Anderson

Anderson

[an-der-suhn]
Anderson, Carl David, 1905-91, American physicist, b. New York City, grad. California Institute of Technology (B.S., 1927; Ph.D., 1930). Associated with the institute's physics department from 1930, he became professor in 1939. For his discovery (1932) of the positron, he shared with V. F. Hess the 1936 Nobel Prize in Physics. The muon particle was discovered in cosmic rays in 1935 by Anderson and his associate S. H. Neddermeyer and almost simultaneously by J. C. Street and E. C. Stevenson at Harvard.
Anderson, Elizabeth Garrett, 1836-1917, English physician. A sister of Millicent Garrett Fawcett, Elizabeth also worked for woman suffrage. With difficulty she obtained a private medical education under accredited physicians and in London hospitals; in 1865 she was licensed to practice by the Scottish Society of Apothecaries. In London in 1866 she opened a dispensary, later a small hospital, for women and children, the first in England to be staffed by women physicians; it was known after 1918 as the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital. Largely as a result of her efforts, British examining boards opened their examinations to women.

See biography by J. Manton (1965).

Anderson, Jack (Jackson Northman Anderson), 1922-2005, American newspaper columnist, b. Long Beach, Calif. After serving as a Mormon missionary (1941-44) and a term as a war correspondent during 1945, he was hired by Drew Pearson for the staff of his column, "Washington Merry-Go-Round." Anderson and Pearson later collaborated on The Case against Congress (1969). Anderson took over the column after Pearson's death in 1969 and retired from writing it in 2004. Controversial because of his unorthodox methods of obtaining news stories, Anderson nonetheless uncovered vital information, including facts about the Watergate affair. His reporting on the secret relations between the United States and Pakistan in its war with India won the 1972 Pulitzer Prize. He also revealed information on the Iran-contra affair during the Reagan administration. Anderson interviewed an enormous range of 20th-century figures; his later reporting is considered more moderate than his earlier work.

See his memoir, Confessions of a Muckraker (1979).

Anderson, John, 1893-1962, Scottish-Australian philosopher, b. Scotland. A graduate of the Univ. of Glasgow, he taught (1918-27) at the universities of Cardiff, Glasgow, and Edinburgh before becoming professor of philosophy at the Univ. of Sydney, Australia (1927-58). His extreme concern for independence of thought led to a controversial academic career because he attacked many institutions (including Christianity, social welfare, and Communism) for encouraging servility. Philosophically he warred against ultimates of every sort, but his philosophy was inclusive rather than negative, stressing the complexity of experience—a complexity not reducible to any ultimate units or wholes—and the limits of any one description of it. His articles were collected in Studies in Empirical Philosophy (1962).
Anderson, Dame Judith, 1898-1992, British actress, b. Adelaide, S. Australia, originally named Frances Margaret Anderson. She made her debut in Sydney in 1915 and by 1924 had become celebrated for her portrayals of classical and modern roles. In 1937 she made her London debut in Macbeth with Laurence Olivier. The title role in Medea by Robinson Jeffers, which she played in 1947 and 1982, was a personal triumph. Anderson's notable films were Rebecca (1940), Laura (1944), and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1958). Her later films include A Man Called Horse (1970) and Star Trek III (1984). She was made a Dame of the British Empire in 1960.
Anderson, Laurie, 1947-, American performance artist, b. Chicago. Originally a sculptor, she was influenced by Philip Glass and other avant-garde composers in the early 1970s and soon turned to the creation of multimedia performance art. Anderson is best known for quirky, witty, and elaborate events that typically combine such elements as electronic and instrumental music, song, theater, film, and video projections; they include United States I-IV of the 1980s and Nerve Bible (1992). In 1982 she scored a pop music hit with "O Superman," and has since made a number of albums, e.g., Big Science (1984), Strange Angels (1989), Bright Red (1994). She has also made video and film pieces, composed orchestral works and soundtracks, created and performed monologues, and written books. Her first CD-ROM, The Ugly One with the Jewels, was released in 1994.

