[ahn-drey or, for 1, an-dree; for 2 also Fr. ahn-drey]
Eglevsky, André, 1917-77, Russian-American dancer; b. Moscow. He trained in France and made his debut (1931) in London. Eglevsky danced (1939-42) with the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo and was (1951-58) premier danseur with the New York City Ballet. After he retired, he formed (1958) the Eglevsky Ballet in Long Island, New York.
Le Nôtre, André, 1613-1700, French landscape architect. Lenôtre's first important design, the park of Vaux-le-Vicomte, attracted the attention of Louis XIV, who then entrusted to him the direction of nearly all the royal parks and gardens. He brought to full development that type of spacious formal garden, characterized by extensive unbroken vistas, that so accurately expressed the grandeur of his period. The gardens of the palace of Versailles are his most celebrated work. In 1664 he transformed the palace gardens of the Tuileries. He also designed parks for Saint-Cloud, Marly-le-Roi, Chantilly, Fontainebleau, and Saint-Germain-en-Laye. His principles in garden design dominated throughout Europe until the rise of the English school of informal and naturalistic gardens.

See biography by H. Fox (1962); study by F. H. Hazlehurst (1980).

Derain, André, 1880-1954, French painter. He studied for a short time under Carrière. Derain's friendship with Vlaminck and Matisse led to his association c.1905 with the fauves. Forceful in his application of pure, bright patches of color, he was for a while prominent as an exponent of fauvism. His portrait of Matisse (1905; Philadelphia Mus. of Art) is a characteristic fauvist composition. Early in his career, however, Derain revealed a tendency toward an architectonic arrangement of forms, and his art gradually assumed a more conservative expression. He was influenced by African art and the work of French and Italian primitives. Derain is well represented in American collections, including the Lyman Allyn Museum, New London, Conn., and the Art Institute, Chicago.

See study by D. Sutton (1959).

Rigaud, André, 1761-1811, Haitian mulatto general in the wars that liberated Haiti. Educated, but vain, he believed in the superiority of mulattoes. He sought (1798-1800) unsuccessfully to wrest the leadership from Toussaint L'Ouverture. In 1802 he went to France, returned with General Leclerc, and was sent back again as a prisoner. In 1810, once again on Haitian soil, he tried to overthrow Alexandre Pétion in the south. Defeated, he died, presumably by starving himself to death.
Tardieu, André, 1876-1945, French statesman and journalist. He became (1905) chief political editor of the Temps, was elected (1914) a deputy, and was named minister (1919-20) of the liberated regions (Alsace and Lorraine) after World War I. As French plenipotentiary at the Paris Peace Conference (1919), he took an important part in negotiations leading to the Treaty of Versailles. Between 1926 and 1934 he held several cabinet posts and was three times premier (1929-30, 1930, 1932). A conservative and a nationalist, Tardieu championed the French demand for security from German aggression. He resigned as deputy in 1936 and agitated for vigorous action against German aggression and for a strong government. Although Tardieu never retained office long, he endured as a power behind the scenes and greatly influenced the policies of the rightist parties. He also wrote many political works.

See R. Binion, Defeated Leaders (1960).

Malraux, André, 1901-76, French man of letters and political figure. An intellectual with a broad knowledge of archaeology, art history, and anthropology, Malraux led a remarkably adventurous life. He traveled to Indochina looking for Khmer statuary and later visited such locales as Russia, Persia, Afghanistan, Burma, Malaysia, and the United States. He witnessed the struggle in China (1927) between the Communists and Nationalists, described in his novel The Conquerors (1928), helped to organize the Republican air force and commanded a squadron of volunteers in the Spanish civil war, and was a founder of the World League against Anti-Semitism. A French tank commander during World War II, he was captured by the Germans but escaped and became a resistance leader. Malraux served (1945, 1958) as minister of information under Charles de Gaulle. An enthusiastic adherent of de Gaulle, Malraux was later (1959-68) his minister of cultural affairs; as such he was largely responsible for the restoration of many Parisian landmarks, the establishment of the Orchestre de Paris, the funding of various literary works, and the creation of regional art centers. His writings on de Gaulle include Fallen Oaks (1971, tr. 1972).

