Albert

Albert

[al-bert]
Sorel, Albert, 1842-1906, French historian. After a diplomatic career that gave him unique access to the archives of the foreign ministry, Sorel concentrated on diplomatic history. His monumental Europe et la Révolution française (8 vol., 1895-1904) surveyed the influence of the French Revolution in Europe. Applying to diplomatic history the Tocqueville thesis of essential continuity between the ancien régime and Revolutionary France, Sorel asserted that after the revolutionists began to claim France's "natural frontiers," continuous struggle with Europe, and especially England, was inevitable. The introductory section of this work has been translated as Europe under the Old Regime (1947).
Lebrun, Albert, 1871-1950, French statesman, last president of the Third Republic. Elected to the chamber of deputies in 1900, he later became a senator and held various cabinet posts. A moderate, he succeeded Paul Doumer as president in 1932 and was reelected in 1939. In July, 1940, the establishment of the Vichy government under Marshal Pétain deprived Lebrun of all authority. In 1944 he recognized Charles de Gaulle as provisional president of France.
Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955, American theoretical physicist, known for the formulation of the relativity theory, b. Ulm, Germany. He is recognized as one of the greatest physicists of all time.

Life

Einstein lived as a boy in Munich and Milan, continued his studies at the cantonal school at Aarau, Switzerland, and was graduated (1900) from the Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich. Later he became a Swiss citizen. He was examiner (1902-9) at the patent office, Bern. During this period he obtained his doctorate (1905) at the Univ. of Zürich, evolved the special theory of relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and studied the motion of atoms, on which he based his explanation of Brownian movement. In 1909 his work had already attracted attention among scientists, and he was offered an adjunct professorship at the Univ. of Zürich. He resigned that position in 1910 to become full professor at the German Univ., Prague, and in 1912 he accepted the chair of theoretical physics at the Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich.

By 1913 Einstein had won international fame and was invited by the Prussian Academy of Sciences to come to Berlin as titular professor of physics and as director of theoretical physics at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. He assumed these posts in 1914 and subsequently resumed his German citizenship. For his work in theoretical physics, notably on the photoelectric effect, he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics. His property was confiscated (1934) by the Nazi government because he was Jewish, and he was deprived of his German citizenship. He had previously accepted (1933) a post at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, which he held until his death in 1955. An ardent pacifist, Einstein was long active in the cause of world peace; however, in 1939, at the request of a group of scientists, he wrote to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to stress the urgency of investigating the possible use of atomic energy in bombs. In 1940 he became an American citizen.

Major Contributions to Science

The Special and General Theories of Relativity

Einstein's early work on the theory of relativity (1905) dealt only with systems or observers in uniform (unaccelerated) motion with respect to one another and is referred to as the special theory of relativity; among other results, it demonstrated that two observers moving at great speed with respect to each other will disagree about measurements of length and time intervals made in each other's systems, that the speed of light is the limiting speed of all bodies having mass, and that mass and energy are equivalent. In 1911 he asserted the equivalence of gravitation and inertia, and in 1916 he completed his mathematical formulation of a general theory of relativity that included gravitation as a determiner of the curvature of a space-time continuum. He then began work on his unified field theory, which attempts to explain gravitation, electromagnetism, and subatomic phenomena in one set of laws; the successful development of such a unified theory, however, eluded Einstein.

Photons and the Quantum Theory

In addition to the theory of relativity, Einstein is also known for his contributions to the development of the quantum theory. He postulated (1905) light quanta (photons), upon which he based his explanation of the photoelectric effect, and he developed the quantum theory of specific heat. Although he was one of the leading figures in the development of quantum theory, Einstein regarded it as only a temporarily useful structure. He reserved his main efforts for his unified field theory, feeling that when it was completed the quantization of energy and charge would be found to be a consequence of it. Einstein wished his theories to have that simplicity and beauty which he thought fitting for an interpretation of the universe and which he did not find in quantum theory.

Writings

Einstein's writings include Relativity: The Special and the General Theory (1918; tr. 1920, reissued 1947) and excerpts (most of them translated) from letters, articles, and addresses collected in About Zionism (1930), The World as I See It (1934), Out of My Later Years (1950), Ideas and Opinions (1954), and Einstein on Peace (ed. by Otto Nathan and Heinz Norden, 1960). Einstein's manuscripts and correspondence are presently at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. The first volume of an edition of his collected works, under the editorship of John Stachel et al., appeared in 1987.