See study by R. Goldberg (2000).

Anderson, Margaret C., 1886-1973, American author, editor, and publisher, b. Indianapolis, Ind. As editor and publisher of The Little Review (1914-29), one of the most famous of the American little magazines, she included articles on controversial subjects and pieces by such writers as Vachel Lindsay, William Butler Yeats, Ernest Hemingway, Ezra Pound, and André Breton. From 1917 to 1920, The Little Review published excerpts from James Joyce's then unpublished novel Ulysses (1922). Because of their alleged obscenity, the U.S. Post Office burned four issues of the magazine containing the excerpts; in 1920, Anderson and her associate Jane Heap were convicted of publishing obscene matter, fined $100, and fingerprinted. After 1923, Anderson lived in France.

See her autobiography (3 vol.: 1930, repr. 1971; 1951, repr. 1969).

Anderson, Marian, 1897-1993, American contralto, b. Philadelphia. She was the first African American to be named a permanent member of the Metropolitan Opera Company, as well as the first to perform at the White House. Anderson first sang in Philadelphia church choirs, then studied with Giuseppe Boghetti. She began her concert career in 1924 and achieved her first great successes in Europe. Her rich, wide-ranged voice was superbly suited to opera, lieder, and the spirituals that she included in her concerts and recordings. In 1939, when the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) refused to allow her to perform at Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C., Eleanor Roosevelt publicly resigned her DAR membership in protest against the racist snub and sponsored Anderson's landmark concert at the Lincoln Memorial. In 1955 Anderson made her debut with the Metropolitan Opera. She was appointed an alternate delegate to the United Nations in 1958 and was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963.

See her autobiography, My Lord, What a Morning (1956); biography by A. Keiler (2000); R. Arsenault, The Sound of Freedom: Marian Anderson, the Lincoln Memorial, and the Concert That Awakened America (2009).

Anderson, Mary, 1872-1964, American labor expert, chief (1919-44) of the Women's Bureau, U.S. Dept. of Labor, b. Sweden. She emigrated to the United States in 1888. After some years as an industrial worker in garment and shoe factories, she became an organizer for the National Boot and Shoe Workers' Union and one of the founders of the National Women's Trade Union League. In 1918 she was appointed assistant to the chief of the Women's Bureau, becoming its chief in 1919.

See her autobiography, Woman at Work (1951, repr. 1973).

Anderson, Maxwell, 1888-1959, American dramatist, b. Atlantic, Pa., grad. Univ. of North Dakota, 1911. His plays, many of which are written in verse, usually concern social and moral problems. Anderson was a journalist until the successful production in 1924 of What Price Glory?, a war drama written with Laurence Stallings. Winterset (1935), based on the Sacco-Vanzetti case, is probably Anderson's most successful verse tragedy. He wrote many historical dramas including Elizabeth the Queen (1930), Mary of Scotland (1933), Valley Forge (1934), Joan of Lorraine (1947), Anne of the Thousand Days (1948), and Barefoot in Athens (1951). Among his other plays are Both Your Houses (1933), High Tor (1937), The Star Wagon (1937), Key Largo (1939), and The Eve of St. Mark (1942). He also wrote the librettos for Kurt Weill's Knickerbocker Holiday (1938) and Lost in the Stars (1940). A collection of his poetry, Notes on a Dream, was published in 1972.

His eldest son, Quentin Anderson, 1914-2003, b. Minnewauken, N.Dak., was a literary critic, cultural historian, and Columbia Univ. professor (1939-81). Educated at Columbia (B.A., 1937; Ph. D., 1953) and Harvard (M.A., 1945), he was an expert on 19th-century American literature and wrote such books as The American Henry James (1957), The Imperial Self (1971), and Making Americans (1992).

See biography by A. S. Shivers (1982); bibliography by M. Cox (1958, repr. 1974).