Malraux's outstanding social novels, which reflect the tumult of his time, include La Condition humaine (1933; tr. Man's Fate, 1934), concerning the Shanghai uprisings, and L'Espoir (1938; tr. Man's Hope, 1938), set in Spain during the civil war. Amid violence and political chaos, his heroes struggle to maintain their dignity and humanity. Among his writings on art and civilization are Les Voix du silence (1951; tr. The Voices of Silence, 1953); The Metamorphosis of the Gods (tr. 1960), drawn from several of his works, including Le Musée imaginaire de la sculpture mondiale (3 vol., 1953-54); and Le Triangle noir (1970), studies of Goya, Laclos, and Saint-Just. In these works Malraux portrays art as an outgrowth of past art rather than a reaction to contemporary stimuli.

See his Anti-memoirs (1967, tr. 1968); memoir by C. Malraux (1967); biographies by R. Payne (1970), P. Galante (1971), J. Lacouture (1973, tr. 1976), C. Cate (1997), and O. Todd (2001, tr. 2005); studies by V. M. Horvath (1969), T. J. Kline (1973), W. M. Frohock (1974), H. Bloom, ed. (1988), G. T. Harris (1996), and J. F. Lyotard (2001).

Lwoff, André, 1902-94, French microbiologist, b. Ainay-le-Château, Allier dept., central France, of Russian-Polish origin. He was educated in France and in 1925 began a long association with the Pasteur Institute in Paris. In 1959 he also became a professor at the Sorbonne. In the 1920s his study of the morphogenesis of protozoans led to the discovery of extranuclear inheritance in these organisms. His treatise L'évolution physiologique, published in 1941, developed the thesis of biochemical evolution by progressive losses of biosynthetic capacity. He shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Jacques Monod and François Jacob for his discovery that the genetic material of a virus can be assimilated by bacteria and passed on to succeeding generations.
Gide, André, 1869-1951, French writer. He established a reputation as an unconventional novelist with The Immoralist (1902, tr. 1930), a partly autobiographical work in which he portrays a young man contravening ordinary moral standards in his search for self-fulfillment. In this and other major novels, including Strait Is the Gate (1909, tr. 1924), Lafcadio's Adventures (1914, tr. 1927), and The Counterfeiters (1926, tr. 1927), Gide shows individuals seeking out their own natures, which may be at conflict with prevailing ethical concepts. Raised as a Protestant, Gide became a leader of French liberal thought and was one of the founders (1909) of the influential Nouvelle Revue française. He was controversial for his frank defense of homosexuality and for his espousal of Communism and his subsequent disavowal of it after a visit to the Soviet Union. His voluminous writings, which include plays, stories, and essays, show great diversity of subjects and literary techniques. His use of myth to embody his thought is evident in such early satirical tales as Prometheus Misbound (1899, tr. 1933). His Travels in the Congo (1927, tr. 1929) and Retour du Tchad (1928) helped bring about reform of French colonial policy in Africa. In 1947 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.

See his autobiography, If It Die (tr. 1935, repr. 1957), and his journals (1889-1949), tr. and ed. by J. O'Brien (4 vol., 1947-51); studies by J. O'Brien (1953), J. Hytier (tr., 1967), V. Rossi (1967), G. D. Painter (rev. ed. 1968), A. J. Guérard (2d ed. 1969), and K. Mann (1978).

André, Brother, 1845-1937, Canadian Roman Catholic mystic, b. St. Grégoire d'Iberville, Que. His secular name was Alfred Bissette, Bassette, or Bessette. For about 40 years he was a porter at a school in Montreal. His simple, devout life began (c.1900) to attract attention. Many miraculous cures were attributed to him. Through his efforts the Oratory of St. Joseph was built in Montreal.

