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American Civil War bibliography

American Civil War bibliography

The American Civil War bibliography is vast, with over 60,000 books on the American Civil War, with many more appearing each year. This is a selected, annotated list of the most useful titles. The emphasis is on recent publications since 2000.

For a guide to the bibliography see:

  • Steven E. Woodworth, ed. The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research. Greenwood Press. 1996. 756pp

For a guide to web sources see:

  • Alice E. Carter and Richard Jensen. The Civil War on the Web: A Guide to the Very Best Sites--Completely Revised and Updated (2003)

For an older short survey that is online and won the Pulitzer prize, see:

For the most recent surveys see:

  • Fellman, Michael et al. This Terrible War: The Civil War and its Aftermath (2nd. ed. 2007), 544 pages
  • Donald, David et al. The Civil War and Reconstruction (2001); 700 pages
  • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988), 900 pages; Pulitzer prize online edition

Surveys and reference books

  • Beringer, Richard E., Archer Jones, and Herman Hattaway, Why the South Lost the Civil War (1986) influential analysis of factors; also, The Elements of Confederate Defeat: Nationalism, War Aims, and Religion (1988), abridged version
  • Catton, Bruce, The Civil War, American Heritage, 1960, ISBN 0-8281-0305-4, illustrated narrative
  • Catton, Bruce. This Hallowed Ground: The Story of the Union Side of the Civil War 1956 online edition
  • Davis, William C. The Imperiled Union, 1861-1865 3v (1983)
  • Faust, Patricia L. (ed.) Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War (1986) (ISBN 0-06-181261-7) 2000 short entries
  • Ford, Lacy K., ed. A Companion to the Civil War and Reconstruction. Blackwell, 2005. 518 pp. 23 essays by scholars excerpt and text search
  • Heidler, David Stephen, ed. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (2002), 1600 entries in 2700 pages in 5 vol or 1-vol editions
  • McPherson, James M. Ordeal by Fire: the Civil War and Reconstruction. (1992), uses modernization interpretation; the text is different from his Battle Cry book
  • Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union, an 8-volume set (1947-1971). the most detailed political, economic and military narrative; by Pulitzer Prize winner

#Fruits of Manifest Destiny, 1847-1852
#A House Dividing, 1852-1857
#Douglas, Buchanan, and Party Chaos, 1857-1859
#Prologue to Civil War, 1859-1861
#The Improvised War, 1861-1862
#War Becomes Revolution, 1862-1863
#The Organized War, 1863-1864
#The Organized War to Victory, 1864-1865

  • Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 (1920 and numerous editions) his 5-volume history of the war vol 1-7 online at Google.books.com
  • Rhodes, James Ford. History of the Civil War, 1861-1865 (1918), Pulitzer Prize; a short version of his 5-volume history
  • Wagner, Margaret E. Gary W. Gallagher, and Paul Finkelman, eds. The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference (2002)

Maps, photographs

  • Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars, Frederick A. Praeger, 1959.
  • Swanson, Mark. Atlas of the Civil War: Month By Month. U. of Georgia Press, 2004. 141 pp.
  • Ward, Geoffrey C. The Civil War (1990), based on PBS series by Ken Burns; visual emphasis

Battles: surveys, strategies, tactics

  • Blair, Jayne E. The Essential Civil War: A Handbook to the Battles, Armies, Navies And Commanders (2006)
  • Boritt, Gabor S. ed. Why the Confederacy Lost (1992), essays by scholars
  • Connelly, Thomas L., "Robert E. Lee and the Western Confederacy: A Criticism of Lee's Strategic Ability." Civil War History 15 (June 1969): 116-32
  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, (2001), ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative (3 volumes), (1974), famous narrative of every major campaign
  • Goss, Thomas J. The War within the Union High Command: Politics and Generalship during the Civil War. U. Press of Kansas, 2003. 320 pp.
  • Polsky, Andrew J. "'Mr. Lincoln's Army' Revisited: Partisanship, Institutional Position, and Union Army Command, 1861–1865." Studies in American Political Development (2002), 16: 176-207
  • Charles Royster. Destructive War: William Tecumseh Sherman, Stonewall Jackson, and the American Civil War (1992)
  • Simpson, Brooks D, "Continuous Hammering and Mere Attrition: Lost Cause Critics and the Military Reputation of Ulysses S. Grant," in Cad Gallagher and Alan T. Nolan, eds., The Myth of the Lost Cause and Civil War History, (2000)
  • Weigley, Russell Frank. A Great Civil War: A Military and Political History, 1861-1865 (2004); primarily military
  • Kenneth P. Williams. Lincoln Finds a General: A Military Study of the Civil War (1959) 5 volumes on Lincoln's control of the war
  • Williams, T. Harry. Lincoln and His Generals (1967).

