Definitions

Alberto

Alberto

Fujimori, Alberto, 1938-, president of Peru (1990-2000), b. Lima, Peru. The son of Japanese immigrants, he was educated in Peru and attended Univ. of Wisconsin. Fujimori was an unknown economist when he scored an upset in the 1990 presidential elections. He inherited a nation experiencing a severe economic crisis and facing one of Latin America's most brutal guerrilla insurgencies, the Shining Path. He slashed inflation and restored economic confidence by cutting subsidies, aggressively collecting taxes, and raising prices.

In 1992 he suspended congress and the courts and declared emergency rule to combat corruption and the Shining Path terrorism. Under strong international pressure, he announced elections to a new congress, but these were boycotted by the principal opposition parties. A break with his wife, Susana Higuchi, a civil engineer, led to her abortive attempt (1994) to contest his bid for reelection; they were divorced in 1995. In the presidential election (1995), he defeated Javier Pérez de Cuéllar.

Despite high popularity ratings from the Peruvian public, Fujimori was widely criticized for autocratic rule and suppression of opposition voices. He retained office in the 2000 presidential election after Alejandro Toledo Manrique withdrew from the May runoff because of the expectation of fraud; in April, the election commission had been accused by observers of trying to steal the election in the first round. After his chief adviser, Vladimiro Montesinos, was accused of bribing opposition lawmakers in September, Fujimori offered to hold new presidential elections in which he would not run, but he ultimately resigned in November while traveling in Japan. He remained in exile in Japan, and the Japanese government subsequently recognized him as a Japanese citizen.

Charged by the Peruvian congress with dereliction of duty for failing to return, he also had a variety of Peruvian criminal charges filed against him, and was banned from holding elected office until 2010. In 2005 he visited Chile as a prelude to launching a bid for the Peruvian presidency and was detained at the government of Peru's request; a subsequent attempt to register him as a Peruvian presidential candidate was denied. In Sept., 2007, following a prosecutor's recommendation, the Chilean courts approved his extradition to Peru. Despite being placed under house arrest during the court proceedings, he was an unsuccessful candidate for Japan's Diet in July, 2007. In Dec., 2007, he was convicted in Peru of ordering an illegal search in 2000; he was also convicted on human rights charges in Apr., 2009, and on bribery charges in July, 2009, and pleaded guilty to wiretapping and embezzlement charges arising from the 2000 election in Sept., 2009.

Santos-Dumont, Alberto, 1873-1932, Brazilian aeronaut. The son of a wealthy coffee grower, he was a flamboyant bon vivant and lived in France from 1891 to 1928. A pioneer in the development of aircraft, he was the first person to construct and fly (1898) a gasoline-powered airship, the predecessor of the modern blimp. He built several other lighter-than-air craft, winning in one a prize for a round-trip flight between Saint-Cloud and the Eiffel Tower (1901). At Neuilly, France, he established in 1903 the first airship base. In 1905 he turned to the construction of airplanes, and in the first successful public demonstration of one he flew a biplane some 200 ft (60 m) in Paris in 1906. His other achievements include building a successful small monoplane in 1909.

See his autobiography (tr. 1973); study by P. Hoffman (2003).

Moravia, Alberto, 1907-90, Italian novelist born as Alberto Pincherle; husband of Elsa Morante. Moravia is considered one of the foremost 20th-century Italian novelists. He employs taut prose in realist narratives that shed light on such disturbing issues as the relation of the individual to society. His first novel, The Indifferent Ones (1929, tr. 1932), is a powerful and pitiless portrayal of the Italian bourgeoisie at the beginning of fascism. Novels such as The Empty Canvas (1960, tr. 1961) grimly depict the conflict and interaction between the creative and the sensual, while the underlying theme is the apathy and despair of modern people. Moravia's characters have lost faith in the values on which moral foundations are based. Two Women (1957, tr. 1958), a compelling story of wartime flight, was superbly filmed in 1961. His other works include Disobedience (1948, tr. 1950), The Conformist (1951), Two: A Phallic Novel (tr. 1972), the short-story collection Bought and Sold (1970, tr. 1973), and the essay collection Which Tribe Do You Belong To? (tr. 1974).

See biography by J. Cottrell (1974); studies by L. Rebay (1970) and J. Ross and D. Freed (1972).