Anderson, Philip Warren, 1923-, American physicist, b. Indianapolis, Ind., Ph.D. Harvard, 1949. After graduation he worked at Bell Laboratories; in 1975 he became a professor of physics at Princeton. In 1977 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his investigations into the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems, which allowed for the development of electronic switching and memory devices in computers. Co-researchers Sir Nevill F. Mott and John H. Van Vleck shared the award with Anderson.
Anderson, Robert, 1805-71, American army officer, defender of Fort Sumter, b. near Louisville, Ky., grad. West Point, 1825. He fought in the Black Hawk, Seminole, and Mexican wars and was promoted to major in 1857. In Nov., 1860, he took command of the U.S. force in the harbor of Charleston, S.C., where he distinguished himself in the Fort Sumter controversy. Anderson, made a brigadier general in the regular army (May, 1861), commanded the Dept. of Kentucky (June-Oct.). He retired from active service in Oct., 1863. In Feb., 1865, he was brevetted major general for his gallant service in the defense of Fort Sumter.
Anderson, Sherwood, 1876-1941, American novelist and short-story writer, b. Camden, Ohio. After serving briefly in the Spanish-American War, he became a successful advertising man and later a manager of a paint factory in Elyria, Ohio. Dissatisfied with his life, however, Anderson abandoned both his job and his family and went to Chicago to become a writer. His first novel, Windy McPherson's Son (1916), concerning a boy's life in Iowa, was followed by Marching Men (1917), a chronicle about the plight of the working man in an industrial society. In his best-known work, Winesburg, Ohio (1919), a closely integrated collection of stories, he explores the loneliness and frustration of small-town lives. This work contains perhaps the most successful expression of the theme that dominates all Anderson's works—the conflict between organized industrial society and the subconscious instincts of the individual. In his later novels—Poor White (1920), Many Marriages (1923), and Dark Laughter (1925)—he continues to explore, but generally with less skill, the spiritual and emotional sterility of a success-oriented machine age. Anderson's unique talent, however, found its best expression in his short stories. Such collections as The Triumph of the Egg (1921), Horses and Men (1923), and Death in the Woods (1933) contain some of his most compassionate and penetrating writing. In 1927, Anderson moved to Marion, Va., where he bought and edited two newspapers, one Republican and one Democratic.

See his autobiographical Story Teller's Story (1924) and Tar: A Midwest Childhood (1926); memoirs (1942); letters (ed. by H. M. Jones and W. B. Rideout, 1953); diaries (ed. by H. H. Campbell, 1987); biographies by I. Howe (1966) and K. Townsend (1987); studies by P. P. Appel, ed. (1970) and W. D. Taylor, ed. (1977).

Anderson, Sparky (George Lee Anderson), 1934-, American baseball manager, b. Bridgewater, S.Dak. A one-season (1959) infielder for the Philadelphia Phillies, he became the manager of the Cincinnati Reds, also of the National League, in 1970. He guided the "Big Red Machine" to four pennants (1970, 1972, 1975-76) and won two World Series (1975-76) before moving (1979) to the helm of the American League's Detroit Tigers. In 1984 he led the Tigers to more than 100 wins and victory in the World Series, becoming the first manager to achieve those feats in both leagues. When he left Detroit after the 1995 season, Anderson had won 2,194 games, third in baseball history to Connie Mack and John J. McGraw.
Anderson. 1 City (1990 pop. 59,459), seat of Madison co., E central Ind., on the White River; inc. 1838. It is a manufacturing center in a fertile farm area; food products, aircraft parts, furniture, and industrial fabrics are produced. There also are call-center operations and horse racing and gambling. The city's industrial growth began with the discovery of natural gas in 1887. The automotive industry was established in 1901 and became the city's largest employer, but it declined in the late 20th cent., leading to a major population loss as well. Anderson Univ. is there. The city has a fine-arts center and a symphony orchestra. Nearby Mounds State Park has numerous prehistoric mounds. The Moravians operated a Native American mission nearby (1801-6). 2 City (1990 pop. 26,184), seat of Anderson co., NW S.C.; settled in the 17th cent., inc. 1828. The commercial center of a farming and livestock area, its industries include the manufacture of electronic equipment, machinery, paper and plastic products, and textiles and apparel.
Anderson, river, c.465 mi (750 km) long, rising in several lakes in N central Northwest Territories, Canada. It meanders north and west before receiving the Carnwath River and flowing north to Liverpool Bay, an arm of the Arctic Ocean. The village of Staton is at its mouth.