Battles and campaigns: East

  • Beatie, Russel H. Army of the Potomac. Vol. 2: McClellan Takes Command, September 1861-February 1862. Da Capo, 2004. 636 pp.
  • Brown, Kent Masterson. Retreat from Gettysburg: Lee, Logistics, and the Pennsylvania Campaign. U. of North Carolina Press, 2005.
  • Cavanaugh, Michael A., and William Marvel, The Petersburg Campaign: The Battle of the Crater: "The Horrid Pit," June 25-August 6, 1864 (1989)
  • Coddington, Edwin B. The Gettysburg Campaign: A Study in Command (1968)
  • Coffey, David. Sheridan's Lieutenants: Phil Sheridan, His Generals, and the Final Year of the Civil War. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. 173 pp.
  • Cozzens, Peter, ed. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Vol. 6. U. of Illinois Press., 2004. 608 pp.
  • Davis, William C. Battle at Bull Run: A History of the First Major Campaign of the Civil War (1977).
  • Davis, William C. Death in the Trenches: Grant at Petersburg (1986).
  • Detzer, David. Donnybrook: The Battle of Bull Run, 1861. Harcourt, 2004. 490 pp.
  • Dowdey, Clifford. The Seven Days 1964.
  • Freeman, Douglas S., Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command (3 volumes), (1946). vol 1 from 1861 to the Seven Days' Battles; Vol 2 from Cedar Mountain to Chancellorsville, August 1862-May 1863; vol 3 to end of war.
  • Ernest B. Furgurson. Chancellorsville 1863: The Souls of the Brave (1992)
  • Gallagher, Gary W.; Lee & His Army in Confederate History University of North Carolina Press, 2001
  • Gallagher, Gary W., ed. The Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864. U. of North Carolina Press, 2006. 392 pp.
  • Grimsley, Mark, And Keep Moving On: The Virginia Campaign, May-June 1864 University of Nebraska Press, 2002.
  • Harsh, Joseph L. Taken at the Flood: Robert E. Lee and Confederate Strategy in the Maryland Campaign of 1862 Kent State University Press, 1999
  • Hennessy, John J. Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas (1993).
  • Johnson, R. U., and Buel, C. C., eds., Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. 4 vols. 1888; essays by leading generals of both sides; online edition
  • Luvaas, Jay and Harold W. Nelson, ed. The U.S. Army War College Guide to the Battle of Antietam: The Maryland Campaign of 1862 (1987), narratve, with excerpts from primary sources
    • Jay Luvaas and Harold Nelson. The U.S. Army War College Guide to the Battles of Chancellorsville and Fredericksburg (1988)
    • Jay Luvaas and Harold W. Nelson. The U.S. Army War College Guide to the Battle of Gettysburg (1986)
  • McWhiney, Grady, Battle in the Wilderness: Grant Meets Lee (1995)
  • Maney, R. Wayne, Marching to Cold Harbor. Victory and Failure, 1864 (1994).
  • Marvel, William. Lee's Last Retreat: The Flight to Appomattox. University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
  • Matter, William D., If It Takes All Summer: The Battle of Spotsylvania (1988)
  • Miller, J. Michael, The North Anna Campaign: "Even to Hell Itself," May 21-26, 1864 (1989).
  • Murfin, James V. The Gleam of Bayonets: The Battle of Antietam and the Maryland Campaign of 1862 (1965)
  • Pfanz, Harry W. Gettysburg: The Second Day (1987)
  • Rhea, Gordon C., The Battle of the Wilderness May 5–6, 1864, Louisiana State University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8071-1873-7.
  • Rhea, Gordon C., The Battles for Spotsylvania Court House and the Road to Yellow Tavern May 7–12, 1864, Louisiana State University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8071-2136-3.
  • Rhea, Gordon C., To the North Anna River: Grant and Lee, May 13–25, 1864, Louisiana State University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8071-2535-0.
  • Rhea, Gordon C., Cold Harbor: Grant and Lee, May 26 – June 3, 1864, Louisiana State University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8071-2803-1.
  • Sears, Stephen W. To the Gates of Richmond: The Peninsula Campaign (1992).
  • Sears, Stephen W. Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam (1983)
  • Starr, Stephen Z. The Union Cavalry in the Civil War 3 vol (1979, 1981),
  • Steere, Edward, The Wilderness Campaign (1960)
  • Swanberg, W. A. First Blood: The Story of Fort Sumter (1957)
  • Tanner, Robert G. Stonewall in the Valley: Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign Spring 1862 (1976)
  • Tucker, Glenn. High Tide at Gettysburg: The Campaign in Pennsylvania (1958).
  • Whan Jr., Vorin E. Fiasco at Fredericksburg (1961),
  • Woodworth, Steven E. Beneath a Northern Sky: A Short History of the Gettysburg Campaign. Scholarly Resources, 2003. 241 pp.

