Alcalá Zamora, Niceto, 1877-1949, Spanish statesman and president of Spain (1931-36). After holding several cabinet posts under the monarchy, he became a republican and was jailed for his political activity in 1930. He helped lead the successful revolution of 1931 and became first provisional and then constitutional president of the Spanish republic. A middle-of-the-road liberal, he was deposed by the Cortes on a Socialist motion (Apr., 1936) and was succeeded as president by Manuel Azaña. He went into exile first to France and then (1942) to Argentina.