Bibliography

See the Born-Einstein letters, ed. by M. Born (tr. 1971); biographies by R. W. Clark (1971, repr. 1991), B. Hoffmann (with H. Dukas, 1972, repr. 1989), J. Bernstein (1973, repr. 1997), A. Pais (1982), M. White and J. Gribbin (1995), D. Brian (1997), A. Folsing (1998), W. Isaacson (2007), and J. Neffe (2007); studies by P. A. Schilpp, ed. (1949, repr. 1973), M. Born (rev. ed. 1962), C. Lanczos (1965), A. J. Friedman and C. Donley (1989), D. Howard and J. Stachel (1989), A. Pais (1994), and D. Overbye (2000).

Pike, Albert, 1809-91, American lawyer, Confederate general in the Civil War, b. Boston. He settled (1832) in Arkansas, where he became a newspaper editor and a lawyer. He was a captain in the Mexican War. In the Civil War, Pike secured for the Confederacy the loyalty of the tribes in the Indian Territory. Criticized for inept handling of his Native American brigade, especially at the battle of Pea Ridge (Mar., 1862), he resigned. After the war he practiced law in Memphis and Washington. His Prose Sketches and Poems Written in the Western Country (1834) resulted from a trip over the Santa Fe Trail. A prominent Freemason (he joined the order in 1850), his writings on the movement include Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (1871).
Samain, Albert, 1858-1900, French poet. He was a founder (1890) of the literary periodical Mercure de France. His first collection of verse, Au jardin de l'infante (1893, reissued with L'Urne penchée, 1897), was in a symbolist vein, but he was subsequently influenced by the Parnassians. Some of his best work appeared as Le Chariot d'or (1901). Samain's verse is distinguished by its melancholy tone and musical quality.
Albert, 1819-61, prince consort of Victoria of Great Britain, whom he married in 1840. He was of Wettin lineage, the son of Ernest I, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and first cousin to Victoria. As an alien prince he was initially unpopular, but in time the English came to admire him for his irreproachable character, his devotion to the queen and their children, and his deep concern with public affairs. His influence was particularly strong in diplomacy; his insistence on moderation in the Trent Affair (1861) may have averted war with the United States. As chancellor of the Univ. of Cambridge, he transformed it into a modern institution.

See biographies by R. Fulford (1949), F. Eyck (1959), R. Pound (1974), and R. R. James (1983); S. Weintraub, Uncrowned King (1997); G. Gill, We Two: Victoria and Albert, Rulers, Partners, Rivals (2009).

Albert, 1490-1545, German churchman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. A member of the house of Brandenburg, he became (1514) Archbishop of Mainz. Because Albert was underage, this appointment was uncanonical and he was required to pay a large fee for a papal dispensation. To assist Albert in raising this sum, the pope authorized an eight-year sale of indulgences. Albert authorized (1517) Johann Tetzel to preach this indulgence—occasioning Martin Luther's public protest against indulgences. A patron of Ulrich von Hutten, Albert was expected to join the Reformers, but after 1525 he actively opposed them. Later he invited the Jesuits to preach in his diocese. He was a friend of Erasmus.
Albert, Carl Bert, 1908-2000, U.S. Congressman (1947-76), b. McAlester, Okla. Admitted to the bar in 1935, Albert enlisted (1941) in the army as a private, served (1942-46) in the Pacific during World War II, and rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. Elected (1946) as a Democrat to the House of Representatives from a rural Oklahoma district, he rose to the positions of majority whip (1955-62), majority leader (1962-71), and Speaker of the House (1971-76). A loyal member of the farm bloc, Albert was also a reliable supporter of the liberal social and economic policies of the Democratic party.
Albert, Lake, or Albert Nyanza, 2,064 sq mi (5,346 sq km), on the Congo (Kinshasa)-Uganda border, E central Africa. The lake is c.100 mi (160 km) long and c.19 mi (30 km) wide, with a maximum depth of 168 ft (51 m). Lying in the Great Rift Valley, 2,030 ft (619 m) above sea level, Lake Albert receives the Semliki River and the Victoria Nile and is drained by the Albert Nile, which becomes the Bahr-el-Jebel when it enters Sudan. Under Mobutu Sese Seko, the official name of the lake in Zaïre (now Congo) was Lake Mobutu Sese Seko.
Lacombe, Albert, 1827-1916, French Canadian Roman Catholic missionary. He studied at Assomption College in Quebec prov. before he joined the Oblate order and was ordained (1849). Lacombe was one of the first Roman Catholic missionaries sent (1850) to the Canadian Northwest. There he served the Native Americans and was known as the Apostle of the Cree and the Blackfoot. He translated the New Testament into Cree and also wrote a grammar (1874) and dictionary (1874) of the Cree language.