Battles and campaigns: West

  • Bailey, Anne J. War and Ruin: William T. Sherman and the Savannah Campaign. Scholarly Resources, 2003. 152 pp.
  • Ballard, Michael B., Vicksburg, The Campaign that Opened the Mississippi, University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
  • Bearss, Edwin C., The Vicksburg Campaign, 3 volumes, Morningside Press, 1991, ISBN 0-89029-308-2.
  • Carter, Samuel III, The Final Fortress: The Campaign for Vicksburg, 1862-1863 (1980)
  • Catton, Bruce, Grant Moves South, 1960, ISBN 0-316-13207-1;
  • Connelly, Thomas L., "Robert E. Lee and the Western Confederacy: A Criticism of Lee's Strategic Ability." Civil War History 15 (June 1969): 116-32
  • Cozzens, Peter, ed. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Vol. 6. U. of Illinois Press., 2004. 608 pp.
  • Daniel, Larry. Cannoneers in Gray: The Field Artillery of the Army of Tennessee. U. of Alabama Press, 2005. 288 pp.
  • Daniel, Larry J. Days of Glory: The Army of the Cumberland, 1861-1865. Louisiana State U. Press, 2004. 490 pp.
  • Burke Davis. Sherman's March: The First Full-Length Narrative of General William T. Sherman's Devastating March through Georgia and the Carolinas (1988)
  • Gilmore, Donald L. Civil War on the Missouri-Kansas Border. Pelican, 2006. 384 pp.
  • Gott, Kendall D., Where the South Lost the War: An Analysis of the Fort Henry-Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862, Stackpole Books, 2003, ISBN 0-8117-0049-6.
  • Johnson, R. U., and Buel, C. C., eds., Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. 4 vols. 1888; essays by leading generals of both sides; online edition
  • McDonough, James Lee, Shiloh: In Hell before Night (1977).
  • McDonough, James Lee, Chattanooga: A Death Grip on the Confederacy (1984).
  • McDonough, James Lee. Nashville: The Western Confederacy's Final Gamble. U. of Tennessee Press, 2004. 358 pp.
  • McKnight, Brian D. Contested Borderland: The Civil War in Appalachian Kentucky and Virginia. U. Press of Kentucky, 2006. 312 pp.
  • Marszalek, John F. Sherman's March To The Sea (2005)
  • Miers, Earl Schenck., The Web of Victory: Grant at Vicksburg. 1955.
  • Prushankin, Jeffery S. A Crisis in Confederate Command: Edmund Kirby Smith, Richard Taylor, and the Army of the Trans-Mississippi. Louisiana State U. Press, 2005. 308 pp.
  • Shea, William L. and Winschel, Terrence J. Vicksburg is the Key: The Struggle for the Mississippi River. U. of Nebraska Press, 2003. 232 pp
  • Sword, Wiley, Shiloh: Bloody April. 1974.

Naval history

  • Bennett, Michael J. Union Jacks: Yankee Sailors in the Civil War. U. of North Carolina Press, 2004. 352 pp.
  • Bern Anderson. By Sea and by River (1962) survey
  • William M. Fowler. Under Two Flags (1990),
  • Holzer, Harold and Mulligan, Tim, ed. The Battle of Hampton Roads: New Perspectives on the USS Monitor and CSS Virginia. Fordham U. Press, 2006. 222 pp.
  • Merrill, James M. The Rebel Shore (1957), on Union navy
  • Roberts, William H. Now for the Contest: Coastal and Oceanic Naval Operations in the Civil War. U. of Nebraska Press, 2004. 272 pp.
  • Stern, Philip Van Doren. The Confederate Navy: A Pictorial History (1962)
  • Weddle, Kevin J. Lincoln's Tragic Admiral: The Life of Samuel Francis Du Pont. U. of Virginia Press, 2005. 269 pp.
  • Whittle, William C. The Voyage of the CSS Shenandoah: A Memorable Cruise. U. of Alabama Press, 2005. 255 pp.

Technology and weapons

  • Bilby, Joseph G. A Revolution in Arms: A History of the First Repeating Rifles. Westholme, 2006. 270 pp.
  • Bruce, Robert V. Lincoln and the Tools of War (1956) on weapons development during the war online edition
  • Griffith, Paddy. Battle Tactics of the Civil War, Yale University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-300-08461-7. 219 pages.
  • Hazlett, James C.; Olmstead, Edwin; and Parks, M. Hume. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War. U. of Illinois Press, 2004. 322 pp
  • Hess, Earl J. Field Armies and Fortification in the Civil War: The Eastern Campaigns, 1861-1864. U. of North Carolina Press, 2005. 428 pp.
  • Tucker, Spencer. Arming the Fleet. U.S. Ordnance in the Muzzle-Loading Era (1988)
  • Turner, George Edgar. Victory Rode the Rails: The Strategic Place of the Railroads in the Civil War (1953)

Medical

  • Adams, George Worthington. Doctors in Blue: The Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War (1961)
  • Cunningham, Horace Herndon. Doctors in Gray: The Confederate Medical Service (1958)
  • Flannery, Michael A. Civil War Pharmacy: A History of Drugs, Drug Supply and Provision, and Therapeutics for the Union and Confederacy. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2004. 347 pp.
  • Flannery, Michael A. "Civil War Medicine: Approaches for Teaching." Magazine of History 2005 19(5): 41-43. Issn: 0882-228x Fulltext: in Ebsco
  • Green, Carol C. Chimborazo: The Confederacy's Largest Hospital. U. of Tennessee Press, 2004. 200 pp.
  • Lande, R. Gregory. Madness, Malingering, and Malfeasance: The Transformation of Psychiatry and the Law in the Civil War Era. Brassey's, 2003. 233 pp.
  • Rutkow, Ira M. Bleeding Blue and Gray: Civil War Surgery and the Evolution of American Medicine. Random House, 2005. 394 pp.
  • Schultz, Jane E. Women at the Front: Hospital Workers in Civil War America. U. of North Carolina Press, 2004. 360 pp.

