Allen

Allen

[al-uhn]
Tate, Allen (John Orley Allen Tate), 1899-1979, American poet and critic, b. Winchester, Ky., grad. Vanderbilt Univ., 1922. He was one of the founders and editors of the Fugitive (1922-25), a magazine that represented the Southern agrarian literary group of social and political conservatives. Among his early publications were interpretive biographies of Stonewall Jackson (1928) and Jefferson Davis (1929), and a novel, The Fathers (1938). He was the resident fellow of poetry at Princeton (1939-42), held the chair of poetry at the Library of Congress (1934-44), and edited the Sewanee Review (1944-46). From 1951 to 1968 he taught English literature at the Univ. of Minnesota. His critical writings, direct and perceptive, include Reactionary Essays on Poetry and Ideas (1936), On the Limits of Poetry (1948), and The Man of Letters in the Modern World (1955). His poems, filled with bitter and original imagery, exhibit unusual skill; they show Tate's intense feeling for history and for human estrangement in the world. Among his most famous poems are "Ode to the Confederate Dead," "The Mediterranean," and "The Buried Lake."

See his Collected Poems, 1919-1976 (1977) and Essays of Four Decades (1969); his collected letters (1981, 1987); biography by T. A. Underwood (2000); studies by R. K. Meiners (1963) and R. S. Dupree (1983).

Johnson, Allen, 1870-1931, American historian, b. Lowell, Mass. He was professor of history at Iowa (now Grinnell) College (1898-1905), Bowdoin College (1905-10), and Yale (1910-26). He achieved a notable success in editing the "Chronicles of America" (50 vol., 1918-21), a series both scholarly in material and popular in style, to which he contributed Jefferson and His Colleagues (Vol. XV, 1921). This success was partly responsible for his being selected as editor in chief of the Dictionary of American Biography, published under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies. Six volumes appeared before his death, setting the style and standard for the remainder of the enterprise.
Ginsberg, Allen, 1926-97, American poet, b. Paterson, N.J., grad. Columbia, 1949. An outspoken member of the beat generation, Ginsberg is best known for Howl (1956), a long poem attacking American values in the 1950s. The prose of Jack Kerouac, the insights of Zen Buddhism, and the free verse of Walt Whitman were some of the sources for Ginsberg's quest to glorify everyday experience, embrace the ecstatic moment, and promote sponteneity and freedom of expression. His volumes of poetry include Kaddish and Other Poems, 1958-60 (1961), Collected Poems, 1947-1980 (1984), and White Shroud: Poems 1980-85 (1986). His Collected Poems: 1947-1997 was published in 2006. Allen Verbatim (1974) is a collection of lectures, and Deliberate Prose (2000) a selection of essays.

See his journals (5 vol., 1971-96); collected correspondence (5 vol., 1976-2001), M. Schumacher, ed., Family Business: Selected Letters between a Father and Son (2001), and B. Morgan, ed., The Letters of Allen Ginsberg and The Selected Letters of Allen Ginsberg and Gary Snyder (both: 2008); D. Carter, ed., Spontaneous Mind: Selected Interviews, 1958-1996 (2001); biographies by B. Miles (1989), M. Schumacher (1992), and B. Morgan (2006); studies by L. Hyde, ed. (1984), T. F. Merrill (1988), and B. Miles (1993); bibliographies ed. by G. Dowden (1971), M. P. Kraus (1980), and B. Morgan (1995).

