua) Italian painter. The son of a woodworker, he was adopted by Francesco Squarcione, a tailor-turned-painter; Mantegna was one of several pupils who later sued him for exploitation. At about 17 he established his own workshop and received an important commission for an altarpiece, now lost. His frescoes in Padua's Eremitani Church (1448–57), with their monumental figures and detailed treatment of Classical architecture, show that he had fully mastered perspective and foreshortening and was successfully experimenting with illusionistic effects, best seen in his frescoes of the Gonzaga family (completed 1474) in the Palazzo Ducale's Camera degli Sposi in Mantua, which transform the small interior room into an open-air pavilion. He was the first artist in northern Italy to work fully in the Renaissance style. He married a daughter of the Bellini family in 1453 but did not join the Bellini studio. He later became court painter to Ludovico Gonzaga. His humanistic approach to antiquity and his spatial illusionism were to have far-reaching influence.

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Andrea Doria, detail of a portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo; in the Doria Palace, Rome.

(born Nov. 30, 1466, Oneglia, Duchy of Milan—died Nov. 25, 1560, Genoa) Genoese statesman, mercenary, and admiral, the foremost naval commander of his time. A member of an aristocratic family, he was orphaned at an early age and became a soldier of fortune. In 1522 he entered the service of Francis I, who was fighting Emperor Charles V in Italy. Doria later transferred his services to Charles and in 1528 drove the French out of Genoa. He became the new ruler of Genoa and reorganized its government into an effective and stable oligarchy. He commanded several naval expeditions against the Turks and helped Charles V extend his domination over the Italian peninsula. Though greedy and authoritarian, Doria was also a fearless commander with outstanding tactical and strategic talents.

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orig. Andrea di Bartolo di Simone

The Last Supper, fresco by Andrea del Castagno, 1447; in the Cenacolo elipsis

(born circa 1419, Castagno d'Andrea, near Florence [Italy]—died Aug. 19, 1457, Florence) Italian painter active in Florence. Little is known of his early life, and many of his paintings have been lost. His earliest dated works are frescoes in the church of San Zaccaria in Venice (1442). In 1447 he began his greatest work, a series of monumental frescoes depicting the Last Supper and other scenes of Christ's Passion for the convent of Sant' Apollonia in Florence (now a museum). His use of pictorial illusionism and scientific perspective, as well as the powerful, sculptural form of his figures, established him as one of the most influential Renaissance painters of the 15th century.

Learn more about Castagno, Andrea del with a free trial on Britannica.com.

known as Il Duce

Benito Mussolini.

(born July 29, 1883, Predappio, Italy—died April 28, 1945, near Dongo) Italian dictator (1922–43). An unruly but intelligent youth, he became an ardent socialist and served as editor of the party newspaper, Avanti! (1912–14). When he reversed his opposition to World War I, he was ousted by the party. He founded the pro-war Il Popolo d'Italia, served with the Italian army (1915–17), then returned to his editorship. Advocating government by dictatorship, he formed a political group in 1919 that marked the beginning of fascism. A dynamic and captivating orator at rallies, he organized the March on Rome (1922) to prevent a socialist-led general strike. After the government fell, he was appointed prime minister, the youngest in Italian history. He obtained a law to establish the fascists as the majority party and became known as Il Duce (“The Leader”). He restored order to the country and introduced social reforms and public works improvements that won widespread popular support. His dreams of empire led to the invasion of Abyssinia (later Ethiopia) in 1935. Supported in his fascist schemes by Adolf Hitler but wary of German power, Mussolini agreed to the Rome-Berlin Axis and declared war on the Allies in 1940. Italian military defeats in Greece and North Africa led to growing disillusionment with Mussolini. After the Allied invasion of Sicily (1943), the Fascist Grand Council dismissed him from office. He was arrested and imprisoned but rescued by German commandos, then became head of the Hitler-installed puppet government at Salò in northern Italy. As German defenses in Italy collapsed in 1945, Mussolini tried to escape to Austria but was captured and executed by Italian partisans.

Learn more about Mussolini, Benito (Amilcare Andrea) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Bartolomeo Colleoni, bronze statue by Andrea del Verrocchio, 1483–88; in Campo di elipsis

(born 1435, Florence—died 1488, Venice) Italian sculptor and painter. Little is certain about his early life. His most important works were executed in his final two decades under the patronage of the Medici in his native Florence. His reputation as a master spread early, and many well-known artists studied at his studio, including Leonardo da Vinci and Perugino; the young Leonardo probably painted an angel and part of the distant landscape in Verrocchio's Baptism of Christ (circa 1470). Verrocchio's reputation as one of the great relief sculptors of the Renaissance was established with his cenotaph in the cathedral at Pistoia; while it remained unfinished at his death and was later changed by others, the relief's arrangement of figures into a dramatically unified composition anticipates the Baroque sculpture of the 17th century. His bronze statue of the military officer Bartolomeo Colleoni (commissioned 1483, erected in Venice 1496) is one of the greatest equestrian statues of the Renaissance.