Causes of the war

  • Ashworth, John. ** Slavery, Capitalism, and Politics in the Antebellum Republic. (1995)
  • Ayers, Edward L. What Caused the Civil War? Reflections on the South and Southern History. Norton, 2005. 222 pp.
  • Craven, Avery, "The Coming of the War Between the States," Journal of Southern History 2 (August 1936): 30-63; in JSTOR
  • Donald, David. "An Excess of Democracy: The Civil War and the Social Process" in David Donald, Lincoln Reconsidered: Essays on the Civil War Era, 2d ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966), 209-35.
  • Foner, Eric. "The Causes of the American Civil War: Recent Interpretations and New Directions." In Beyond the Civil War Synthesis: Political Essays of the Civil War Era, edited by Robert P. Swieringa. 1975.
  • Holt, Michael F. The Political Crisis of the 1850s. (1978) emphasis on political parties and voters
  • Olsen, Christopher J. Political Culture and Secession in Mississippi: Masculinity, Honor, and the Antiparty Tradition, 1830-1860" (2000), cultural interpretation
  • Potter, David The Impending Crisis 1848-1861. (1976), Pulitzer Prize-winning history emphasizing rise of Southern nationalism
  • Randall, James G. "A Blundering Generation," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 27#1 (June 1940): 3-28 in JSTOR
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. America in 1857: A Nation on the Brink (1990)
  • Stampp, Kenneth M. And the War Came: The North and the Secession Crisis, 1860-1861 (1950), narrative

Slavery topics

  • Huston, James L. Calculating the Value of the Union: Slavery, Property Rights, and the Economic Origins of the Civil War. (2003)
  • Luraghi, Raimondo, "The Civil War and the Modernization of American Society: Social Structure and Industrial Revolution in the Old South Before and During the War," Civil War History XVIII (Sept. 1972). in JSTOR
  • Mitchell, Charles W. "Maryland Voices of the Civil War" (2007) (Part 3)
  • Morrison, Michael. Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War (1997)
  • Morrow, Ralph E. "The Proslavery Argument Revisited," The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 48, No. 1. (Jun., 1961), pp. 79-94. in JSTOR
  • Ramsdell, Charles W. "The Natural Limits of Slavery Expansion," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 16 (Sept. 1929), 151-71, in JSTOR says slavery had almost reached its outer limits of growth by 1860, so war was unnecessary to stop further growth. online version
  • Russo, Peggy A. and Finkelman, Paul, eds. Terrible Swift Sword: The Legacy of John Brown. Ohio U. Press, 2005. 228 pp.

International affairs

  • Case, Lynn Marshall. The United States and France: Civil War Diplomacy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970.
  • Crook, D. P. Diplomacy During the American Civil War. New York: Wiley, 1975.
  • Daddysman, James W. The Matamoros Trade: Confederate Commerce, Diplomacy, and Intrigue. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1984.
  • Ferris, Norman B. Desperate Diplomacy: William H. Seward's Foreign Policy, 1861. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1976.
  • Hubbard, Charles M. The Burden of Confederate Diplomacy (1998)
  • Hyman, Harold Melvin. Heard Round the World; the Impact Abroad of the Civil War. New York: Knopf, 1969.
  • Jenkins, Brian. Britain & the War for the Union. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1974.
  • Jones, Howard. Union in Peril: The Crisis over British Intervention in the Civil War (1992)
  • Jones, Howard. Abraham Lincoln and a New Birth of Freedom: the Union and slavery in the diplomacy of the Civil War, (1999)
  • Merli, Frank J. The Alabama, British Neutrality, and the American Civil War. Indiana U. Press, 2004. 225 pp.
  • Owsley, Frank Lawrence. King Cotton Diplomacy: Foreign relations of the Confederate States of America (1931)

Union military leaders

  • American National Biography 24 vol (1999), essays by scholars on all major figures; online and hardcover editions at many libraries
  • McHenry, Robert ed. Webster's American Military Biographies (1978)
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, (1964), ISBN 0-8071-0822-7

  • Bunting III, Josiah. Ulysses S. Grant (2004) ISBN 0-8050-6949-6
  • Catton, Bruce. Grant Takes Command, 1968
  • Catton, Bruce. U. S. Grant and the American Military Tradition (1954)
  • Conger, A. L. The Rise of U.S. Grant (1931)
  • Drake, William F. Little Phil: The Story of General Philip Henry Sheridan. Biographical Press, 2005. 658 pp.
  • Fuller, Maj. Gen. J. F. C., Grant and Lee, A Study in Personality and Generalship, Indiana University Press, 1957.
  • Korda, Michael. Ulysses S. Grant: The Unlikely Hero (2004) 161 pp
  • Marszalek, John F. Commander of All Lincoln's Armies: A Life of General Henry W. Halleck. Harvard U. Press, 2004. 324 pp
  • Rafuse, Ethan S. McClellan's War: The Failure of Moderation in the Struggle for the Union. Indiana U. Press, 2005. 525 pp.

