Psychoanalytic method of Carl Jung as he distinguished it from that of Sigmund Freud. Jung attached less importance than did Freud to the role of childhood sexual conflicts in the development of neurosis. Moreover, he defined the unconscious to include both the individual's own unconscious and that inherited, partly in the form of archetypes, from his or her ancestors (the “collective unconscious”). He classified people into introvert and extravert types and further distinguished them according to four primary functions of the mind—thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition—one or more of which predominated in any given person.
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Philosophical tradition that emphasizes the logical analysis of concepts and the study of the language in which they are expressed. It has been the dominant approach in philosophy in the English-speaking world from the early 20th century. With respect to its problems, methods, and style, it is often contrasted with Continental philosophy, though the significance of the opposition has been widely challenged. Analytic philosophers have differed regarding the nature of so-called “ordinary” language and the methodological value of appeals to ordinary usage in the logical analysis of concepts. Those known as formalists hold that, because ordinary language is potentially a source of conceptual confusion, philosophy and science should be conducted in a logically transparent formal language based on modern mathematical, or symbolic, logic. Those known as informalists reject this view, arguing that attempts to “improve” ordinary language in this way inevitably oversimplify or falsify it, thereby creating conceptual confusion of just the sort that the formalists are concerned to avoid. Three figures conventionally recognized as founders of the tradition are Gottlob Frege, G.E. Moore, and Bertrand Russell. Other major figures include Ludwig Wittgenstein, A.J. Ayer, Rudolf Carnap, J.L. Austin, W.V.O. Quine, and David Lewis (1941–2001). Seealso logical positivism; Vienna Circle.
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Investigation of geometric objects using coordinate systems. Because René Descartes was the first to apply algebra to geometry, it is also known as Cartesian geometry. It springs from the idea that any point in two-dimensional space can be represented by two numbers and any point in three-dimensional space by three. Because lines, circles, spheres, and other figures can be thought of as collections of points in space that satisfy certain equations, they can be explored via equations and formulas rather than graphs. Most of analytic geometry deals with the conic sections. Because these are defined using the notion of fixed distance, each section can be represented by a general equation derived from the distance formula.
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Generally speaking, analytic (from Greek ἀναλυτικός - analytikos) refers to the "having the ability to analyze" or "division into elements or principles."