Giacometti, Alberto, 1901-66, Swiss sculptor and painter; son of the impressionist painter Giovannia Giacometti; b. Stampa. He settled in Paris in 1922, studying with Bourdelle and becoming associated first with the cubists and then the surrealists (see cubism; surrealism). His Slaughtered Woman (1932; Mus. of Modern Art, New York City), for example, is a violent surrealist work. Giacometti abandoned surrealist images in 1935. In the 1930s and thereafter, he created highly original sculptures of elongated, emaciated human figures, usually in bronze. He also made open cagelike structures (e.g., The Palace at 4 A.M., 1933; Mus. of Modern Art, New York City) that were equally powerful.

Giacometti's haunting, anguished images have been described as perfect expressions of existentialist pessimism. In the early 1940s he created works on a drastically reduced scale. In his later years he again formed tall, slender, roughly worked figures that are among his most impressive sculptures. In his mature work, he concentrated on three basic themes for his attenuated figures—the seated portrait, the walking man, and the standing female nude, the latter two often with tiny shrunken heads and enormous, rooted feet. Giacometti's imagery and his plastic technique have had an extensive influence on modern sculpture. Many of his oil paintings and drawings, notably his portraits with their delicate, weblike tangle of lines, are also works of great distinction.

See biography by J. Lord (1985); catalog of the Museum of Modern Art (1965); drawings ed. by J. Lord (1971); J. Lord, Giacometti Portrait (1965), studies by R. Hohl (1971) and D. Sylvester (1996).

Ginastera, Alberto, 1916-83, Argentinean composer, b. Buenos Aires. Ginastera is considered among the most prominent comtemporary Latin American composers of the 20th cent. His early works used Latin American folk material; later compositions were less nationalistic and utilized serial techniques (see serial music). Among Ginastera's best-known works are the ballets Panambi (1940) and Estancia (1941); a piano sonata (1952); the Variations Concertantes for orchestra (1953); piano, violin, harp, and cello concertos; and the operas Don Rodrigo (1964), Bomarzo (1967), and Beatrix Cenci (1971).
Tomba, Alberto, 1966-, Italian skier. The winner of five Olympic medals, including golds for giant slalom (1988, 1992) and slalom (1988), and silvers for slalom (1992, 1994), Tomba became the first champion of the new World Cup circuit in 1995. Before retiring in 1998 to pursue an acting career, "La Bomba" (for his flamboyance on and off the slopes) won 50 World Cup events, and was seldom out of the news.
Blest Gana, Alberto, 1830-1920, Chilean novelist. He is considered the principal 19th-century Spanish American realist. Although as a diplomat he spent much of his life abroad, his novels, both social and historical, depict Chilean scenes. In both Aritmética en el amor (1860) and Martín Rivas (1862, tr. 1918), his masterpiece, he attacked the mores of the aristocracy and the upper middle class. His novel Durante la reconquista (1897) concerns the Chilean revolt against Spain.
Lleras Camargo, Alberto, 1906-90, president of Colombia (1945-46, 1958-62). A journalist, he entered politics as a Liberal, occupying many important government posts in the 1930s and 1940s. After his first short stint as president (1945-46), he served as director of the Pan-American Union (1947-48) and as first secretary-general of the Organization of American States (1948-54). He was instrumental in unseating the dictator Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (1957) and was the chief architect of the constitutional amendment (approved Dec., 1957) that provided for bipartisan Liberal-Conservative rule for a period of 12 years (later extended to 16 years). This plan, almost unique in the politics of the hemisphere, ended 10 years of bloody political strife that had cost approximately 200,000 lives. It also enabled Lleras, as president (1958-62), to stabilize the economy.
Calderón, Alberto, 1920-98, Argentine mathematician, b. Mendoza, Argentina, grad. Univ. of Buenos Aires (B.S. 1947), Univ. of Chicago (Ph.D. 1950). He is known for his contributions to mathematical analysis and the development of singular integrals, which are crucial to pure mathematics and to the mathematical description of physical functions, such as heat conduction and sound transmission. With his mentor Antoni Zygmund he formulated the Calderón-Zygmund theory of singular integral operators and inspired the Calderón-Zygmund, or Chicago, school of mathematicians devoted to their study. In particular Calderón wanted to describe a calculus for elliptic differential operators; from this beginning in the 1950s, the theory of pseudodifferential operators grew in the 1960s. Calderón's influence on analysis and related areas is due in large part to the many methods that he invented and perfected. Calderón's techniques have been absorbed as standard tools not only of harmonic analysis and but also of nonlinear analysis, partial differential equations, complex analysis, and even signal processing and numerical analysis.