Confederate military leaders

  • American National Biography 24 vol (1999), essays by scholars on all major figures; online and hardcover editions at many libraries
  • Current, Richard N., et al eds. Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (1993) (4 Volume set; also 1 vol abridged version)
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders, (1959), ISBN 0-8071-0823-5

  • Ashdown, Paul and Caudill, Edward. The Myth of Nathan Bedford Forrest. Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. 218 pp.
  • Carmichael, Peter S., ed. Audacity Personified: The Generalship of Robert E. Lee. Louisiana State U. Press, 2004. 174 pp.
  • Casdorph, Paul D. Confederate General R. S. Ewell: Robert E. Lee's Hesitant Commander. U. Press of Kentucky, 2004. 474 pp.
  • DiNardo, Richard L. and Albert A. Nofi. James Longstreet: The Man, the Soldier, the Controversy (2001)
  • Fellman, Michael. The Making of Robert E. Lee. (2000)
  • Freeman, Douglas S., R. E. Lee, A Biography (4 volumes), Scribners, 1934 (online in its entirety) The longest and most influential biography, by Pulitzer prize winner
  • Fuller, Maj. Gen. J. F. C., Grant and Lee, A Study in Personality and Generalship, Indiana University Press, 1957.
  • Gallagher, Gary W.; Lee the Soldier University of Nebraska Press, 1996
  • Gallagher, Gary W.; and Joseph T. Glatthaar. Leaders of the Lost Cause: New Perspectives on the Confederate High Command (2004)
  • Henderson, G.F.R. Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War (1943) * Reid, Brian Holden. Robert E. Lee: Icon for a Nation. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005. 271 pp.
  • Longacre, Edward G. Fitz Lee: A Military Biography of Major General Fitzhugh Lee, C. S. A. (2004)
  • Robertson, James. Stonewall Jackson: The Man, the Soldier, the Legend (1997)
  • Robertson, James. General A.P. Hill: The Story of a Confederate Warrior (1992)
  • Robertson, James. Robert E. Lee: Virginian Soldier, American Citizen (2005)
  • Thomas, Emory Robert E. Lee W.W. Norton & Co., 1995 (ISBN 0-393-03730-4) full-scale biography
  • Wert, Jeffry D. General James Longstreet: The Confederacy's Most Controversial Soldier (1994)

Soldiers and sailors

  • Bennett, Michael J. Union Jacks: Yankee Sailors in the Civil War. U. of North Carolina Press, 2004. 352 pp.
  • Frank, Joseph Allan and George A. Reaves. Seeing the Elephant: Raw Recruits at the Battle of Shiloh (1989)
  • Glatthaar, Joseph T. The March to the Sea and Beyond: Sherman's Troops in the Savannah and Carolinas Campaigns (1995)
  • Glatthaar, Joseph T. and Aaron Charles Sheehan. The View from the Ground: Experiences of Civil War Soldiers (2006)
    • Glatthaar, Joseph T. General Lees Army (2007)
  • Hess, Earl J. The Union Soldier in Battle: Enduring the Ordeal of Combat (1997)
  • Hilderman, Walter C., III. They Went into the Fight Cheering! Confederate Conscription in North Carolina. Boone, N.C.: Parkway, 2005. 272 pp.
  • McPherson, James. For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (1998)
  • Nosworthy, Brent. The Bloody Crucible of Courage: Fighting Methods and Combat Experience of the Civil War. Carroll & Graf, 2003. 753 pp.
  • Priest, John M. Antietam: The Soldier's Battle (1989),
  • Rodgers, Thomas E. "Billy Yank and G.i. Joe: an Exploratory Essay on the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Soldier Motivation." Journal of Military History 2005 69(1): 93-121. Issn: 0899-3718 Fulltext: in Project Muse, Swetswise, and Ebsco. Billy Yanks functioned effectively under fire because society taught them masculinity, patriotism, and citizenship that emphasized character, the soldier's responsibility to his community, and the soldier's duty to defend the nation from threats. WW2 stressed expertise and bureaucratic conformity
  • Sanders, Charles W., Jr. While in the Hands of the Enemy: Military Prisons of the Civil War. Louisiana State U. Press, 2005. 390 pp.
  • Still Jr. William N. The Common Sailor: The Civil War's Uncommon Man--Yankee Blue Jackets and Confederate Tars (1985)
  • Weitz, Mark A. More Damning than Slaughter: Desertion in the Confederate Army. U. of Nebraska Press, 2005. 346 pp.
  • Wiley, Bell Irvin. The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the Confederacy (1962) (ISBN 0-8071-0475-2)
  • Wiley, Bell Irvin. Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union (1952) (ISBN 0-8071-0476-0)

Union homefront

  • Bak, Richard. A Distant Thunder: Michigan in the Civil War. Chelsea: Huron River, 2004. 239 pp.
  • Green, Michael S. Freedom, Union, and Power: Lincoln and His Party during the Civil War. Fordham U. Press, 2004. 400 pp.
  • Mitchell, Charles W. "Maryland Voices of the Civil War," 2007.
  • Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union (1970), vol 5. The Improvised War, 1861-1862; vo 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862-1863; vol 7. The Organized War, 1863-1864; vol 8. The Organized War to Victory, 1864-1865
  • Onuf, Nicholas and Onuf, Peter. Nations, Markets, and War: Modern History and the American Civil War. U. of Virginia Press, 2006. 362 pp.
  • Paludan, Philip S. The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln (1994), thorough treatment of Lincoln's administration
  • Resch, John P. et al., Americans at War: Society, Culture and the Homefront vol 2: 1816-1900 (2005)
  • Richardson, Heather Cox. The Greatest Nation of the Earth: Republican Economic Policies during the Civil War (1997)
  • Thornton, Mark and Ekelund, Robert B., Jr. Tariffs, Blockades, and Inflation: The Economics of the Civil War. Scholarly Resources, 2004. 124 pp.
  • Wilson, Mark R. The Business of Civil War: Military Mobilization and the State, 1861-1865. Johns Hopkins U. Press, 2006. 306 pp.