(born Sept. 13, 1876, Camden, Ohio, U.S.—died March 8, 1941, Colon, Pan.) U.S. author. Anderson was irregularly schooled. Having married, he abruptly left his family and business career to become a writer in Chicago. Winesburg, Ohio (1919), a collection of interrelated sketches and tales about the obscure lives of the citizens of a small town, was his first mature book and made his reputation. His short stories were collected in The Triumph of the Egg (1921), Horses and Men (1923), and Death in the Woods (1933). His prose style, based on everyday speech and influenced by the experimental writing of Gertrude Stein, in turn influenced such writers as Ernest Hemingway and William Faulkner.

Learn more about Anderson, Sherwood with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 15, 1888, Atlantic, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 28, 1959, Stamford, Conn.) U.S. playwright. He worked as a journalist before cowriting his first successful play, What Price Glory? (1924), which was followed by Saturday's Children (1927). His verse dramas Elizabeth the Queen (1930) and Mary of Scotland (1933) were later adapted for film. He returned to prose for the satire Both Your Houses (1933, Pulitzer Prize) and the tragedy Winterset (1935), then turned to verse again for High Tor (1936), a romantic comedy. He collaborated with Kurt Weill on the musicals Knickerbocker Holiday (1938) and Lost in the Stars (1949). His last play, The Bad Seed (1954), became a successful film.

Learn more about Anderson, (James) Maxwell with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Marian Anderson.

(born Feb. 27, 1897, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died April 8, 1993, Portland, Ore.) U.S. singer. She was immediately recognized for the beauty of her voice and her artistry at her New York City debut in 1924, but the fact that she was black made a concert or opera career in the U.S. impossible. Her London debut in 1930 and tours of Scandinavia established her in Europe, where she worked exclusively until 1935. When she was denied use of Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C., by the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1939, Eleanor Roosevelt arranged for her to sing at the Lincoln Memorial, and the concert was broadcast to great acclaim. Her debut at the Metropolitan Opera, the first performance there by a black singer, took place in 1955, when she was in her late 50s.

Learn more about Anderson, Marian with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 5, 1947, Wayne, Ill., U.S.) U.S. performance artist. After studying at Barnard College and Columbia University, she began giving performances in New York City in 1973 while teaching art history at the City University of New York. Combining elements of music, theatre (dance, mime), film, technology, and speech, she satirized media and mass culture, using the tools they themselves provide. The pop-music success of her song “O Superman” (1980) led her to record two albums, Big Science (1982) and Mister Heartbreak (1984). Her major 1980s piece was the multimedia extravaganza United States. Other works include Stories from the Nerve Bible (1993) and a multimedia work (1999) based on Moby Dick.

Learn more about Anderson, Laurie with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 3, 1816, Franklin county, Va., U.S.—died March 2, 1894, Lynchburg, Va.) U.S. and Confederate military leader. He graduated from West Point and served in the second of the Seminole Wars and the Mexican War. He opposed secession but supported his home state of Virginia when it joined the Confederacy. He fought at the Battle of Bull Run and in Virginia. In 1864 he led Confederate forces down the Shenandoah Valley and threatened Washington, D.C., but was defeated by Union troops under Philip Sheridan. Relieved of his command, he fled to Mexico and then Canada, returning to Virginia in 1869.