(born Dec. 19, 1966, San Lazzaro di Savena, Italy) Italian Alpine skier. Tomba was born near Bologna and learned to ski there. He won three Olympic gold medals (1988, slalom and giant slalom; 1992, giant slalom), one Alpine World Cup championship (1995), and two World Championship of Skiing gold medals (1996, slalom and giant slalom). He had no success at the 1998 Olympics but won a slalom event at the World Cup in March of that year and then retired from skiing. He achieved a level of fame unusual for an Alpine skier because of his flamboyance on and off the slopes.

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orig. Alberto Pincherle

(born Nov. 28, 1907, Rome, Italy—died Sept. 26, 1990, Rome) Italian journalist, novelist, and short-story writer. He worked as a journalist in Turin and as a foreign correspondent in London. Time of Indifference (1929), his first novel, is a scathing study of middle-class moral corruption. His works were censored by Benito Mussolini's fascists and placed on the Index librorum prohibitorum. Later important novels, many of them portrayals of social alienation and loveless sexuality, include The Conformist (1951; film, 1971), Two Women (1957; film, 1961), and The Empty Canvas (1960). His books of short stories include Roman Tales (1954) and More Roman Tales (1959). He was married to the writer Elsa Morante (1918–85).

Learn more about Moravia, Alberto with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Giacometti, photograph by Yousuf Karsh, 1965

(born Oct. 10, 1901, Borgonovo, Switz.—died Jan. 11, 1966, Chur) Swiss sculptor and painter. His father was a Post-Impressionist painter, and his brother Diego was a well-known furniture designer. After studying art in Geneva (1919–20) and Paris (1922–25), he developed a style related to the Cubist sculpture of Alexander Archipenko and the post-Cubist work of Jacques Lipchitz. His work also showed the influence of African and Oceanic art. After experimenting with abstraction in the 1930s, he became increasingly focused on finding ways to capture a sense of reality in sculpture. For Giacometti an artwork was to become an almost existential evocation of reality. By the 1940s he had developed his signature style, producing thin, attenuated sculptures of solitary, skeletal figures and heads. He became well known, especially in the U.S., through two exhibitions in New York City (1948, 1950) and an essay on his art by Jean-Paul Sartre. In 1963 he designed a stage set for a production of a Samuel Beckett play.

Learn more about Giacometti, Alberto with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 28, 1938, Lima, Peru) President of Peru (1990–2000). The son of Japanese immigrants, he graduated from Agrarian National University in 1961. He first entered politics in 1989 as the head of the new political party Cambio 90 (“Change 90”). He won a surprise victory in the 1990 presidential election and in 1992 he dissolved the National Congress and took other steps to concentrate power in the presidency. He claimed credit for the capture of the leader of the Shining Path rebel movement later that year and, in 1997, the successful storming of the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima, where Tupac Amarú guerrillas had held dozens of hostages. He was reelected in 1995 and asserted victory, despite charges of fraud, in the 2000 election, but scandal involving his secret-police chief caused him to flee to Japan. In 2005 Fujimori traveled to Chile, where he was arrested at Peru's request. Two years later, while still imprisoned, he unsuccessfully ran for a seat in Japan's Diet (parliament). After a protracted legal battle, he was extradited to Peru in September 2007.

Learn more about Fujimori, Alberto (Kenyo) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Dec. 19, 1966, San Lazzaro di Savena, Italy) Italian Alpine skier. Tomba was born near Bologna and learned to ski there. He won three Olympic gold medals (1988, slalom and giant slalom; 1992, giant slalom), one Alpine World Cup championship (1995), and two World Championship of Skiing gold medals (1996, slalom and giant slalom). He had no success at the 1998 Olympics but won a slalom event at the World Cup in March of that year and then retired from skiing. He achieved a level of fame unusual for an Alpine skier because of his flamboyance on and off the slopes.