Union civilian leaders

Abraham Lincoln

  • Boritt, Gabor S. ed. Lincoln the War President (1994)
  • Richard Carwardine. Lincoln: A Life of Purpose and Power ISBN 1-4000-4456-1 (2003)
  • David Herbert Donald. Lincoln (1999) ISBN 0-684-82535-X, very well reviewed by scholars; Donald has won two Pulitzer prizes for biography
  • William E. Gienapp. Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A Biography by ISBN 0-19-515099-6 (2002), short online edition
  • Allen C. Guelzo. Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President ISBN 0-8028-3872-3 (1999) online edition
  • John Hay & John George Nicolay. Abraham Lincoln: a History (1890); online at Volume 1 and Volume 2 10 volumes in all; highly detailed narrative of era written by Lincoln's top aides
  • McPherson, James M. Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution (1992)
  • Mark E. Neely. The Abraham Lincoln Encyclopedia (1984), detailed articles on many men and movements associated with AL
  • Mark E. Neely. The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America (1993), Pulitzer prize winning author
  • James G. Randall. Lincoln the President (4 vol., 1945–55; reprint 2000.) by prize winning scholar
  • Benjamin P. Thomas; Abraham Lincoln: A Biography (1952) online edition

Confederate homefront

  • Current, Richard N., et al eds. Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (1993) (4 Volume set; also 1 vol abridged version)
  • Bell, Walter F. "Civil War Texas: a Review of the Historical Literature." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 2005 109(2): 204-232. Issn: 0038-478x
  • Boritt, Gabor S., et al, Why the Confederacy Lost, 1992.
  • Campbell, Jacqueline Glass. When Sherman Marched North from the Sea: Resistance on the Confederate Home Front. U. of North Carolina Pres, 2003. 177 pp.
  • Coulter, E. Merton. The Confederate States of America, 1861-1865, 1950.
  • Davis, William C. and Robertson, James I., Jr., eds. Virginia at War, 1861. U. Press of Kentucky, 2005. 241 pp.
  • William C. Davis (2003). Look Away! A History of the Confederate States of America. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-86585-8.
  • Eaton, Clement. A History of the Southern Confederacy, 1954.
  • Gordon, Lesley J. and Inscoe, John C., eds. Inside the Confederate Nation: Essays in Honor of Emory M. Thomas. Louisiana State U. Press, 2005. 381 pp.
  • Jones, J. B. A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital (1935) online edition
  • Mackey, Robert R. The Uncivil War: Irregular Warfare in the Upper South, 1861-1865. U. of Oklahoma Press, 2004. 288 pp.
  • Morgan, Chad. Planters' Progress: Modernizing Confederate Georgia. U. Press of Florida, 2005. 164 pp.
  • Neely, Mark E., Jr., Confederate Bastille: Jefferson Davis and Civil Liberties, 1993.
  • Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union, vol 5. The Improvised War, 1861-1862; vol 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862-1863; vol 7. The Organized War, 1863-1864; vol 8. The Organized War to Victory, 1864-1865. (1970)
  • Rembert, W. Patrick. Jefferson Davis and His Cabinet, 1944.
  • Rable, George C., The Confederate Republic: A Revolution against Politics, 1994.
  • Resch, John P. et al., Americans at War: Society, Culture and the Homefront vol 2: 1816-1900 (2005)
  • Roland, Charles P. The Confederacy, 1960. brief
  • Thomas, Emory M. Confederate Nation: 1861-1865, 1979. Standard political-economic-social history
  • Rubin, Anne Sarah. A Shattered Nation: The Rise and Fall of the Confederacy, 1861-1868. U. of North Carolina Pr., 2005. 319 pp.
  • Thomas, Emory M. The Confederacy as a Revolutionary Experience, 1992.
  • Waghelstein, John D. and Chisholm, Donald. "The Road Not Taken: Conflict Termination and Guerrillaism in the American Civil War." Journal of Strategic Studies (2006) 29(5): 871-904. Issn: 0140-2390 Fulltext: in Ebsco
  • Wallenstein, Peter and Wyatt-Brown, Bertram, eds. Virginia's Civil War. U. Press of Virginia, 2005. 303 pp.