See biography by K. Hughes (1911).

Bierstadt, Albert, 1830-1902, American painter of Western scenery, b. Germany. After traveling and sketching throughout the mountains of Europe, he returned to the United States. He then journeyed (1859) to the West with a trail-making expedition. His immense canvases of the Rocky Mts. and the Yosemite emphasized grandeur and drama, sometimes at the expense of clarity. His works were popular and commanded great prices during his lifetime. They include The Rocky Mountains (Metropolitan Mus.); Indian Encampment, Shoshone Village (N.Y. Public Lib.); The Last of the Buffalo (Corcoran Gall.); and Discovery of the Hudson River and The Settlement of California (Capitol, Washington, D.C.).
Schäffle, Albert, 1831-1903, German economist and sociologist. He taught economics at the universities of Tübingen and Vienna. His views were based partly on the idealism of Hegel and Schelling, partly on Comtian and Darwinian ideas. His work was characterized by the use of organic analogies and the concept of value as indicating the elements of intelligence and spirituality. Schäffle was interested in socialism, which he believed would evolve out of capitalism. He made important contributions to the theory of taxation. His most popular book was Die Quintessenz der Socialismus (1875, tr. 1901); his most elaborate was Bau und Leben des sozialen Körpers [structure and life of the social body] (4 vol., 1875-78, rev. ed. 1896).
Schweitzer, Albert, 1875-1965, Alsatian theologian, musician, and medical missionary. Determined to become a medical missionary, he obtained a doctorate in medicine at the Univ. of Strasbourg and in 1913 established a hospital at Lambaréné, Gabon (then in French Equatorial Africa). Except for frequent trips to Europe to raise money and a visit to the United States in 1949 to address the Goethe Festival in Colorado, he remained in Gabon, establishing extensive medical facilities that received financial support throughout the world. Schweitzer was honored in many countries for his work as a scientist and humanitarian, his artistry as an organist, and his contributions as a theologian; he was awarded the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize. His biography of Bach (1905), considered one of the best studies of the master, along with his edition (with C. M. Widor, 1912-14) of Bach's organ music, made him an outstanding authority on Bach. On the Edge of the Primeval Forest (1920, tr. 1922) is an account of his early years at Lambaréné, supplemented later by More from the Primeval Forest (1925, tr.1931) and From My African Notebook (1936, tr. 1938). Schweitzer's philosophy is developed in Philosophy of Civilization (The Decay and the Restoration of Civilization, 1923, tr. 1923; Civilization and Ethics, 1923, tr. 1923; and Reverence for Life, tr. 1969). "Reverence for life" is the term Schweitzer used for a universal concept of ethics. He believed that such an ethics would reconcile the drives of altruism and egoism by requiring a respect for the lives of all other beings and by demanding the highest development of the individual's resources. A profound Christian, Schweitzer was unorthodox in that he rejected the historical infallibility of Jesus while following him spiritually. His theological works include The Quest of the Historical Jesus (1906, tr. 1910) and The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle (1930, tr. 1930).

See his autobiography, Out of My Life and Thoughts (1932, tr. 1933) and Albert Schweitzer: An Anthology (ed. by C. R. Joy, 1947); biographies by J. Berrill (1965), I. L. Ice (1971), G. N. Marshall and D. Poling (1971), and N. Cousins (1960, repr. 1973); study by H. Clark (1962).

Claude, Albert, 1899-1983, Belgian biologist, b. Longlier, M.D., Univ. of Liège, 1928. He joined the Rockefeller Institute (now Rockefeller Univ.) in 1929 and spent his entire career there. During the 1930s and 40s, Claude did pioneering work in the use of the electron microscope to study animal cells. He also contributed to the development of differential centrifugation, a technique in which tissues or cells are homogenized and the various cell components then separated out. These techniques yielded new information about cell structure and function, and laid the foundation for the modern discipline of cell biology. Claude was co-recipient of the 1974 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Christian de Duve and George Palade for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell.
Camus, Albert, 1913-60, French writer, b. Algiers. Camus was one of the most important authors and thinkers of the 20th cent. While a student at the Univ. of Algiers, he formed a theater group and adapted, directed, and acted in plays. He became active in social reform and was briefly a member of the Communist party. Shortly after his essay Noces [weddings] appeared (1939), he went to Paris as a journalist. In World War II he joined the French resistance and was principal editor of the underground paper Combat.

