Definitions

Alva

Alva

[al-vuh; Sp. ahl-vah]
Myrdal, Alva, 1902-86, Swedish sociologist, diplomat, and political leader. As a sociologist in the 1930s, she initiated a national program establishing state responsibility for child care. She actively participated in the United Nations as head of the department of social welfare (1949-50) and as director of the department of social sciences of UNESCO (1950-56). She was ambassador (1955-61) to India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Nepal. After she served as a member of Sweden's parliament (1962-70), she led Sweden's delegation to the UN Disarmament Conference in Geneva (1962-73) and was minister of disarmament and church affairs (1967-73). For her work in the nuclear disarmament movement, she won the 1982 Nobel Peace Prize. Her writings include The Game of Disarmament (1976) and War, Weapons and Everyday Violence (1977). She was married to Gunnar Myrdal.
Alva, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, duque de: see Alba, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, duque de.

Thomas Alva Edison demonstrating his tinfoil phonograph, photograph by Mathew Brady, 1878.

(born Feb. 11, 1847, Milan, Ohio, U.S.—died Oct. 18, 1931, West Orange, N.J.) U.S. inventor. He had very little formal schooling. He set up a laboratory in his father's basement at age 10; at 12 he was earning money selling newspapers and candy on trains. He worked as a telegrapher (1862–68) before deciding to pursue invention and entrepreneurship. Throughout much of his career, he was strongly motivated by efforts to overcome his handicap of partial deafness. For Western Union he developed a machine capable of sending four telegraph messages down one wire, only to sell the invention to Western Union's rival, Jay Gould, for more than $100,000. He created the world's first industrial-research laboratory, in Menlo Park, N.J. There he invented the carbon-button transmitter (1877), still used in telephone speakers and microphones today; the phonograph (1877); and the incandescent lightbulb (1879). To develop the lightbulb, he was advanced $30,000 by such financiers as J.P. Morgan and the Vanderbilts. In 1882 he supervised the installation of the world's first permanent commercial central power system, in lower Manhattan. After the death of his first wife (1884), he built a new laboratory in West Orange, N.J. Its first major endeavour was the commercialization of the phonograph, which Alexander Graham Bell had improved on since Edison's initial invention. At the new laboratory Edison and his team also developed an early movie camera and an instrument for viewing moving pictures; they also developed the alkaline storage battery. Although his later projects were not as successful as his earlier ones, Edison continued to work even in his 80s. Singly or jointly, he held a world-record 1,093 patents, nearly 400 of them for electric light and power. He always invented for necessity, with the object of devising something new that he could manufacture. More than any other, he laid the basis for the technological revolution of the modern electric world.

Learn more about Edison, Thomas Alva with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Thomas Alva Edison demonstrating his tinfoil phonograph, photograph by Mathew Brady, 1878.

(born Feb. 11, 1847, Milan, Ohio, U.S.—died Oct. 18, 1931, West Orange, N.J.) U.S. inventor. He had very little formal schooling. He set up a laboratory in his father's basement at age 10; at 12 he was earning money selling newspapers and candy on trains. He worked as a telegrapher (1862–68) before deciding to pursue invention and entrepreneurship. Throughout much of his career, he was strongly motivated by efforts to overcome his handicap of partial deafness. For Western Union he developed a machine capable of sending four telegraph messages down one wire, only to sell the invention to Western Union's rival, Jay Gould, for more than $100,000. He created the world's first industrial-research laboratory, in Menlo Park, N.J. There he invented the carbon-button transmitter (1877), still used in telephone speakers and microphones today; the phonograph (1877); and the incandescent lightbulb (1879). To develop the lightbulb, he was advanced $30,000 by such financiers as J.P. Morgan and the Vanderbilts. In 1882 he supervised the installation of the world's first permanent commercial central power system, in lower Manhattan. After the death of his first wife (1884), he built a new laboratory in West Orange, N.J. Its first major endeavour was the commercialization of the phonograph, which Alexander Graham Bell had improved on since Edison's initial invention. At the new laboratory Edison and his team also developed an early movie camera and an instrument for viewing moving pictures; they also developed the alkaline storage battery. Although his later projects were not as successful as his earlier ones, Edison continued to work even in his 80s. Singly or jointly, he held a world-record 1,093 patents, nearly 400 of them for electric light and power. He always invented for necessity, with the object of devising something new that he could manufacture. More than any other, he laid the basis for the technological revolution of the modern electric world.

Learn more about Edison, Thomas Alva with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Alva is a census-designated place (CDP) in Lee County, Florida, United States. The population was 2,182 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Alva is located at (26.710390, -81.628648).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 18.8 square miles (48.7 km²), of which, 18.0 square miles (46.5 km²) of it is land and 0.8 square miles (2.2 km²) of it (4.47%) is water.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,182 people, 912 households, and 673 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 121.5 people per square mile (46.9/km²). There were 1,017 housing units at an average density of 56.7/sq mi (21.9/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.33% White, 0.18% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 1.24% from other races, and 1.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.89% of the population.

There were 912 households out of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.9% were married couples living together, 5.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.2% were non-families. 21.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.73.

In the CDP the population was spread out with 18.9% under the age of 18, 4.1% from 18 to 24, 22.1% from 25 to 44, 31.7% from 45 to 64, and 23.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females there were 96.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.1 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $41,938, and the median income for a family was $48,073. Males had a median income of $35,300 versus $25,656 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $24,353. About 5.9% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.4% of those under age 18 and 2.7% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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