Learn more about Tomba, Alberto with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Alberto Pincherle

(born Nov. 28, 1907, Rome, Italy—died Sept. 26, 1990, Rome) Italian journalist, novelist, and short-story writer. He worked as a journalist in Turin and as a foreign correspondent in London. Time of Indifference (1929), his first novel, is a scathing study of middle-class moral corruption. His works were censored by Benito Mussolini's fascists and placed on the Index librorum prohibitorum. Later important novels, many of them portrayals of social alienation and loveless sexuality, include The Conformist (1951; film, 1971), Two Women (1957; film, 1961), and The Empty Canvas (1960). His books of short stories include Roman Tales (1954) and More Roman Tales (1959). He was married to the writer Elsa Morante (1918–85).

Learn more about Moravia, Alberto with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 28, 1938, Lima, Peru) President of Peru (1990–2000). The son of Japanese immigrants, he graduated from Agrarian National University in 1961. He first entered politics in 1989 as the head of the new political party Cambio 90 (“Change 90”). He won a surprise victory in the 1990 presidential election and in 1992 he dissolved the National Congress and took other steps to concentrate power in the presidency. He claimed credit for the capture of the leader of the Shining Path rebel movement later that year and, in 1997, the successful storming of the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima, where Tupac Amarú guerrillas had held dozens of hostages. He was reelected in 1995 and asserted victory, despite charges of fraud, in the 2000 election, but scandal involving his secret-police chief caused him to flee to Japan. In 2005 Fujimori traveled to Chile, where he was arrested at Peru's request. Two years later, while still imprisoned, he unsuccessfully ran for a seat in Japan's Diet (parliament). After a protracted legal battle, he was extradited to Peru in September 2007.

Learn more about Fujimori, Alberto (Kenyo) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Giacometti, photograph by Yousuf Karsh, 1965

(born Oct. 10, 1901, Borgonovo, Switz.—died Jan. 11, 1966, Chur) Swiss sculptor and painter. His father was a Post-Impressionist painter, and his brother Diego was a well-known furniture designer. After studying art in Geneva (1919–20) and Paris (1922–25), he developed a style related to the Cubist sculpture of Alexander Archipenko and the post-Cubist work of Jacques Lipchitz. His work also showed the influence of African and Oceanic art. After experimenting with abstraction in the 1930s, he became increasingly focused on finding ways to capture a sense of reality in sculpture. For Giacometti an artwork was to become an almost existential evocation of reality. By the 1940s he had developed his signature style, producing thin, attenuated sculptures of solitary, skeletal figures and heads. He became well known, especially in the U.S., through two exhibitions in New York City (1948, 1950) and an essay on his art by Jean-Paul Sartre. In 1963 he designed a stage set for a production of a Samuel Beckett play.

Learn more about Giacometti, Alberto with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Alberto-Culver is an international corporation whose principal business is manufacturing hair and skin beauty care products under such brands as Alberto VO5, St. Ives (skin care products), TRESemmé, FDS, Consort, and acquired Nexxus in 2005. It is the number one manufacturer in the multicultural beauty care market with such brands as Soft & Beautiful, Just For Me, Motions, and TCB. They are also makers of popular household items such as Sugar Twin, Mrs. Dash, Static Guard, Molly McButter and Baker's Joy.

The company was purchased and founded in 1955 by Leonard Lavin who was an entrepreneur and manufacturer's representative for various other companies. The newly created company was then moved to Chicago and a hundred other products were dropped and the company focused on Alberto VO5 shampoo and hairdressing. In 1958, Alberto VO5 Hairdressing became the number one brand in its category and it still holds that position today. Lavin and his wife Bernice guided the company's growth until 1994 when they turned it over to a second family generation. Mr. Lavin remains a director of today's Alberto-Culver and his daughter, Carol Lavin Bernick, is the company's Executive Chairman.

On November 10, 2006 shareholders voted to spin off the company's salon distribution business, which includes Sally beauty supply stores and Beauty Systems Group.

The company's 2007 sales were reported at $1,541,600,000.

In October 2008, Alberto Culver Company announced that it had closed the transaction to acquire the worldwide rights and trademarks to the Noxzema skin care brand from The Procter & Gamble Company, which includes the existing business in the United States, Canada and portions of Latin America. Procter & Gamble will continue to operate its existing Noxzema shave care, antiperspirant/deodorant, body wash and body soap business in portions of Western Europe.

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