This article is one of a series providing information about endemism
among birds in the World's various zoogeographic zones. For an overview of this subject see Endemism in birds
Patterns of endemism
This region is notable not just for the high number of endemic species, but for endemism in higher-level taxonomic groupings too.
The following three families are endemic to Madagascar:
In addition, the ten species of Coua (genus Coua, a subfamily of the cuckoos), are all Madagascan endemics.
Two other families are endemic to the wider region:
The extinct Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire comprised a family, Raphidae, which was endemic to Mauritius.
In addition to genera in the families above, the following genera are endemic to the region (M indicating a genus endemic to Madagascar):
- the Jeries Neomixis (three species) and Hartertula (one species) M
In addition in the following genera, high proportions of the member species are endemic to Madagascar:
- the rock-thrushes, Monticola, in which three of the 13 species are endemic to Madagascar (these three are sometimes separated into their own genus, Pseudocossyphus.
Endemic Bird Areas
has defined a number of Endemic Bird Areas
and Secondary Areas
and the western Indian Ocean islands
List of species
Species endemic to Madagascar
The following is a list of species endemic to Madagascar.
- Madagascar Partridge is endemic as a native species to Madagascar, but has been introduced on the Mascarenes
- Madagascar Buttonquail is endemic as a native species to Madagascar, but has been introduced on the Mascarenes
- Madagascar Turtle Dove is endemic as a native species to Madagascar, but is thought to be an introduced species on the other islands in the region
- Grey-headed Lovebird is endemic as a native species to Madagascar, but has been introduced to the Comoro Islands
- Madagascar Fody is endemic as a native species to Madagascar, but has been introduced to many of the other islands in the region
Species endemic to other islands or island groups in the region
The following is a list of species endemic to other islands.
Species endemic to the Mascarene group
Species endemic to the Comoros
Species endemic to central Seychelles
Species endemic to the Aldabra islands
There are native Madagascar Turtle Doves in the Aldabra group (separate races from those found on Madagascar); they may represent a separate species.
Other species endemic to the region
The following is a list of species which are not endemic to a specific island (or island group) but are endemic to the region as a whole.
- Madagascar Sacred Ibis (Aldabra, western coast of Madagascar)
- Réunion Harrier (Madagascar, Comoros, Mascarenes)
- Frances's Sparrowhawk (Madagascar, Comoros)
- Madagascar Kestrel (Madagascar, Aldabra)
- Comoro Blue Pigeon (Comoros, Aldabra)
- Greater Vasa Parrot (Madagascar, Comoros)
- Lesser Vasa Parrot (Madagascar, Comoros)
- Madagascar Coucal (Madagascar, Aldabra)
- Madagascar Scops Owl (Madagascar, Comoros)
- Madagascar Nightjar (Madagascar, Aldabra)
- Madagascar Black Swift (Madagascar, Comoros)
- Madagascar Spine-tailed Swift (Madagascar, Comoros)
- Madagascar Kingfisher (Madagascar, Comoros)
- Madagascar Bee-eater (Madagascar, Comoros)
- Madagascar Cuckoo-roller (Madagascar, Comoros)
- Mascarene Martin (Madagascar, Mascarenes)
- Madagascar Bulbul (Madagascar, Comoros, Aldabra)
- Madagascar Paradise Flycatcher (Madagascar, Comoros)
- Madagascar Cisticola (Madagascar, Aldabra group)
- Madagascar Brush-warbler (Madagascar, Mohéli, Anjouan)
- Madagascar White-eye (Madagascar, various other islands)
- Madagascar Green Sunbird (Madagascar, Mohéli)
- Souimanga Sunbird (Aldabra, Madagascar)
- Crested Drongo (Madagascar, Anjouan)
The following is a list of species endemic to the region as breeding species:
Two Western Palearctic falcons winter entirely (Eleonora's Falcon) or mainly (Sooty Falcon) on Madagascar.
The following restricted-range species are also found in the region:
The following seabirds are restricted to the region as breeders:
- Sinclair, Ian and Olivier Langrand (2003) Birds of the Indian Ocean Islands