Noted for his vigorous, concise, and lucid style, Camus soon gained recognition as a major literary figure. His belief that man's condition is absurd identified him with the existentialists (see existentialism), but he denied allegiance to that group; his works express rather a courageous humanism. The characters in his novels and plays, although keenly aware of the meaninglessness of the human condition, assert their humanity by rebelling against their circumstances.

His essay Le Mythe de Sisyphe (1942, tr. The Myth of Sisyphus, 1955) formulates his theory of the absurd and is the philosophical basis of his novel L'Étranger (1942, tr. The Stranger, 1946) and of his plays Le Malentendu (1944, tr. Cross Purpose, 1948) and Caligula (1944, tr. 1948). The essay L'Homme révolté (1951, tr. The Rebel, 1954), dealing with historical, spiritual, and political rebellion, treats themes found in the novels La Peste (1947, tr. The Plague, 1948) and La Chute (1956, tr. The Fall, 1957). Other works include the plays L'État de siège (1948, tr. State of Siege, 1958); and Les Justes (1950, tr. The Just Assassins, 1958); journalistic essays; and stories. Camus was awarded the 1957 Nobel Prize in Literature. The first draft of an autobiographical novel, found in a briefcase after his death in a car crash, was published as Le Premier Homme (1994, tr. The First Man, 1995).

See Camus at "Combat": Writing 1944-1947, ed. by J. Levi-Valensi (2007); his Notebooks: 1935-1951, ed. by P. Thody (2 vol., 1963-65, repr. 1998), Notebooks: 1951-1959 (2008); biography by O. Todd (1997); studies by G. Brée (4th ed. 1972), D. Lazere (1973), L. Braun (1974), P. McCarthy (1982), B. L. Knapp, ed. (1988), D. Sprintzen (1988), H. Bloom, ed. (1989, repr. 2003), P. Thody (1989), D. R. Ellison (1990), J. McBride (1992), C. S. Brosman (2001), and M. Longstaffe (2007).

