Andrea

Andrea

[an-dree-uh, ahn-, ahn-drey-uh]
Pisano, Andrea, c.1290-c.1348, Italian sculptor, also called Andrea da Pontedera. His most important work, the first bronze doors of the baptistery in Florence, was begun in 1330. In 28 panels he depicted scenes from the life of John the Baptist. Through Andrea, Italian sculpture came under the influence of the painter and architect Giotto, whom he succeeded as head of the work on the cathedral and the campanile in Florence. It is still debated whether the design for the campanile reliefs is to be credited to Giotto or to Andrea. Andrea spent his last year in Orvieto, directing work on the facade of the cathedral.
Mantegna, Andrea, 1431-1506, Italian painter of the Paduan school. He was adopted by Squarcione, whose apprentice he remained until 1456, when he procured his release. In 1454 he had married the daughter of Jacopo Bellini and by 1460 he had entered the service of the Gonzagas in Mantua, in which he continued all his life. Mantegna was one of the greatest and most celebrated artists of N Italy. His passion for the antique is evidenced in all his work, and he was one of the first artists to make an extensive collection of Greek and Roman works. A rigorous draftsman and anatomist and a perfectionist in perspective, he nevertheless gave to his statuesque forms an intense and dramatic life. Among his early works the most celebrated are his frescoes of the lives of St. James and St. Christopher (Church of the Eremitani, Padua, destroyed in World War II); St. Luke altarpiece (Milan); and San Zeno altarpiece (Verona; parts are at the Louvre and Tours). In Mantua he decorated the bridal chamber of the Gonzaga palace with frescoes portraying many members of the family and other notables (completed 1474). On the ceiling he created the illusion of sky, a form of decoration that became very popular in the baroque period. Mantegna also painted nine cartoons depicting the Triumph of Caesar (Hampton Court Palace) and a Pietà (Milan). About 1497 he executed for Isabella d'Este Parnassus and Triumph of Virtue (Louvre). The Metropolitan Museum has his Adoration of the Shepherds. Mantegna is also noted for his drawings and copper-plate engravings. Early in his career he illustrated two manuscripts intended for René, duke of Anjou. In his initial letters for Strabo's Geography, he recaptured the art of Roman inscriptions. His lettering had a great influence on the development of printing. Among his engravings are Virgin and Child, Battle of the Sea Gods, and the Entombment.

See Complete Paintings of Mantegna, ed. by L. Coletti (1970); L. Berti, Mangegna (1964).

Cesalpino, Andrea: see Caesalpinus, Andreas.
Sansovino, Andrea, c.1460-1529, Florentine sculptor and architect of the High Renaissance, b. Monte Sansavino. His real name was Andrea Contucci. He trained under Antonio Pollaiuolo and worked in Florence, Rome, and Loreto. His tombs of Cardinals Sforza and Basso in Rome and his statues and reliefs for church decoration, such as the graceful Virgin and Child with St. Anne (1512) at San Agostino, were greatly admired.
Contucci, Andrea: see Sansovino, Andrea.
Riccio, Andrea: see Briosco, Andrea.
Sacchi, Andrea, 1599-1661, Italian baroque painter, b. Rome. He studied in Rome and in Bologna under Francesco Albani. His masterpiece, an allegory of Divine Wisdom (c.1629-33; ceiling fresco, Barberini Palace, Rome) typifies his classical treatment of composition. Inspired by Raphael's ideal art, Sacchi was associated with Poussin and Algardi in the championing of classical theory, in contrast to the dynamic approach of Pietro da Cortona and Bernini. Sacchi's foremost pupil was Maratti.
Palladio, Andrea, 1508-80, Italian architect of the Renaissance. Originally a stonemason, he was trained as an architect in Vicenza, and later in Rome he examined the remains of Roman architecture. The measured drawings he made of these were published with compositions of his own and, based on the treatise of Vitruvius, a description of practical systems of design and proportioning. This famous work, I quattro libri dell'architectura (1570, tr. The Four Books of Architecture, 1716), has been reissued many times.

Palladio's buildings, chiefly town palaces and villas, were executed mostly in Vicenza and its vicinity. Usually they were made of humble materials that contrasted with their formal classicism. Palladio's first important work (begun 1549) was to rebuild the medieval town hall, the basilica at Vicenza. He designed arches supported on minor columns and framed between larger engaged columns. Each of these arch-and-column compositions formed what is termed a "Palladian motif" and was much imitated. The characteristic facade of many of Palladio's country houses displayed the classic temple front—superimposed pilasters or columns or often a colossal order two stories in height and supported by a rusticated ground story. Generally in his buildings he systematized the ground plan, designing a central hall around which other rooms were grouped in absolute symmetry.

Among his best-known houses (built in the 1550s and 1560s) are the Villa Rotonda (overlooking Vicenza), the Chiericati Palace and the Valmarana Palace (both: Vicenza), and the Villa Barbaro (Maser). At Venice he adapted the classical motif to three church facades, in his designs for San Francesco della Vigna, San Giorgio Maggiore, and Il Redentore. Just before his death Palladio planned the Teatro Olimpico, in which he incorporated a permanent scenic background, built in architectural perspective.