Allen, Ethan, 1738-89, hero of the American Revolution, leader of the Green Mountain Boys, and promoter of the independence and statehood of Vermont, b. Litchfield (?), Conn. He had some schooling and was proud of his deist opinions, which he later incorporated in Reason the Only Oracle of Man (1784). After fighting briefly in the French and Indian Wars, he interested himself in land speculation, and in 1770 he appeared as one of the proprietors in the New Hampshire Grants. He and his brothers, notably Ira Allen, became the leaders of the New England settlers and speculators in the disputed lands—inveterate enemies of the Yorkers (settlers under New York patents) and violent opponents of all attempts of New York to exert control in the area. He was active in forming the Green Mountain Boys and became their leader in defying the New York government and harrying the Yorkers. Governor Tryon of New York put a price on the heads of Allen and two of his followers, but Ethan was not captured. After the outbreak of the American Revolution, he made the Green Mountain Boys into an independent patriot organization. Joined by Benedict Arnold (with a commission from Massachusetts) and some Connecticut militia, Ethan Allen and his men captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British on May 10, 1775. Legend says that when the British officer asked him under what authority he acted, Ethan Allen roared, "In the name of the Great Jehovah and the Continental Congress!" The story is, however, apocryphal. Allen then urged an expedition against Canada, and the Green Mountain Boys were attached to Gen. P. J. Schuyler's invasion force, but the men chose not Allen, but his cousin Seth Warner, as leader. Allen went on the expedition and, in a rash effort to capture Montreal before the main Continental army arrived, was captured (Sept., 1775) by the British. He told his own story of this in the popular Narrative of Colonel Ethan Allen's Captivity, which appeared in 1779, a year after he had been exchanged. He returned to Vermont, which had declared its independence but was unrecognized by the Continental Congress. Ethan and his brother Ira then devoted themselves to insuring the new political unit in one way or another. The region remained in danger of British attack, and the British late in 1779 opened negotiations with Ethan Allen in an attempt to attach Vermont to Canada. No conclusion was reached, and the victory at Yorktown ending the American Revolution also ended the talks. Ethan Allen withdrew from politics in 1784. When he died, Vermont was still independent and still dickering with Congress and dealing with internal struggles between the Allen party and their opponents.

See biography by C. A. Jellison (1969).

Allen, Frederick Lewis, 1890-1954, American social historian and editor, b. Boston, grad. Harvard (B.A., 1912; M.A., 1913). He is best remembered for his journalistic but nonetheless penetrating works of social history, including Only Yesterday (1932), Since Yesterday (1940), and The Big Change (1952). After teaching English at Harvard, he was an assistant editor of the Atlantic Monthly (1914-16), then managing editor of The Century (1916-17). In 1923 he began working for Harper's Magazine, where he remained until 1953, becoming chief editor in 1941.
Allen, Gracie: see Burns, George.
Allen, Hervey, 1889-1949, American novelist and poet, b. Pittsburgh, grad. Univ. of Pittsburgh, 1915. After service in World War I, he taught English in Charleston, S.C., where, in collaboration with DuBose Heyward, he wrote Carolina Chansons (1922), a volume of verse. He wrote other books of poetry but is best known for his excellent biography of Poe, Israfel (1926), and the picaresque novel Anthony Adverse (1933), which achieved enormous popular success.
Allen, Ira, 1751-1814, political leader in early Vermont, b. Cornwall, Conn. He was the younger brother and the assistant of Ethan Allen. Although he was a member of the Green Mountain Boys, he took little part in their activities. His cool shrewdness, his adeptness in business matters, and his brilliant planning complemented the colorful vigor and rash violence of his brother. He organized the Onion River Land Company and secured the lands around the Winooski River and Lake Champlain that the Allens worked hard to protect. Ira Allen took part in the conventions at Dorset and Westminster that brought about the independence of Vermont, and he was a leading figure in its political life in the years following, holding many offices. He was involved in the long negotiations with the British and was accused of treason. After Vermont became a state he was forced out of politics. He helped to establish the Univ. of Vermont. In 1798, Allen published his Natural and Political History of the State of Vermont.

See biography by J. B. Wilbur (1928).

Allen, James Lane, 1849-1925, American novelist, b. Lexington, Kentucky. Among his stylized, "genteel" novels set in his native region are A Kentucky Cardinal (1894), Aftermath (1895), and The Choir Invisible (1897).
Allen, Richard, 1760-1831, American clergyman, founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. He was born a slave in Philadelphia and purchased his freedom. He became pastor of a black group that had seceded from the Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia. When the African Methodist Episcopal Church was organized nationally (1816), Allen was consecrated its first bishop. An ardent abolitionist, he publicly challenged the morality of slavery and did much to lay the philosophical groundwork for the black nationalist movement.