See biographies by H. P. Bergeron (1938), K. K. Burton (1952), and A. Hatch (1959).

André, John, 1751-80, British spy in the American Revolution. He was captured (1775) by Gen. Richard Montgomery in the Quebec campaign but was exchanged and became adjutant general under Sir Henry Clinton. Major André negotiated with Benedict Arnold for the betrayal of West Point and was captured (Sept. 23, 1780), when returning to New York, by John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart, near Tarrytown, N.Y. He was tried, condemned, and hanged at Washington's headquarters at Tappan, despite protests from Clinton. Major André's charming personality and his talents in the arts had won him many American friends, who mourned him as a romantically tragic young man.

See studies by J. T. Flexner (1953) and J. H. Smith (1969).

Michaux, André, 1746-1802, French botanist. He collected botanical specimens in Europe and Asia. In 1785 he was sent by the French government to establish nurseries in the United States to cultivate plants for naturalization in France. Until 1796 he made botanical journeys through the United States and recorded his studies in a book on the oaks of North America (1801) and in a work on North American botany, Flora Boreali-Americana (1803). His son, François André Michaux, 1770-1855, is known chiefly for his work on the forest trees of North America (1810-13, tr. The North American Sylva, 1817).
Chénier, André, 1762-94, French poet, by some critics considered the greatest in 18th-century France. He was born in Constantinople, where his father was consul general, and was educated in France. From 1787 to 1790 he was attached to the French embassy in London. Active in the early phase of the French Revolution, he was later horrified by Jacobin excesses. In 1792 he contributed denunciatory pamphlets to the Journal de Paris, an organ of moderate royalism. He was arrested in Mar., 1794, by order of Robespierre, and was guillotined only three days before the end of the Terror. Chénier vivified the French classical tradition in his Élégies and Bucoliques. The Iambes are stirring political satires in verse. Most of his works were published after his death; La Jeune Captive, one of his most moving poems, appeared in 1795 and the first collected edition of his works in 1819. His life inspired the opera Andrea Chénier by Umberto Giordano.

See biography by R. A. Smernoff (1977).

Masséna, André, 1758-1817, marshal of France, b. Nice. Of humble origin, he entered (1791) the French army and rose rapidly because of his brilliant tactical abilities. He served under Napoleon Bonaparte in the Italian campaign, won the battle of Rivoli (1797), where he earned a reputation for rapaciousness, and distinguished himself in Napoleon's campaigns of 1800 and 1809 against Austria. In 1799, Masséna's victory over the Russians at Zürich saved France from invasion by the Second Coalition (see French Revolutionary Wars). Masséna's subsequent failure in the Peninsular War is often attributed to the lack of cooperation of the other French commanders. Masséna's relations with Napoleon were somewhat strained because of Masséna's republican convictions, but he lacked political ambition, and Napoleon honored his military achievements by making him duke of Rivoli (1808) and prince of Essling (1810). After Napoleon's fall in 1814, Masséna supported Louis XVIII, who raised him to the peerage (1815). His neutral attitude during the Hundred Days was attacked by the royalists after the Restoration.

See his Mémoires (7 vol., 1848-50, repr. 1966-67); biography by J. H. Marshall-Cornwall (1965).

Masson, André, 1896-1987, French painter and graphic artist. An exponent of surrealism until 1928, Masson developed "automatic writing"—spontaneous linear expressions of his personal mythology. After World War II he painted superb landscapes in Aix-en-Provence. His Meditation on an Oak Leaf and other works are in the Museum of Modern Art, New York City.
Maurois, André, 1885-1967, French biographer, novelist, and essayist. His name was originally Émile Herzog. His first work, The Silence of Colonel Bramble (1918, tr. 1920), describing British military life, was highly successful. Ariel (1923, tr. 1924), a life of Shelley, was followed by lives of Byron, Disraeli, Chateaubriand, Washington, George Sand, Victor Hugo, and others. Other works include A History of England (1937, tr. rev. ed. 1958), Tragedy in France (1940, tr. 1940), From My Journal (1946, tr. 1948), and Proust (1949, tr. 1950). Maurois wrote discerningly on the art of biography as well as on writing and on living.

See his memoirs (2 vol., tr. 1942 and 1970).

Courrèges, André, 1923-, French fashion designer whose designs were especially popular and influential during the 1960s. He worked for the couturier Cristóbal Balenciaga from 1950 to 1961, when he opened his own house. Often using white, Courréges created space-age, unisex styles and is known for dresses and trouser suits featuring straight, flat lines and sheer tops that sometimes sported cut-outs. He is often credited with the invention of the miniskirt, which he frequently paired with shiny white boots. He later experimented with such looks as "gladiator" and ethnic outfits.
Breton, André, 1896-1966, French writer, founder and theorist of the surrealist movement. He studied neuropsychology and was one of the first in France to publicize the work of Freud. At first a Dadaist, he collaborated with Philippe Soupault in automatic writing in Les Champs magnétiques (1921). He then turned to surrealism, writing three manifestos (1924, 1930, 1934) and opening a studio for "surrealist research." Breton helped to found several reviews: Littérature (1919), Minotaure (1933), and VVV (1944). His other works include Nadja (1928, tr. 1960), a semiautobiographical novel; What is Surrealism? (1934, tr. 1936); Ode à Charles Fourier (1946); and L' Art Magique (1957).

See biography by M. Polizzotti (1995); study by A. E. Balakian (1971); A. E. Balakian and R. E. Kuenzli, ed., André Breton Today (1989).

Dunoyer de Segonzac, André: see Segonzac.
Antoine, André, 1858-1943, French theatrical director, manager, and critic. In opposition to the teachings of the Paris Conservatory, he formed (1887) his own company, the Théâtre Libre. There he presented, by private subscriptions, foremost works of the naturalistic school. He emphasized an intimate style of acting and a realistic use of space and tried to eliminate grand posturing. Financial failure forced him to relinquish the theater (1894). In 1897 he founded the Théâtre Antoine, where he continued the tradition of his Théâtre Libre for 10 years. He was director (1906-14) of the Odéon in Paris and after World War I became a respected drama critic.
Kostelanetz, André, 1901-80, American pianist and conductor, b. St. Petersburg, Russia. After studying at the St. Petersburg Conservatory of Music, he emigrated to the United States in 1922 and became a citizen in 1928. As a conductor Kostelanetz concentrated on popular and semiclassical works and on simplified versions of famous symphonies. He became popular while appearing regularly on radio and made many records.
Kertész, André, 1894-1985, American photographer, b. Budapest. His black-and-white modernist photographs often capture small, lyrical, and emotionally resonant moments while also formally exploiting the play of light and shadow, pattern, and depth of space. Kertész became a professional photographer after emigrating (1925) from Hungary to Paris and subsequently purchased a 35-mm camera, which allowed him to photograph everyday events on the Parisian streets unobtrusively. The small-format camera remained his favorite instrument throughout his long career. In Paris he also experimented with surrealistically distorted nudes, made many portraits of his artist friends, and contributed to various illustrated magazines. He moved to New York City in 1936, became a U.S. citizen in 1944, and took many sensitive photographs of his adopted city's street life. Kertész also worked as a commercial magazine photographer until the early 1960s. His work has been featured in several major museum retrospectives and in such volumes as Day of Paris (1945), André Kertész: Sixty Years of Photography (1972), and Kertész on Kertész (1985).

See studies by J. Corkin, ed. (1982, repr. 1993), S. Harder and H. Kubota, ed. (1987), P. Borhan, ed. (1994, repr. 2000), and S. Greenough and R. Gurbo, ed. (2005).

André Paul Guillaume Gide (November 22, 1869February 19, 1951) was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1947. Gide's career ranged from its beginnings in the symbolist movement, to the advent of anticolonialism between the two World Wars.