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orig. Andrea d'Agnolo

Marriage of St. Catherine, oil on panel by Andrea del Sarto, elipsis

(born July 16, 1486, Florence [Italy]—died before Sept. 29, 1530, Florence) Italian painter active in Florence. After an apprenticeship with Piero di Cosimo, he became established as one of the outstanding painters of Florence, most notably as a fresco decorator and painter of altarpieces in the style of the High Renaissance. His feeling for colour and atmosphere was unrivaled among Florentine painters. One of his most striking achievements was the series of grisaille frescoes on the life of St. John the Baptist (1511–26) in the Chiostro dello Scalzo. His work is noted particularly for its exquisite composition and craftsmanship. It was instrumental in the development of Florentine Mannerism.

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orig. Andrea di Bartolo di Simone

The Last Supper, fresco by Andrea del Castagno, 1447; in the Cenacolo elipsis

(born circa 1419, Castagno d'Andrea, near Florence [Italy]—died Aug. 19, 1457, Florence) Italian painter active in Florence. Little is known of his early life, and many of his paintings have been lost. His earliest dated works are frescoes in the church of San Zaccaria in Venice (1442). In 1447 he began his greatest work, a series of monumental frescoes depicting the Last Supper and other scenes of Christ's Passion for the convent of Sant' Apollonia in Florence (now a museum). His use of pictorial illusionism and scientific perspective, as well as the powerful, sculptural form of his figures, established him as one of the most influential Renaissance painters of the 15th century.

Learn more about Castagno, Andrea del with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Andrea Contucci

(born circa 1467, Monte San Savino, Republic of Florence—died 1529, Monte San Savino) Italian sculptor. The fine detail and high emotional pitch of his marble Altar of the Sacrament in Florence's Santo Spirito (1485–90) typify his early work; his marble Baptism of Christ (1502), above one of the Baptistery doors in Florence, marks a shift to High Renaissance style with its dignified poses and strong but controlled emotion. His tombs for two cardinals in Rome's Santa Maria del Popolo (completed 1509) were his most influential innovation, with their triumphal-arch form and the novel sleeping attitude of the deceased cardinals. His works display the transition from early to High Renaissance, and his graceful style acted as a counterbalance to Michelangelo's titanic, muscular sculpture throughout the 16th century.

Learn more about Sansovino, Andrea with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born 1599, Nettuno, Papal States—died June 21, 1661, Rome) Italian painter. He studied with Francesco Albani in Bologna and in Rome, where he would work all his life. He was employed, with Pietro da Cortona, to decorate the Sacchetti family villa (1628) and the Barberini Palace, for which he produced the ceiling fresco Allegory of Divine Wisdom (1629–31). His two altarpieces in the church of Santa Maria della Concezione (1631–38) are distinguished by their Classicism. Other notable works include eight canvases in the cupola of the Baptistery of St. John in Rome (1639–45). He was a skilled draftsman and the leading exponent of the Classical tradition in 17th-century Roman painting.

Learn more about Sacchi, Andrea with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Andrea da Pontedera

(born circa 1270–90, Pontedera, near Pisa—died circa 1348/49, Orvieto, Papal States) Italian sculptor and architect. He created the earliest of three bronze doors for the Baptistery of the cathedral of Florence (1330–36). On Giotto's death in 1337, Andrea succeeded him as chief architect of the cathedral's bell tower, to which he added two stories adorned with panel reliefs. In 1347 he was appointed superintending architect of the cathedral of Orvieto. One of the most important Italian sculptors of the 14th century, he is known for his restrained style and skillful arrangement of figures.

Learn more about Pisano, Andrea with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Andrea di Pietro della Gondola

(born Nov. 30, 1508, Padua, Republic of Venice—died August 1580, Vicenza) Italian architect. While a young mason, he was noticed by an Italian scholar and soon found himself studying mathematics, music, philosophy, and Classical authors. From 1541 he made several trips to Rome to study ancient ruins. His first palace design, the Palazzo Civena (1540–46), was innovative for its use of an arcaded area behind the main elevation, in imitation of a Roman forum. In his villas, Palladio tried to re-create the Roman villa based on ancient descriptions. His first, Villa Godi at Lonedo (circa 1540–42), contained elements for which he is famous, including symmetrical wings and a walled court. His most widely copied villa was the Villa Rotonda (1550–51), near Vicenza. Palladio was the first to systematize the plan of a house and to use the ancient Greco-Roman temple front as a portico. His reconstruction of the Basilica (town hall) in Vicenza (begun 1549) employs a two-story arcade with a motif that came to be known as Palladian: rounded arches flanked by rectangular openings. His facades for San Francesco della Vigna (circa 1565), San Giorgio Maggiore (begun 1566), and Il Redentore (begun 1576), all in Venice, became prototypes for attaching Classical temple fronts to basilican churches. Though Palladio absorbed contemporary Mannerist motifs, his plans and elevations always retained a repose and order not associated with Mannerist architecture. His Four Books of Architecture was possibly the most influential architectural pattern book ever printed. His influence climaxed during the 18th-century Classical Revival; the resulting Palladianism spread through Europe and the U.S.