See biographies by M. M. Mathews (1963), C. V. R. George (1973), and R. S. Newman (2008).

Allen, William, 1704-80, American jurist, b. Philadelphia. He and his father-in-law, Andrew Hamilton, decided the choice of Philadelphia instead of Chester as provincial capital, and he helped finance the building of Independence Hall. Allen was (1750-74) chief justice of Pennsylvania, secured (1763) postponement of the sugar duties, and helped (1765) Benjamin Franklin in his efforts to have the Stamp Act repealed. He wrote The American Crisis (1774), containing a plan for colonial reconciliation with England. When it was not accepted, he made his home in England. Allentown, Pa., was named for him.
Allen, Woody, 1935-, American actor, writer, and director, one of contemporary America's leading filmmakers, b. Brooklyn, N.Y., as Allen Stewart Konigsberg. Allen began his career writing for television comedians and performing in nightclubs. His early film comedies, which often depict neurotic urban characters preoccupied with sex, death, and psychiatry, include Sleeper (1973) and Annie Hall (1977; Academy Award, best picture). Much of Allen's later work in comedy and drama explores these themes as well as a sophisticated New Yorker's various other preoccupations.

Among his later films are the stylish Manhattan (1979); Broadway Danny Rose (1984), a New York comedy; the probing family drama Hannah and Her Sisters (1986; Academy Award, best screenplay); the 1930s comedy Radio Days (1987); the searing Crimes and Misdemeanors (1989); Husbands and Wives (1992), a bittersweet domestic drama; the romantic and partly musical Everyone Says I Love You (1996); and the fictional jazz biography Sweet and Lowdown (1999). Several subsequent films failed to achieve the critical and popular plaudits earned by many of his earlier films, but Match Point (2005), a tale of wealth, lust, crime, and luck set in London, did much to revive his flagging reputation. Allen again used the city as the setting for the comedy Scoop (2006) and the drama Cassandra's Dream (2008) and turned to Catalonia, Spain, for his sensual, melancholy-tinged comedy Vicky Cristina Barcelona (2008). Allen also has written humorous prose pieces, many published in the New Yorker, and plays. In 1992, in a bitter public dispute, Allen left Mia Farrow for her adopted daughter then sued the actress for custody of their children and lost (1993).

See his The Insanity Defense: The Complete Prose (2007); biographies by E. Lax (1991), J. Baxter (1999), and M. Meade (2000); E. Lax, Conversations with Woody Allen (2007); studies by D. Jacobs (1982), F. Hirsch (rev. ed. 1990), S. B. Girgus (1993), and D. Brode (1997); Woody Allen on Woody Allen (1995); documentary film Wild Man Blues (1998), dir. by B. Kopple.

Allen, Bog of, area of several peat bogs c.375 sq mi (971 sq km), with patches of cultivable land, in the central lowlands, E Republic of Ireland. The bog is crossed by the Grand and Royal canals. It is a source of fuel and contains peat-fired electrical generating stations.
Allen, Lough, lake, 8 mi (12.9 km) long and 3 mi (4.8 km) wide, Co. Leitrim and Co. Roscommon, N Republic of Ireland. The upper Shannon River flows through the lake.
orig. Allen Stewart Konigsberg

(born Dec. 1, 1935, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. film director, screenwriter, and actor. After writing routines for comedians and performing as a nightclub comic, he wrote the Broadway play Don't Drink the Water (1966). His early films, such as Bananas (1971) and Sleeper (1973), combined highbrow comedy and slapstick. Later romantic comedies such as Annie Hall (1977), which won him two Academy Awards, and Manhattan (1979) offered a bittersweet view of New York life. He continued making films into the 21st century, most notably Hannah and Her Sisters (1986), Crimes and Misdemeanors (1989), and Bullets over Broadway (1994).

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(born Feb. 10, 1868, Emporia, Kan., U.S.—died Jan. 29, 1944, Emporia) U.S. journalist. White purchased the Emporia Daily and Weekly Gazette in 1895. His editorial writing was a mixture of tolerance, optimism, liberal Republicanism, and provincialism. His widely circulated 1896 editorial “What's the Matter with Kansas?” was credited with helping elect William McKinley president. He also wrote fiction, biographies, and an autobiography. His son and successor, William Lindsay White (1900–73), wrote one of the best-selling books on World War II, They Were Expendable (1942).

