Aldabra Islands

Endemic birds of Madagascar and western Indian Ocean islands

This article is one of a series providing information about endemism among birds in the World's various zoogeographic zones. For an overview of this subject see Endemism in birds.

Patterns of endemism

This region is notable not just for the high number of endemic species, but for endemism in higher-level taxonomic groupings too.

Family-level endemism

The following three families are endemic to Madagascar:

In addition, the ten species of Coua (genus Coua, a subfamily of the cuckoos), are all Madagascan endemics.

Two other families are endemic to the wider region:

The extinct Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire comprised a family, Raphidae, which was endemic to Mauritius.

Genus-level endemism

In addition to genera in the families above, the following genera are endemic to the region (M indicating a genus endemic to Madagascar):

  • the Jeries Neomixis (three species) and Hartertula (one species) M

In addition in the following genera, high proportions of the member species are endemic to Madagascar:

  • the rock-thrushes, Monticola, in which three of the 13 species are endemic to Madagascar (these three are sometimes separated into their own genus, Pseudocossyphus.

Endemic Bird Areas

Birdlife International has defined a number of Endemic Bird Areas and Secondary Areas in Madagascar and the western Indian Ocean islands.

List of species

Species endemic to Madagascar

The following is a list of species endemic to Madagascar.
Non-passerines


Passerines


Note that:

  • Madagascar Partridge is endemic as a native species to Madagascar, but has been introduced on the Mascarenes
  • Madagascar Buttonquail is endemic as a native species to Madagascar, but has been introduced on the Mascarenes
  • Madagascar Turtle Dove is endemic as a native species to Madagascar, but is thought to be an introduced species on the other islands in the region
  • Grey-headed Lovebird is endemic as a native species to Madagascar, but has been introduced to the Comoro Islands
  • Madagascar Fody is endemic as a native species to Madagascar, but has been introduced to many of the other islands in the region

Species endemic to other islands or island groups in the region

The following is a list of species endemic to other islands.

Species endemic to the Mascarene group

Species endemic to the Comoros

Species endemic to central Seychelles

Species endemic to the Aldabra islands

There are native Madagascar Turtle Doves in the Aldabra group (separate races from those found on Madagascar); they may represent a separate species.

Other species endemic to the region

The following is a list of species which are not endemic to a specific island (or island group) but are endemic to the region as a whole.

Near-endemics

The following is a list of species endemic to the region as breeding species:

Two Western Palearctic falcons winter entirely (Eleonora's Falcon) or mainly (Sooty Falcon) on Madagascar.

The following restricted-range species are also found in the region:

The following seabirds are restricted to the region as breeders:

References

  • Sinclair, Ian and Olivier Langrand (2003) Birds of the Indian Ocean Islands

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