Learn more about Palladio, Andrea with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Arrival of Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga, fresco by Andrea Mantegna, elipsis

(born 1431, Isola di Cartura, near Vicenza, Republic of Venice [Italy]—died Sept. 13, 1506, Mantua, March of Mantua) Italian painter. The son of a woodworker, he was adopted by Francesco Squarcione, a tailor-turned-painter; Mantegna was one of several pupils who later sued him for exploitation. At about 17 he established his own workshop and received an important commission for an altarpiece, now lost. His frescoes in Padua's Eremitani Church (1448–57), with their monumental figures and detailed treatment of Classical architecture, show that he had fully mastered perspective and foreshortening and was successfully experimenting with illusionistic effects, best seen in his frescoes of the Gonzaga family (completed 1474) in the Palazzo Ducale's Camera degli Sposi in Mantua, which transform the small interior room into an open-air pavilion. He was the first artist in northern Italy to work fully in the Renaissance style. He married a daughter of the Bellini family in 1453 but did not join the Bellini studio. He later became court painter to Ludovico Gonzaga. His humanistic approach to antiquity and his spatial illusionism were to have far-reaching influence.

Learn more about Mantegna, Andrea with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Andrea Doria, detail of a portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo; in the Doria Palace, Rome.

(born Nov. 30, 1466, Oneglia, Duchy of Milan—died Nov. 25, 1560, Genoa) Genoese statesman, mercenary, and admiral, the foremost naval commander of his time. A member of an aristocratic family, he was orphaned at an early age and became a soldier of fortune. In 1522 he entered the service of Francis I, who was fighting Emperor Charles V in Italy. Doria later transferred his services to Charles and in 1528 drove the French out of Genoa. He became the new ruler of Genoa and reorganized its government into an effective and stable oligarchy. He commanded several naval expeditions against the Turks and helped Charles V extend his domination over the Italian peninsula. Though greedy and authoritarian, Doria was also a fearless commander with outstanding tactical and strategic talents.

Learn more about Doria, Andrea with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Giovanni d'Andrea or Johannes Andreæ, (c. 1270-1275 – 1348) was an Italian expert in canon law, the most renowned and successful canonist of the later Middle Ages. His contemporaries referred to him as iuris canonici fons et tuba ("the fount and trumpet of canon law"). Most important among his works were extensive commentaries on all of the official collections of papal decretals, papal judgments in the form of letters to delegated judges that were at the core of canon law.

Life

Giovanni d'Andrea was born at Rifredo, near Florence, and studied Roman law and canon law at the University of Bologna, the great law school of the age, where he distinguished himself in this subject so much that he was made professor at Padua, and then at Pisa before returning to Bologna, where he remained from the season of 1301-02 until his death, save for brief seasons at Padua 1307-09 and 1319. He wrote the statutes by which the University was governed, in 1317

The 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica related curious stories of him, that by way of self-mortification he lay every night for twenty years on the bare ground with only a bear's skin for a covering— yet it is known that he remained a layman, was married and had children— that in an audience he had with Pope Boniface VIII his extraordinary shortness of stature led the pope to believe he was kneeling, and to ask him three times to rise, to the immense merriment of the cardinals; and that he had a daughter, Novella, so accomplished in law as to be able to read her father's lectures in his absence, and so beautiful, that she had to read behind a curtain lest her face should distract the attention of the students.

He is reported to have died at Bologna of the Black Death in 1348, and an epitaph in the church of the Dominicans in which he was buried, calling him Rabbi Doctorum, Lux, Censor, Normaque Morum testifies to the public estimation of his character. Johannes Calderinus was his student and later his adoptive son. Paulus de Liazariis and Johannes de Sancto Georgio were among his students, and he counted the humanists Cino da Pistoia and Petrarch among his friends.

Giovanni d'Andrea's output was voluminous:

Among lesser works, his additions to the Speculum of Durandus are simply an adaptation from the Consilia of Oldradus de Ponte, as is also his De Sponsalibus et Matrimonio, from Johannes Anguisciola.

External links

References

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