Learn more about Early, Jubal A(nderson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

J.B.S. Haldane

(born Nov. 5, 1892, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.—died Dec. 1, 1964, Bhubaneswar, India) British geneticist. Son of John Scott Haldane, he began studying science as his father's assistant at age eight and later received his M.A. from Oxford. Haldane, R. A. Fisher, and Sewall Wright, in separate mathematical arguments based on analyses of mutation rates, population size, patterns of reproduction, and other factors, related Charles Darwin's evolutionary theory and Gregor Mendel's concepts of heredity. Haldane also contributed to the theory of enzyme action and to studies in human physiology.

Learn more about Haldane, J(ohn) B(urdon) S(anderson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Ellen Glasgow, miniature by an unknown artist; in the collection of the Virginia Historical Society.

(born April 22, 1873, Richmond, Va., U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1945, Richmond) U.S. novelist. She was irregularly schooled and lived the life of a Southern belle. With Virginia (1913), she completed a five-novel series (begun 1900) depicting the state's social history. She was past age 50 when she gained critical notice for Barren Ground (1925). The Sheltered Life (1932) is part of a trilogy of ironic novels of manners. Her realistic depiction of Virginia life helped direct Southern literature away from sentimentality and nostalgia.

Learn more about Glasgow, Ellen (Anderson Gholson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Ellen Glasgow, miniature by an unknown artist; in the collection of the Virginia Historical Society.

(born April 22, 1873, Richmond, Va., U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1945, Richmond) U.S. novelist. She was irregularly schooled and lived the life of a Southern belle. With Virginia (1913), she completed a five-novel series (begun 1900) depicting the state's social history. She was past age 50 when she gained critical notice for Barren Ground (1925). The Sheltered Life (1932) is part of a trilogy of ironic novels of manners. Her realistic depiction of Virginia life helped direct Southern literature away from sentimentality and nostalgia.

Learn more about Glasgow, Ellen (Anderson Gholson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 9, 1836, Aldeburgh, Suffolk, Eng.—died Dec. 17, 1917, Aldeburgh) British physician. Denied admission to medical schools, she studied privately with physicians and in London hospitals and was the first woman licensed as a physician in Britain (1865). Appointed general medical attendant to St. Mary's Dispensary (1866), later the New Hospital for Women, she created a medical school for women, and in 1918 the hospital was named for her.

Learn more about Anderson, Elizabeth Garrett with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 3, 1816, Franklin county, Va., U.S.—died March 2, 1894, Lynchburg, Va.) U.S. and Confederate military leader. He graduated from West Point and served in the second of the Seminole Wars and the Mexican War. He opposed secession but supported his home state of Virginia when it joined the Confederacy. He fought at the Battle of Bull Run and in Virginia. In 1864 he led Confederate forces down the Shenandoah Valley and threatened Washington, D.C., but was defeated by Union troops under Philip Sheridan. Relieved of his command, he fled to Mexico and then Canada, returning to Virginia in 1869.

Learn more about Early, Jubal A(nderson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 8, 1819, Hinsdale, N.H., U.S.—died Oct. 17, 1897, Glen Cove, N.Y.) U.S. journalist. Dana lived at the utopian Brook Farm community for five years in the 1840s before becoming an editor for Horace Greeley's New York Tribune, where he actively promoted the antislavery cause. He became a national figure as editor and part owner of the New York Sun (1868–97), which under his control was much admired and imitated. With George Ripley, he edited the New American Cyclopaedia (1857–63). He also edited a highly successful verse anthology and wrote books such as The Art of Newspaper Making (1895).

Learn more about Dana, Charles A(nderson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Frances Margaret Anderson

(born Feb. 10, 1898, Adelaide, S.Aus., Australia—died Jan. 3, 1992, Santa Barbara, Calif., U.S.) Australian-born U.S. actress. She made her stage debut in Sydney in 1915 and first appeared in New York City in 1918. She was noted for roles such as Lavinia in Mourning Becomes Electra (1932), Gertrude in Hamlet (1936), Lady Macbeth in Macbeth (1937, 1941), and the h1 role in Medea (1947). She appeared in over 25 films, usually playing an evil or sinister figure, including Mrs. Danvers in Rebecca (1940) and Ann Treadwell in Laura (1944).