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(born Feb. 10, 1868, Emporia, Kan., U.S.—died Jan. 29, 1944, Emporia) U.S. journalist. White purchased the Emporia Daily and Weekly Gazette in 1895. His editorial writing was a mixture of tolerance, optimism, liberal Republicanism, and provincialism. His widely circulated 1896 editorial “What's the Matter with Kansas?” was credited with helping elect William McKinley president. He also wrote fiction, biographies, and an autobiography. His son and successor, William Lindsay White (1900–73), wrote one of the best-selling books on World War II, They Were Expendable (1942).

Learn more about White, William Allen with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 19, 1899, Winchester, Ky., U.S.—died Feb. 9, 1979, Nashville, Tenn.) U.S. poet and novelist. While attending Vanderbilt University Tate helped found The Fugitive (1922–25), a poetry magazine concentrating largely on the South, and contributed to I'll Take My Stand (1930), a Fugitive manifesto defending the region's conservative agrarian society. From 1934 he taught at several institutions, including Princeton University and the University of Minnesota, becoming a leading exponent of the New Criticism. He emphasized the writer's need for tradition, which he found in Southern culture and later in Roman Catholicism, to which he converted in 1950. His best-known poem is “Ode to the Confederate Dead” (1926).

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(born Feb. 14, 1760, Philadelphia, Pa.—died March 26, 1831, Philadelphia) U.S. religious leader. He was born to slave parents, and his family was sold to a Delaware farmer. A Methodist convert at 17, he was licensed to preach five years later. By 1786 he had purchased his freedom and settled in Philadelphia, where he joined St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church. Racial discrimination prompted him to withdraw in 1787, and he turned an old blacksmith shop into the first black church in the U.S. Allen and his followers built the Bethel African Methodist Church, and in 1799 he was ordained as its minister. In 1816 he organized a conference of black leaders to form the African Methodist Episcopal Church, of which he was named the first bishop.

Learn more about Allen, Richard with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 3, 1926, Newark, N.J., U.S.—died April 5, 1997, New York, N.Y.) U.S. poet. Ginsberg was the son of a poet. He attended Columbia University, where he met Jack Kerouac. His epic poem Howl (1956), a denunciation of the failings of American society, became the most famous poem of the Beat movement; in it and later works, largely inspired by Walt Whitman, he celebrated the pleasures of psychotropic drugs, footloose wandering, and homosexuality. Kaddish (1961) is a long confessional poem about his mother's insanity and suicide. His collections include Reality Sandwiches (1963), The Fall of America (1972), and Mind Breaths (1978). Ginsberg's life was one of ceaseless travel, poetry readings, and left-wing political activity, and he was a guru of the American youth counterculture in the 1960s and '70s.

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(born Jan. 21, 1738, Litchfield, Conn.—died Feb. 12, 1789, Burlington, Vt., U.S.) American soldier and frontiersman. After fighting in the French and Indian War (1754–63), he settled in what is now Vermont. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, his force of Green Mountain Boys (organized in 1770) helped defeat the British in the Battle of Ticonderoga (1775). As a volunteer with troops commanded by Gen. Philip Schuyler, he attempted to take Montreal but was captured by the British and held prisoner until 1778. He returned to Vermont, where he worked for statehood. Failing to achieve this, he attempted to negotiate the annexation of Vermont to Canada.

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(born April 7, 1893, Watertown, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 29, 1969, Washington, D.C.) U.S. diplomat and administrator. He held diplomatic posts before practicing law with his brother, John Foster Dulles. In World War II he served in the Office of Strategic Services. After the war he chaired a committee to survey the U.S. intelligence system. When the Central Intelligence Agency was established in 1951, he became its deputy director. As director (1953–61), he oversaw the agency's early successes, but the U-2 Affair (1960) and the Bay of Pigs invasion (1961) led to his resignation.

Learn more about Dulles, Allen W(elsh) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Allen Stewart Konigsberg

(born Dec. 1, 1935, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. film director, screenwriter, and actor. After writing routines for comedians and performing as a nightclub comic, he wrote the Broadway play Don't Drink the Water (1966). His early films, such as Bananas (1971) and Sleeper (1973), combined highbrow comedy and slapstick. Later romantic comedies such as Annie Hall (1977), which won him two Academy Awards, and Manhattan (1979) offered a bittersweet view of New York life. He continued making films into the 21st century, most notably Hannah and Her Sisters (1986), Crimes and Misdemeanors (1989), and Bullets over Broadway (1994).

Learn more about Allen, Woody with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 14, 1760, Philadelphia, Pa.—died March 26, 1831, Philadelphia) U.S. religious leader. He was born to slave parents, and his family was sold to a Delaware farmer. A Methodist convert at 17, he was licensed to preach five years later. By 1786 he had purchased his freedom and settled in Philadelphia, where he joined St. George's Methodist Episcopal Church. Racial discrimination prompted him to withdraw in 1787, and he turned an old blacksmith shop into the first black church in the U.S. Allen and his followers built the Bethel African Methodist Church, and in 1799 he was ordained as its minister. In 1816 he organized a conference of black leaders to form the African Methodist Episcopal Church, of which he was named the first bishop.

Learn more about Allen, Richard with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 21, 1738, Litchfield, Conn.—died Feb. 12, 1789, Burlington, Vt., U.S.) American soldier and frontiersman. After fighting in the French and Indian War (1754–63), he settled in what is now Vermont. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, his force of Green Mountain Boys (organized in 1770) helped defeat the British in the Battle of Ticonderoga (1775). As a volunteer with troops commanded by Gen. Philip Schuyler, he attempted to take Montreal but was captured by the British and held prisoner until 1778. He returned to Vermont, where he worked for statehood. Failing to achieve this, he attempted to negotiate the annexation of Vermont to Canada.

Learn more about Allen, Ethan with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 7, 1893, Watertown, N.Y., U.S.—died Jan. 29, 1969, Washington, D.C.) U.S. diplomat and administrator. He held diplomatic posts before practicing law with his brother, John Foster Dulles. In World War II he served in the Office of Strategic Services. After the war he chaired a committee to survey the U.S. intelligence system. When the Central Intelligence Agency was established in 1951, he became its deputy director. As director (1953–61), he oversaw the agency's early successes, but the U-2 Affair (1960) and the Bay of Pigs invasion (1961) led to his resignation.

Learn more about Dulles, Allen W(elsh) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born June 3, 1926, Newark, N.J., U.S.—died April 5, 1997, New York, N.Y.) U.S. poet. Ginsberg was the son of a poet. He attended Columbia University, where he met Jack Kerouac. His epic poem Howl (1956), a denunciation of the failings of American society, became the most famous poem of the Beat movement; in it and later works, largely inspired by Walt Whitman, he celebrated the pleasures of psychotropic drugs, footloose wandering, and homosexuality. Kaddish (1961) is a long confessional poem about his mother's insanity and suicide. His collections include Reality Sandwiches (1963), The Fall of America (1972), and Mind Breaths (1978). Ginsberg's life was one of ceaseless travel, poetry readings, and left-wing political activity, and he was a guru of the American youth counterculture in the 1960s and '70s.

Learn more about Ginsberg, Allen (Irwin) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Allen is a city in Lyon County, Kansas, United States. The population was 211 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Emporia Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Geography

Allen is located at (38.656472, -96.170511).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.3 square miles (0.7 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 211 people, 83 households, and 62 families residing in the city. The population density was 768.7 people per square mile (301.7/km²). There were 93 housing units at an average density of 338.8/sq mi (133.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 98.10% White, 0.47% African American and 1.42% Native American. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.95% of the population.

There were 83 households out of which 39.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.0% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.3% were non-families. 24.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.00.

In the city the population was spread out with 29.9% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 113.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,500, and the median income for a family was $39,792. Males had a median income of $30,000 versus $24,500 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,855. About 10.2% of families and 8.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.9% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over.

References

External links

City Level Data
* Kansas Statistical Abstract

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