Known for his fiction as well as his autobiographical works, Gide exposes to public view the conflict and eventual reconciliation between the two sides of his personality, split apart by a strait-laced education and a narrow social moralism. Gide's work can be seen as an investigation of freedom and empowerment in the face of moralistic and puritan constraints, and gravitates around his continuous effort to achieve intellectual honesty. His self-exploratory texts reflect his search of how to be fully oneself, even to the point of owning one's sexual nature, without at the same time betraying one's values. His political activity is informed by the same ethos, as suggested by his repudiation of communism after his 1936 voyage to the USSR.

Early life

Gide was born in Paris, France on November 22, 1869, in a middle-class Protestant family. His father was a Paris University professor of law and died in 1880. His uncle was the political economist Charles Gide.

Gide was brought up in isolated conditions in Normandy and became a prolific writer at an early age, publishing his first novel, The Notebooks of Andre Walter (French: Les Cahiers d'André Walter), in 1891.

In 1893 and 1894 Gide traveled in northern Africa. Gide realized he was homosexual after an encounter with a boy prostitute in North Africa. He befriended Oscar Wilde in Paris, and in 1895 Gide and Wilde met in Algiers. There, Wilde had the impression that he had introduced Gide to homosexuality, but, in fact, Gide had already discovered this on his own.

The middle years

In 1895, after his mother's death, he married his cousin Madeleine Rondeaux but the marriage remained unconsummated. In 1896, he became mayor of La Roque-Baignard, a commune in Normandy.

In 1901, Gide rented the property Maderia in St. Brelade's Bay and lived here when he was residing in Jersey. This period 1901-07 is commonly seen as a period of apathy and disquiet in his life.

In 1908, Gide helped found the literary magazine Nouvelle Revue Française (The New French Review). In 1916, Marc Allégret, 16, became his lover. He was the son of Elie Allegret, best man at Gide's wedding. Of Allegret's five children, André Gide adopted Marc. The two eloped to London, in retribution for which his wife burned all his correspondence, "the best part of myself," as he was later to comment. In 1918, he met Dorothy Bussy, who was his friend for over thirty years and who would translate many of his works into English.

In the 1920s, Gide became an inspiration for writers like Albert Camus and Jean-Paul Sartre. In 1923, he published a book on Fyodor Dostoyevsky; however, when he defended homosexuality in the public edition of Corydon (1924) he received widespread condemnation. He later considered this his most important work.

In 1923, he conceived a daughter, Catherine, with Elisabeth van Rysselberghe, a much younger woman, who was the daughter of his closest woman friend Maria Monnom, the wife of the Belgian neo-impressionist painter Théo van Rysselberghe. This would cause the only crisis in the long-standing and intense friendship between the two men. Gide had known Elisabeth since childhood. This was possibly his only sexual liaison with a woman and was brief in the extreme, but Catherine became his only descendant by blood. He liked to call Elisabeth "La Dame Blanche" (French: the White Lady). She eventually left her husband to move to Paris and manage the practical aspects of Gide's life (she had adjoining apartments built for each of them on the rue Vavin). She worshipped him, but evidently they never had a sexual relationship. Gide's legal wife Madeleine died in 1938. Later he used the background of his unconsummated marriage in his novel Et Nunc Manet in Te.

After 1925, he began to demand more humane conditions for criminals. In 1926, he published an autobiography, If it die (French: Si le grain ne meurt).


From July 1926 to May 1927, he travelled through the French Equatorial Africa colony with his lover Marc Allégret. He went successively to Middle Congo (now the Republic of the Congo), Oubangui-Chari (now the Central African Republic), briefly to Chad and then to Cameroun before returning to France. He related his peregrinations in a journal called Travels in the Congo (French: Voyage au Congo) and Return from Chad (French: Retour du Tchad). In this published journal, he criticized the behavior of French business interests in the Congo and inspired reform. In particular, he strongly criticized the Large Concessions regime (French: régime des Grandes Concessions), i.e. a regime according to which part of the colony was conceded to French companies and where these companies could exploit all of the area's natural resources, in particular rubber. He related for instance how natives were forced to leave their village during several weeks to collect rubber in the forest, and went as far as comparing their exploitation to slavery. The book had important influence on anti-colonialism movements in France and helped re-evaluate the impact of colonialism.


