Definitions

Alonso

Alonso

[uh-lon-zoh; Sp. ah-lawn-saw]
Berruguete, Alonso, c.1480-1561, Spanish mannerist sculptor. Probably the first in Spain to break away from the High Renaissance balance of form, he is noted for the expressive torsion of his figures. He studied with his father, Pedro Berruguete, a painter at the Spanish court. In Italy (c.1504-c.1517) he was strongly influenced by Michelangelo. On Berruguete's return to Spain he was appointed (1518) court painter and sculptor to Charles V. The carved altar screens for San Benito el Real (1527-32; Valladolid Mus.) and the choir stalls of the cathedral at Toledo (1539-43) are among his masterpieces. Berruguete brought the influence of Michelangelo to Spain, but his work has retained its vigor and originality. His work is best seen in Valladolid.
Cano, Alonso, 1601-67, Spanish baroque painter, sculptor, and architect. Cano studied under Pacheco and received painting and architecture commissions from King Philip IV. He was named chief architect of the cathedral at Granada. His architectural masterpiece is the design for the cathedral facade (1667), erected after his death. Cano executed both the sculpture and paintings for his monumental altarpieces and did independent religious pictures and portraits for the cathedral. Examples of his paintings are Descent into Limbo (Los Angeles County Mus.); Way to Calvary (Worcester Art Mus., Mass.); and Portrait of an Ecclesiastic (Hispanic Society of America, New York City). His sculptures, including statues of saints in Granada Cathedral, were executed with vigor and sensitivity.

See study by H. E. Wethey (1955).

Alonso, Alicia (Alicia Martinez), 1921-, Cuban ballerina and choreographer, b. Havana. Alonso danced in Broadway musicals before becoming a soloist with several leading companies, including the American Ballet Theatre, in 1939. She had a huge repertoire and was best known for her work in Giselle and in Agnes de Mille's Fall River Legend. Her own works include La Tinaja, Ensayos Sinfonicos, and Lidia, all created for the company she and her husband founded in 1948, which after the 1959 revolution became the Ballet Nacional de Cuba. Alonso suffered a detached retina at 19, built a stellar career in spite of her failing vision, and, although almost blind, continued to direct her company into the 21st cent.
Alonso, Dámaso, 1898-1990, Spanish philologist, lyric poet, and literary critic, b. Madrid. He is known for his literary sensitivity and the precision and rigor of his critical approach. His critical works include La lengua poética de Góngora [the poetic language of Góngora] (1935) and Ensayos sobre poesía española [essays on Spanish poetry] (1944). Among his volumes of poetry are El viento y el verso [wind and verse] (1925) and Hijos de la ira (1944; tr. Children of Wrath, 1970).
Fernández de Avellaneda, Alonso: see Avellaneda, Alonso Fernández de.

(born March 19, 1601, Granada, Spain—died Sept. 3, 1667, Granada) Spanish painter, sculptor, and architect. He studied in Sevilla with Francisco Pacheco and was active as court painter in Madrid (1638–44). Despite a violent temperament, Cano produced serene and elegant religious paintings and sculpture. He worked for much of his career in Granada, where he designed the facade of the Granada Cathedral (1667), one of the masterpieces of Spanish Baroque architecture. He is often called the Spanish Michelangelo for the diversity of his talents.

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(born circa 1488, Paredes de Nava, Castile—died 1561, Toledo, Castile) Spanish sculptor and painter. His father, Pedro Berruguete, was a great Renaissance painter. Alonso worked in Florence and Rome circa 1508–16. In 1516 he returned to Spain, and in 1518 he became court painter to Charles V. He succeeded primarily as a sculptor, however, and became known for his intensely emotional Mannerist sculptures of figures portrayed in spiritual torment or in transports of religious ecstasy. His best-known work is a set of wooden reliefs with highly expressive figures for choir stalls in Toledo Cathedral (1539–43). Berruguete's use of a rather rich and extravagant but delicate ornamentation in his church decorations is typical of Spain's Plateresque style. He is considered the greatest Spanish sculptor of the 16th century.

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orig. Alicia Martínez Hoyo

Alicia Alonso, 1955.

(born Dec. 21, 1921, Havana, Cuba) Cuban ballerina, choreographer, and director. She studied in Havana and New York, where she danced with Ballet Theatre (later American Ballet Theatre; 1940–41, 1943–48, 1950–55, 1958–59). In 1948 she formed her own company, Ballet Alicia Alonso (renamed Ballet Nacional de Cuba in 1959), with which she performed frequently on tour in Latin America. Despite failing eyesight, she continued for many years to dance leading roles as a guest artist with American Ballet Theatre and other companies.

Learn more about Alonso, Alicia with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 19, 1601, Granada, Spain—died Sept. 3, 1667, Granada) Spanish painter, sculptor, and architect. He studied in Sevilla with Francisco Pacheco and was active as court painter in Madrid (1638–44). Despite a violent temperament, Cano produced serene and elegant religious paintings and sculpture. He worked for much of his career in Granada, where he designed the facade of the Granada Cathedral (1667), one of the masterpieces of Spanish Baroque architecture. He is often called the Spanish Michelangelo for the diversity of his talents.

Learn more about Cano, Alonso with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born circa 1488, Paredes de Nava, Castile—died 1561, Toledo, Castile) Spanish sculptor and painter. His father, Pedro Berruguete, was a great Renaissance painter. Alonso worked in Florence and Rome circa 1508–16. In 1516 he returned to Spain, and in 1518 he became court painter to Charles V. He succeeded primarily as a sculptor, however, and became known for his intensely emotional Mannerist sculptures of figures portrayed in spiritual torment or in transports of religious ecstasy. His best-known work is a set of wooden reliefs with highly expressive figures for choir stalls in Toledo Cathedral (1539–43). Berruguete's use of a rather rich and extravagant but delicate ornamentation in his church decorations is typical of Spain's Plateresque style. He is considered the greatest Spanish sculptor of the 16th century.

Learn more about Berruguete, Alonso with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Alicia Martínez Hoyo

Alicia Alonso, 1955.

(born Dec. 21, 1921, Havana, Cuba) Cuban ballerina, choreographer, and director. She studied in Havana and New York, where she danced with Ballet Theatre (later American Ballet Theatre; 1940–41, 1943–48, 1950–55, 1958–59). In 1948 she formed her own company, Ballet Alicia Alonso (renamed Ballet Nacional de Cuba in 1959), with which she performed frequently on tour in Latin America. Despite failing eyesight, she continued for many years to dance leading roles as a guest artist with American Ballet Theatre and other companies.

Learn more about Alonso, Alicia with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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