Confederate civilian leaders

  • Current, Richard N., et al eds. Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (1993) (4 Volume set; also 1 vol abridged version) (ISBN 0-13-275991-8)
  • Cooper, William J, Jefferson Davis, American, 2000. Standard biography.
  • Davis, William C. Jefferson Davis: The Man and His Hour (1991).
  • Mobley, Joe A. War Governor of the South: North Carolina's Zeb Vance in the Confederacy. U. Press of Florida, 2005. 264 pp.
  • Strode, Hudson. Jefferson Davis 3 vol (1955-1964).
  • Wakelyn, Jon L. Biographical Dictionary of the Confederacy Greenwood Press ISBN 0-8371-6124-X

African Americans

  • Berlin, Ira, et a. eds. Freedom's Soldiers: The Black Military Experience in the Civil War (1998) 208pp
  • Cimprich, John. Fort Pillow, a Civil War Massacre, and Public Memory. Louisiana State U. Press, 2005. 193 pp.
  • Glatthaar, Joseph T. Forged in Battle: The Civil War Alliance of Black Soldiers and White Officers (2000)
  • Glatthaar, Joseph T. The Civil War's Black Soldiers (1996)
  • Levine, Bruce. Confederate Emancipation: Southern Plans to Free and Arm Slaves during the Civil War. (2005). 272 pp.
  • Longacre, Edward G. A Regiment of Slaves: The 4th United States Colored Infantry, 1863-1866. Stackpole, 2003. 227 pp.
  • Mitchell, Charles W. "Maryland Voices of the Civil War," 2007 (Part 3)
  • Robinson, Armstead L. Bitter Fruits of Bondage: The Demise of Slavery and the Collapse of the Confederacy, 1861-1865. U. Press of Virginia, 2005. 326 pp.
  • Ward, Andrew. River Run Red: The Fort Pillow Massacre in the American Civil War. Viking, 2005. 531 pp.

Women, family, gender

  • Berry, Stephen W., II. All that Makes a Man: Love and Ambition in the Civil War South. Oxford U. Press, 2003. 286 pp.
  • Clinton, Catherine and Silber, Nina, eds. Title: Battle Scars: Gender and Sexuality in the American Civil War, Oxford U. Press, 2006. 213 pp.
  • Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War, 1996.
  • Gardner, Sarah E. Blood and Irony: Southern White Women's Narratives of the Civil War, 1861-1937. U. of North Carolina Press, 2004. 352 pp.
  • Harper, Judith E. Women during the Civil War: An Encyclopedia. Routledge, 2004. 472 pp.
  • Marten, James. Children for the Union: The War Spirit on the Northern Home Front. Ivan R. Dee, 2004. 209 pp.
  • Massey, Mary Elizabeth. Bonnet Brigades: American Women and the Civil War, 1966.
  • Rable, George C. Civil Wars: Women and the Crisis of Southern Nationalism, 1989.
  • McDevitt, Theresa. Women and the American Civil War: An Annotated Bibliography. Praeger, 2003. 245 pp.
  • Revels, Tracy J. Grander in Her Daughters: Florida's Women during the Civil War. U. of South Carolina Press, 2004. 205 pp.
  • Roberts, Giselle. The Confederate Belle. U. of Missouri Press, 2003. 245 pp.
  • Silber, Nina. Daughters of the Union: Northern Women Fight the Civil War. Harvard U. Press, 2005. 332 pp.
  • Smith, Michael T. "The Beast Unleashed: Benjamin F. Butler and Conceptions of Masculinity in the Civil War North." New England Quarterly 2006 79(2): 248-276. Issn: 0028-4866
  • Venet, Wendy Hamand. A Strong-Minded Woman: The Life of Mary Livermore. U. of Massachusetts Press, 2005. 322 pp.
  • Wiley, Bell Irwin. Confederate Women, 1975.
  • Woodward, C. Vann, Ed., Mary Chesnut's Civil War, Yale University Press, 1981, ISBN 0-300-02979-9 Pulitzer Prize

Ideology, rhetoric, religion

  • Brinsfield, John W.; Davis, William C.; Maryniak, Benedict; and Robertson, James I., eds. Faith in the Fight: Civil War Chaplains. Stackpole, 2003. 256 pp.
  • Durrill, Wayne K. "Ritual, Community and War: Local Flag Presentation Ceremonies and Disunity in the Early Confederacy." Journal of Social History 2006 39(4): 1105-1122. Issn: 0022-4529 Fulltext: at History Cooperative, Project Muse, Swetswise, and Ebsco
  • Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (1970)
  • McPherson, James. What They Fought For, 1861-1865 (Louisiana State University Press, 1994)
  • Miller, Randall M., Harry S. Stout, and Charles Reagan Wilson, eds. Religion and the American Civil War (1998), essays
  • Noll, Mark A. The Civil War as a Theological Crisis. U. of North Carolina Press, 2006. 199 pp.
  • Phillips, Jason. "The Grape Vine Telegraph: Rumors and Confederate Persistence." Journal of Southern History 2006 72(4): 753-788. Issn: 0022-4642 Fulltext: in Ebsco
  • Stout, Harry S. Upon the Altar of the Nation: A Moral History of the Civil War. (2006). 544 pp.
  • Talley, Sharon. "Revisioning Death and Dying: 19th-century Attitudes as Reflected in Louisa May Alcott's Antebellum and Civil War Writings." Prospects 2005 30: 157-179. Issn: 0361-2333
  • Wells, Cheryl A. Civil War Time: Temporality and Identity in America, 1861-1865. U. of Georgia Press, 2005. 195 pp.
  • Wills, Garry. Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America by ISBN 0-671-86742-3
  • Wilson, Douglas L. Honor's Voice: The Transformation of Abraham Lincoln (1999).
  • Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War (1962)