Learn more about Anderson, Dame Judith with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Aug. 8, 1819, Hinsdale, N.H., U.S.—died Oct. 17, 1897, Glen Cove, N.Y.) U.S. journalist. Dana lived at the utopian Brook Farm community for five years in the 1840s before becoming an editor for Horace Greeley's New York Tribune, where he actively promoted the antislavery cause. He became a national figure as editor and part owner of the New York Sun (1868–97), which under his control was much admired and imitated. With George Ripley, he edited the New American Cyclopaedia (1857–63). He also edited a highly successful verse anthology and wrote books such as The Art of Newspaper Making (1895).

Learn more about Dana, Charles A(nderson) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 13, 1876, Camden, Ohio, U.S.—died March 8, 1941, Colon, Pan.) U.S. author. Anderson was irregularly schooled. Having married, he abruptly left his family and business career to become a writer in Chicago. Winesburg, Ohio (1919), a collection of interrelated sketches and tales about the obscure lives of the citizens of a small town, was his first mature book and made his reputation. His short stories were collected in The Triumph of the Egg (1921), Horses and Men (1923), and Death in the Woods (1933). His prose style, based on everyday speech and influenced by the experimental writing of Gertrude Stein, in turn influenced such writers as Ernest Hemingway and William Faulkner.

Learn more about Anderson, Sherwood with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Marian Anderson.

(born Feb. 27, 1897, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died April 8, 1993, Portland, Ore.) U.S. singer. She was immediately recognized for the beauty of her voice and her artistry at her New York City debut in 1924, but the fact that she was black made a concert or opera career in the U.S. impossible. Her London debut in 1930 and tours of Scandinavia established her in Europe, where she worked exclusively until 1935. When she was denied use of Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C., by the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1939, Eleanor Roosevelt arranged for her to sing at the Lincoln Memorial, and the concert was broadcast to great acclaim. Her debut at the Metropolitan Opera, the first performance there by a black singer, took place in 1955, when she was in her late 50s.

Learn more about Anderson, Marian with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 5, 1947, Wayne, Ill., U.S.) U.S. performance artist. After studying at Barnard College and Columbia University, she began giving performances in New York City in 1973 while teaching art history at the City University of New York. Combining elements of music, theatre (dance, mime), film, technology, and speech, she satirized media and mass culture, using the tools they themselves provide. The pop-music success of her song “O Superman” (1980) led her to record two albums, Big Science (1982) and Mister Heartbreak (1984). Her major 1980s piece was the multimedia extravaganza United States. Other works include Stories from the Nerve Bible (1993) and a multimedia work (1999) based on Moby Dick.

Learn more about Anderson, Laurie with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 9, 1836, Aldeburgh, Suffolk, Eng.—died Dec. 17, 1917, Aldeburgh) British physician. Denied admission to medical schools, she studied privately with physicians and in London hospitals and was the first woman licensed as a physician in Britain (1865). Appointed general medical attendant to St. Mary's Dispensary (1866), later the New Hospital for Women, she created a medical school for women, and in 1918 the hospital was named for her.

Learn more about Anderson, Elizabeth Garrett with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Frances Margaret Anderson

(born Feb. 10, 1898, Adelaide, S.Aus., Australia—died Jan. 3, 1992, Santa Barbara, Calif., U.S.) Australian-born U.S. actress. She made her stage debut in Sydney in 1915 and first appeared in New York City in 1918. She was noted for roles such as Lavinia in Mourning Becomes Electra (1932), Gertrude in Hamlet (1936), Lady Macbeth in Macbeth (1937, 1941), and the h1 role in Medea (1947). She appeared in over 25 films, usually playing an evil or sinister figure, including Mrs. Danvers in Rebecca (1940) and Ann Treadwell in Laura (1944).

Learn more about Anderson, Dame Judith with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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