Alvarado, Juan Bautista, 1809-82, governor of Alta California (1836-42), b. Monterey, Calif. Out of the chaotic times in the neglected Mexican province of Alta California, Alvarado emerged as a brilliant politician. After a small but successful revolt in 1836, he declared California an independent state with himself as governor. He pacified his opponents in San Diego and Los Angeles, but the southern faction continued to view the northern upstart with suspicion until he secured (1838) regular appointment as Mexican governor. He and his uncle, Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, who acted as military commander, could not accomplish much, and after they disagreed both men were removed in 1842. Alvarado was one of the leaders of a new and successful revolt in 1844-45, but the new government was unable to withstand the Bear Flag Revolt and the Mexican War.
Alvarado, Pedro de, 1486-1541, Spanish conquistador. He went to Hispaniola (1510), sailed in the expedition (1518) of Juan de Grijalva, and was the chief lieutenant of Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico. He commanded at Tenochtitlán in the absence of Cortés, and his brutality provoked a brief native rebellion. Sent out by Cortés in 1523, he conquered Guatemala and Salvador. He was governor of Guatemala until his death. He met with much opposition from the audiencia in Mexico, but strengthening his power on two voyages to Spain (1527-28, 1536-39), he exercised absolute control. He founded many cities and developed the colony. An expedition to Ecuador (1534-35), made in an attempt to share in the booty Francisco Pizarro was taking from the Incan empire, ended in defeat. In 1540, Alvarado, sailing for the Moluccas, stopped in Mexico. While there he was influenced by the viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and by the tales of Marcos de Niza to begin a search for the fabled Cibola. When the indigenous people of Nueva Galicia unexpectedly revolted in 1541, Alvarado took part against them in the Mixtón War. He led a foolhardy attack and was accidentally killed in the subsequent retreat. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo took command of the maritime expedition. Alvarado's wife, Doña Beatriz de la Cueva, succeeded him as governor of Guatemala. His letters concerning the conquest of Guatemala have been published.

See J. E. Kelly, Pedro de Alvarado (1932).

Alvarado is a city situated along the Snake River in Marshall County in the U.S. state of Minnesota. The population was 371 at the 2000 census.

Minnesota Highway 1 and Minnesota Highway 220 are two of the main arterial routes in the community.


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.2 square miles (0.5 km²), all of it land.


As of the census of 2000, there were 371 people, 145 households, and 100 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,738.4 people per square mile (682.1/km²). There were 179 housing units at an average density of 838.7/sq mi (329.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 92.72% White, 7.01% from other races, and 0.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.24% of the population.

There were 145 households out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.8% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.0% were non-families. 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.18.

In the city the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, and 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 84.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,625, and the median income for a family was $49,167. Males had a median income of $32,083 versus $19,688 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,015. About 2.2% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 12.2% of those age 65 or over.


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