Popular culture, novels, films

  • Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War (1962)

Historiography

  • Beale, Howard K., "What Historians Have Said About the Causes of the Civil War," Social Science Research Bulletin 54, 1946.
  • Bell, Walter F. "Civil War Texas: a Review of the Historical Literature." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 2005 109(2): 204-232. Issn: 0038-478e (1996)
  • Boritt, Gabor S., ed. The Historian's Lincoln U. of Illinois Press, 1988, historiography
  • Connelly, Thomas L., "The Image and the General: Robert E. Lee in American Historiography." Civil War History 19 (March 1973): 50-64.
  • Connelly, Thomas L., The Marble Man. Robert E. Lee and His Image in American Society. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977.
  • Donald, David ed. Why the North Won the Civil War (1977) (ISBN 0-02-031660-7), short interpretive essays
  • Foner, Eric. "The Causes of the American Civil War: Recent Interpretations and New Directions." In Beyond the Civil War Synthesis: Political Essays of the Civil War Era, edited by Robert P. Swieringa. 1975.
  • Gallagher, Gary W.; Lee & His Army in Confederate History University of North Carolina Press, 2001
  • Kornblith, Gary J., "Rethinking the Coming of the Civil War: A Counterfactual Exercise". Journal of American History 90.1 (2003): 80 pars. detailed historiography; online version
  • Panabaker, James. Shelby Foote and the Art of History: Two Gates to the City. U. of Tennessee Press, 2004. 238 pp.
  • Pressly, Thomas. Americans Interpret Their Civil War (1966), sorts historians (before 1960) into schools of interpretation
  • Tulloch, Hugh. The Debate on the American Civil War Era (1999), historiography
  • Woodworth, Steven E. ed. American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research (1996) (ISBN 0-313-29019-9), 750 pages of historiography and bibliography

Reconstruction

Primary sources

  • Lincoln, Abraham (1989). Lincoln: Speeches and Writings. 2 vol Library of America edition,
  • U.S. War Dept., The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies and The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (including the full Atlas), U.S. Government Printing Office, 1880–1901. 70 very large volumes of letters and reports written by both armies. Online at
  • In 1865 the war ended and we now remember the brave soles that died American Annual Cyclopaedia for 1861 (N.Y.: Appleton's, 1864), a remarkable collection of reports on each state, Congress, and military activities, and many other topics; annual issues from 1861 to 1901 in major libraries
  • Commager, Henry Steele (ed.). The Blue and the Gray. The Story of the Civil War as Told by Participants. (1950), excerpts from primary sources
  • Eisenschiml, Otto; Ralph Newman; eds. The American Iliad: The Epic Story of the Civil War as Narrated by Eyewitnesses and Contemporaries (1947), excerpts from primary sources
  • Hesseltine, William B. ed.; The Tragic Conflict: The Civil War and Reconstruction (1962), excerpts from primary sources
  • Johnson, R. U., and Buel, C. C., eds., Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. 4 vols. New York, 1887-88; essays by leading generals of both sides; online edition
  • Marten, James. Civil War America: Voices from the Home Front. ABC-CLIO, 2003. 346 pp.
  • Mitchell, Charles W. "Maryland Voices of the Civil War." 2007.
  • Risley, Ford, ed. The Civil War: Primary Documents on Events from 1860 to 1865. Greenwood, 2004. 320 pp.
  • Sizer, Lyde Cullen and Cullen, Jim, ed. The Civil War Era: An Anthology of Sources. Blackwell, 2005. 434 pp.
  • Yearns, W. Buck and Barret, John G.,eds. North Carolina Civil War Documentary, 1980.
  • Confederate official government documents major online collection of complete texts in HTML format, from U. of North Carolina
  • The Civil War Letters of Forrest Little a digitized collection of actual letters from an ordinary Union soldier chronicling his everyday life and the drama of battle, from Saint Mary's College of California

Memoirs

  • Grant, Ulysses S. Memoirs (1885) online edition
    • Grant, Ulysses S. Memoirs and Selected Letters (Mary Drake McFeely & William S. McFeely, eds.) (The Library of America, 1990) ISBN 0-940450-58-5
  • Martin, John C. Lest We Forget Published by the Democrate Publishing Company of Madison, Wisconsin, under the sponsorship of the Wisconsin State Legislature (1927)
  • Jones, J. B. A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital (1935)
  • Porter, Horace, Campaigning with Grant (1897, reprinted 2000)
  • Sherman, William Tecumseh, Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. 2 vols. 1875.
  • Simon, John Y., ed., The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant, Southern Illinois University Press (1967- ) multivolume complete edition of letters to and from Grant. As of 2006, vol 1-28 covers through September 1878.
  • Woodward, C. Vann, Ed., Mary Chesnut's Civil War, Yale University Press, 1981, ISBN 0-300-02979-9 Pulitzer Prize

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