During the 1930s, he briefly became a communist, or more precisely, a fellow traveler (he never formally joined the Communist Party). As a distinguished writer sympathizing with the cause of communism, he was invited to tour the Soviet Union as a guest of the Soviet Union of Writers. The tour disillusioned him and he subsequently became quite critical of the idealogy. This criticism of communism caused him to lose socialist friends, especially when he made a clean break with it in Retour de L'U.R.S.S. in 1936. He was also a contributor to The God That Failed.

The 1940s

Gide left France for Africa in 1942 and lived in Tunis until the end of World War II. In 1947, he received the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Gide died on February 19, 1951. The Roman Catholic Church placed his works on the Index of Forbidden Books in 1952.

Partial list of works

  • Les cahiers d'André Walter - 1891
  • Le traité du Narcisse - 1891
  • Les poésies d'André Walter - 1892
  • Le voyage d'Urien - 1893
  • La tentative amoureuse - 1893
  • Paludes - 1895
  • Réflexions sur quelques points de littérature - 1897
  • Les nourritures terrestres - 1897
  • Feuilles de route 1895-1896 - 1897
  • El Hadj
  • Le Prométhée mal enchaîné - 1899
  • Philoctète - 1899
  • Lettres à Angèle - 1900
  • De l'influence en littérature - 1900
  • Le roi Candaule - 1901
  • Les limites de l'art - 1901
  • L'immoraliste - 1902 (translated by Richard Howard as The Immoralist)
  • Saül - 1903
  • De l'importance du public - 1903
  • Prétextes - 1903
  • Amyntas - 1906
  • Le retour de l'enfant prodigue - 1907
  • Dostoïevsky d'après sa correspondence - 1908
  • La porte étroite - 1909 (translated as Strait Is the Gate)
  • Oscar Wilde - 1910
  • Nouveaux prétextes - 1911
  • Charles-Louis-Philippe - 1911
  • C. R. D. N. - 1911
  • Isabelle - 1911
  • Bethsabé - 1912
  • Souvenirs de la Cour d'Assises - 1914
  • Les caves du Vatican - 1914 (translated as Lafcadio's Adventures)
  • La marche Turque - 1914
  • La symphonie pastorale - 1919
  • Corydon - 1920
  • Numquid et tu . . .? - 1922
  • Dostoïevsky - 1923
  • Incidences - 1924
  • Caractères - 1925
  • Les faux-monnayeurs - 1925 (translated as The Counterfeiters - 1927)
  • Si le grain ne meurt - 1926 (translated as If It Die)
  • Le journal des faux-monnayeurs - 1926
  • Dindiki - 1927
  • Voyage au Congo - 1927
  • Le retour de Tchad - 1928
  • L'école des femmes - 1929
  • Essai sur Montaigne - 1929
  • Un esprit non prévenu - 1929
  • Robert - 1930
  • La séquestrée de Poitiers - 1930
  • L'affaire Redureau - 1930
  • Œdipe - 1931
  • Perséphone - 1934
  • Les nouvelles nourritures - 1935
  • Geneviève - 1936
  • Retour de l'U. R. S. S. - 1936
  • Retouches â mon retour de l'U. R. S. S. - 1937
  • Notes sur Chopin - 1938
  • Journal 1889-1939 - 1939
  • Découvrons Henri Michaux - 1941
  • Thésée - 1946
  • Le retour - 1946
  • Paul Valéry - 1947
  • Le procès - 1947
  • L'arbitraire - 1947
  • Eloges - 1948
  • Littérature engagée - 1950


See also

External links

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