Reviving and redesigning the ancient Roman villa for a new humanist age, Palladio set the vocabulary of architectural pattern, proportion, and ornament for much of Western domestic architecture for centuries to come. His books and buildings exerted an unparalleled influence on European and American architecture. In the 17th cent., Inigo Jones imported Palladio's classic grandeur of design into England and profoundly influenced the course of English architecture. Subsequently, William Kent, Colin Campbell, Sir Christopher Wren, Sir William Chambers, and others created a great body of works termed Palladian. In the United States his influence can be seen in the manor houses of southern plantations, e.g., Thomas Jefferson's Monticello.

See R. Wittkower, Palladio and Palladianism (1974); J. Ackerman, Palladio (2d ed. 1977); W. Rybczynski, The Perfect House (2002); G. Giaconi and K. Williams, The Villas of Palladio (2003); L. Capellini, The Hand of Palladio (2009).

Gabrieli, Andrea, c.1510-1586, Italian organist and composer; possibly a pupil of Adrian Willaert. In 1536 he was a chorister at St. Mark's Cathedral, Venice, where, in 1566, he became organist at the second organ. He composed madrigals, motets, masses, and ricercari and canzones for organ. He was important in the development of multiple-choir technique, and he was the teacher of Hans Leo Hassler and of his nephew Giovanni Gabrieli, c.1555-1612. Giovanni was for a time a singer in the court choir under Lasso in Munich and became (1585) second organist at St. Mark's, succeeding to first organ on the death of his uncle two years later. He brought the multiple-choir technique to its highest development, and he was most important in the development of the concerto style, i.e., differentiation of choral and solo ensembles. His Sonata pian'e forte (pub. in Sacrae symphoniae, 1597), the first piece of printed instrumental music containing dynamic indications, and the indication of specific instrumentation in his posthumously published works represent the beginnings of modern orchestration.

See studies by E. F. Kenton (1967) and D. Arnold (1979).

Briosco, Andrea, 1470?-1532, Italian architect and sculptor, known also as Andrea Riccio [curly-headed], b. Padua. As an architect, he created models for the church of Santa Giustina and for a chapel in Sant' Antonio in Padua. His fame rests chiefly on his bronze sculpture. In close contact with Paduan humanists, he carried out involved allegorical programs in his Paschal candlestick (Sant' Antonio) and the Della Torre monument (Verona). Drawing upon mythological themes, he combined delightful fantasy with a first-rate knowledge of antiquity.
Doria, Andrea, b. 1466 or 1468, d. 1560, Italian admiral and statesman, of an ancient family prominent in the history of Genoa. He started his career as a condottiere and in the Italian Wars fought for Francis I of France. In 1528 he fell out with Francis and went over to Charles V, Holy Roman emperor and King of Spain, under the condition that the independence of Genoa be preserved. Doria became (1528) virtual dictator of Genoa, but even under the constitution that he imposed the republican institutions were preserved. He mercilessly suppressed conspiracies against himself (1547, 1548) and ended factional strife. As admiral of the fleet, Doria assisted the Spanish against the Turks and the pirate Barbarossa. He helped Charles V in taking Tunis from Barbarossa in 1535 but failed at Algiers in 1541. In 1559 he recovered, with French aid, Corsica for Genoa.
Appiani, Andrea, 1754-1817, Italian neoclassical painter and Italian court painter of Napoleon I, active in Lombardy. His frescoes include work in churches and palaces of Milan. In his portraits his style anticipated the romantic approach. Portraits of Napoleon (1796; Bellagio) and Canova are among his oils.
Giovanni d'Andrea or Johannes Andreæ, (c. 1270-1275 – 1348) was an Italian expert in canon law, the most renowned and successful canonist of the later Middle Ages. His contemporaries referred to him as iuris canonici fons et tuba ("the fount and trumpet of canon law"). Most important among his works were extensive commentaries on all of the official collections of papal decretals, papal judgments in the form of letters to delegated judges that were at the core of canon law.

Life

Giovanni d'Andrea was born at Rifredo, near Florence, and studied Roman law and canon law at the University of Bologna, the great law school of the age, where he distinguished himself in this subject so much that he was made professor at Padua, and then at Pisa before returning to Bologna, where he remained from the season of 1301-02 until his death, save for brief seasons at Padua 1307-09 and 1319. He wrote the statutes by which the University was governed, in 1317

The 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica related curious stories of him, that by way of self-mortification he lay every night for twenty years on the bare ground with only a bear's skin for a covering— yet it is known that he remained a layman, was married and had children— that in an audience he had with Pope Boniface VIII his extraordinary shortness of stature led the pope to believe he was kneeling, and to ask him three times to rise, to the immense merriment of the cardinals; and that he had a daughter, Novella, so accomplished in law as to be able to read her father's lectures in his absence, and so beautiful, that she had to read behind a curtain lest her face should distract the attention of the students.

He is reported to have died at Bologna of the Black Death in 1348, and an epitaph in the church of the Dominicans in which he was buried, calling him Rabbi Doctorum, Lux, Censor, Normaque Morum testifies to the public estimation of his character. Johannes Calderinus was his student and later his adoptive son. Paulus de Liazariis and Johannes de Sancto Georgio were among his students, and he counted the humanists Cino da Pistoia and Petrarch among his friends.

Giovanni d'Andrea's output was voluminous:

Among lesser works, his additions to the Speculum of Durandus are simply an adaptation from the Consilia of Oldradus de Ponte, as is also his De Sponsalibus et Matrimonio, from Johannes Anguisciola.

External links

References

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