Following the end of the Cold War, the Command was reduced, with many of its subordinate headquarters spread across the Atlantic area losing their NATO status and funding. From 1994, Allied Command Atlantic was divided into three geographical command areas: the Western Atlantic, the Eastern Atlantic and the South Atlantic. Within this framework, from 1994 until 2003 there were five major subordinate commanders, directly responsible to SACLANT. They were Commander-in-Chief, Eastern Atlantic Area (CINCEASTLANT) in Northwood/London, United Kingdom; Commander-in-Chief, Western Atlantic Area (CINCWESTLANT) in Norfolk, Virginia, United States; Commander-in-Chief, Southern Atlantic Area (CINCSOUTHLANT) in Oeiras/Lisbon, Portugal; and Commander Striking Fleet, Atlantic (COMSTRIKFLTLANT) and Commander, Submarines Allied Command Atlantic (COMSUBACLANT) both located in Norfolk, Virginia. CINCWESTLANT directed SubWestLant, the Ocean Sub-Area, the Canadian Atlantic Sub-Area, and the Greenland Island Commander. Also included in the area of responsibility are the island commands of the Faeroes, the Azores, Madeira, Greenland, Bermuda and Iceland. However, the basic structure remained in place until the Prague Summit in the Czech Republic in 2002.
Thus NATO’s military command structure was reorganized with a focus on becoming leaner and more efficient, focusing one strategic command, Allied Command Transformation (ACT), on transforming NATO, while focusing NATO's other strategic command on NATO’s operations Allied Command Operations (ACO/SHAPE). ACT was formally established on June 19, 2003.
As NATO becomes a global entity, ACT is intended to contribute to preserving the peace, security and territorial integrity of the alliance's 26 member states by leading the military transformation of alliance forces and capabilities, using new concepts such as the NATO Response Force and new doctrines in order to improve the alliance's military effectiveness.
HQ SACT is the physical headquarters of NATO's Supreme Allied Commander Transformation (SACT), General James Mattis, and houses the command structure of NATO's Allied Command Transformation (ACT). It is located in Norfolk, Virginia, in the United States.
Consistent with North Atlantic Council priorities and objectives, the headquarters' function is -
Since Allied Command Atlantic became Allied Command Transformation, commanders have included non-naval officers, including the current Marine Corps officer. The Deputy SACT position is currently filled by Admiral Luciano Zappata of the Italian Navy.
HQ SACT itself is organised into a command group, the Transformation Directorate, the Transformation Support Directorate, National Liaison Representatives, the Partnership for Peace Staff Element and Reservists responsible to HQ SACT.
Implementation Division, led by Assistant Chief of Staff (ACOS) Implementation, is responsible for guidance and coordination of the activities of two Sub-Divisions, Joint Education and Training (JET) and Joint Experimentation, Exercises and Assessment (JEEA) as well as providing guidance for the Joint Warfare Centre (JWC) and Joint Analysis Lessons Learned Centre (JALLC), in their efforts to enhance training programs, to path on breaking concept development and experimentation, to develop effective programs to capture and implement lessons learned and to press on common standards. This division probably serves as NATO's linkpoint to the annual U.S.-led Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration.
Capabilities Division, led by Assistant Chief of Staff (ACOS) Capabilities is responsible for guidance and coordination of the activities of three Sub-Divisions of Strategic Concepts, Policy, and Coordination (SCPI); Future Capabilities, Research and Technology (FCRT) and Defence Planning (Def Plan) in their efforts to staff Capabilities, Concepts and Development products.
Reflecting NATO as a whole, ACT has a worldwide presence. As well as being co-located with United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM) in Norfolk, Virginia, there is also an ACT command element located at SHAPE in Mons, Belgium. Additional subordinate commands include the Joint Warfare Centre (JWC) located in Stavanger, Norway; the Joint Force Training Centre (JFTC) in Bydgoszcz, Poland; the Joint Analysis and Lessons Learned Centre (JALLC) in Monsanto, Portugal; and the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC), La Spezia, Italy, various NATO Schools, and various Centres of Excellence. These additional elements assist in ACT's transformation efforts. Under a customer-funded arrangement, ACT invests about 30 million Euros into research with the NATO Consultation, Command and Control Agency (NC3A) each year to support scientific and experimental programs.
They are funded nationally or multinationally and have individual relationships with NATO formalized through memoranda of understanding.
NATO has nine fully accredited COEs.
and eight not fully accredited COEs: