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Aleurites fordii

Aleurites

Aleurites is a small arborescent genus of plants in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, the Pacific and South America, belonging to the Spurge family Euphorbiaceae.

These monoecious, evergreen trees are perennials or semi-perennials. These are large trees, 15-40 m tall, with spreading drooping and rising branches.

The leaves are alternate, lobate, ovate to ovate-lanceolate with minute stipules. They are pubescent on both sides when young, but in a later stage they become glabrous.

The inflorescence consists of terminal plumes of small, creamy white bell-shaped fragrant flowers, branching from the base. The flowers are usually bisexual, with a solitary pistillate flower at the end of each major axis. The lateral cymes are staminate. There are five or six imbricate petals. The staminate flowers are mostly longer and thinner than the pistillate flowers, with 17-32 glabrous stamens in four whorls. The pistillate flowers have a superior ovary.

The fruits are rather large drupes with a fleshy exocarp and a thin, woody endocarp. They vary in shape, according to the numbers of developed locules. They contain oleiferous seeds. These seeds are poisonous.

The oil has been used as a paraffin, lubricant or as a constituent of varnish, paint or soap. It has also been used as baking oil, after removing the poisonous substances.

Some deciduous Chinese species are now classified under a separate genus Vernicia.

The name Aleurites is derived from a Greek word meaning "wheaten flour", because of the appearance of the lower surface of the leaf.

Species

The most widespread species is the Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana), occurring from tropical Asia, the Pacific, from India to China and Polynesia, Australia and New Zealand. Some botanists only recognize two species, Aleurites moluccana and Aleurites rockinghamensis.

The genus is also known by the synonym Camirium Gaertn.

References

  • Stuppy, W., P.C. van Welzen, P. Klinratana & M.C.T. Posa. 1999. Revision of the genera Aleurites, Reutealis and Vernicia (Euphorbiaceae). Blumea 44: 73-98.

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