Roussel, Albert, 1869-1937, French composer, studied with Vincent D'Indy. His early works show the influence of impressionism. With the symphonic poem Pour une fěte de printemps (1920) and his Second Symphony (1919-21) he achieved a highly personal style marked by subtlety of melodic inflection, sharp dissonance, and contrapuntal agility. He wrote operas, ballets, four symphonies, chamber and vocal works, and music for piano. Best known are the suites from his ballets The Spider's Feast (1913) and Bacchus and Ariadne (1931).
Verwey, Albert, 1865-1937, Dutch poet. His early verse was melodious, spontaneous, and evocative and showed the influence of Wordsworth; later works became increasingly dissonant and complex. Verwey came to believe that the primary role of poetry was to function as a social force, and he promoted his views in his periodical, the Bewiging [movement] (1905-19), and as professor of Dutch literature at Leiden (1924-35).
Reynolds, Albert, 1935-, Irish politician, prime minister of the Republic of Ireland (1992-95). A successful business executive, Reynolds won (1977) a seat in the Irish parliament as a member of the Fianna Fáil party. He was minister of posts and telegraphs and of transport (1979-81), of energy (1982), and of industry and commerce (1987-88) under Prime Minister Charles Haughey. In 1988 he became finance minister, but he resigned in 1991 after he challenged Haughey unsuccessfully for the party leadership. When Haughey later resigned (1992), Reynolds succeeded him. As prime minister, Reynolds worked to promote a settlement in Northern Ireland. In 1993 he and British prime minister John Major wrote the Downing Street Declaration, which led to a cease-fire in Northern Ireland. He resigned in late 1994 but served as caretaker prime minister into early 1995.
Demangeon, Albert, 1872-1940, French geographer, specializing in the study of regional and economic geography. His best-known works include Le Déclin de L'Europe (1920), L'Empire britannique (1923), and Les Iles britanniques (1927).
Fert, Albert, 1938- French physicist, b. Carcassonne, France. After receiving his Ph.D. at the Univ. of Paris-Sud in 1970 Fert accepted a teaching position there and headed a research group, becoming a professor in 1976. In 1988 he discovered a physical effect he named giant magnetoresistance (GMR) because tiny changes in a magnetic field produced large changes in electrical resistance. For this discovery, which gave rise to the field of spintronics, he shared the 2007 Nobel Prize in physics with Peter Grünberg, who had independently discovered GMR. Since 1995 he has served as the scientific director of a joint laboratory between France's National Scientific Research Center and the Thales Group.
Finney, Albert, 1936-, English actor, b. Salford, Lancashire, studied Royal Academy of Dramatic Arts, London. He debuted in the theater in 1956 and has continued to act on the London and New York stage. His best-known work, however, has been in films, beginning with Laurence Olivier's highly acclaimed vehicle The Entertainer (1960). Versatile and prolific, Finney has appeared in well over 50 films, his 1960s leading-man roles giving way to character parts in the 70s. Earlier roles include an unhappy workingman in the realist classic Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (1961) and the randy title character in Tom Jones (1963). Among his later films are Murder on the Orient Express (1974), The Duelists (1977), The Dresser (1983), Miller's Crossing (1990), A Man of No Importance (1994), Washington Square (1997), and Erin Brockovich (2000). He has also acted on television (including a 2002 Emmy-winning performance as Winston Churchill) and directed plays and films.
Mathiez, Albert, 1874-1932, French historian, an authority on the French Revolution. He studied under Aulard, whose scientific method he adopted, although it led him to different conclusions. Although not a member of the Socialist party, Mathiez was a follower of Jean Jaurès. Mathiez's chief work, La Révolution français (3 vol., 1922-27; tr. 1928, repr. 1962), was essentially a socialist interpretation. For Mathiez, the French Revolution began as a struggle between the bourgeoisie and the aristocracy, but evolved into a conflict that pitted the middle class against the working class. He saw the terror as a necessary response to the circumstances, and characterized Robespierre as the patron of popular democracy, and regretted Robespierre's overthrow. He published many studies of Robespierre, but no complete biography.
Gallatin, Albert, 1761-1849, American financier and public official, b. Geneva, Switzerland. Left an orphan at nine, Gallatin was reared by his patrician relatives and had an excellent education. He emigrated to the United States in 1780 and later settled (1784) in W Pennsylvania. A member of the Pennsylvania constitutional convention in 1789-90, he also served in the state legislature from 1790 to 1792. Although elected U.S. Senator in 1793, he was deprived (1794) of his office by the Federalist-controlled Senate, which claimed he had not been a citizen long enough to hold a seat. Returning to Pennsylvania, his statesmanlike efforts helped restrain the Western farmers in the Whiskey Rebellion (1794), although Gallatin himself opposed the tax on whiskey. As a member of the U.S. House of Representatives (1795-1801), Gallatin became a recognized leader of the Republican (Jeffersonian) minority and was active in advocating financial reform and in opposing war with France. His demand that the Treasury Dept. be accountable to Congress led to the creation of a standing committee on finance in the House (later the Ways and Means Committee). As Secretary of the Treasury under President Jefferson, Gallatin undertook to change aspects of the country's financial policy from Federalist to Jeffersonian principles, and he reduced the country's debt despite the war against the Barbary States and the Louisiana Purchase. Continuing in office under President Madison, he helped to curtail appropriations for the armed forces and opposed the war hawks prior to the War of 1812 because he believed that federal money should go toward realizing the democratic vision of a broadly expanding internal economy. His fiscal accomplishments were virtually destroyed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Gallatin left the Treasury Dept. to undertake a diplomatic mission in 1813. He was a key figure in negotiating the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war with Great Britain. He later served as minister to France (1816-23) and to Great Britain (1826-27). Greatly interested in the Native Americans, Gallatin wrote papers on them and was responsible for founding the American Ethnological Society in 1842. Gallatin's eclectic financial policies—although a Jeffersonian he was a supporter of the Bank of the United States—have been widely praised by conservatives and liberals alike; he was one of the most brilliant and successful of Jeffersonian statesmen.

See biographies by R. Walters, Jr. (1957, repr. 1969), and F. E. Ewing (1959).

Barnes, Albert, 1798-1870, American Presbyterian clergyman, b. Rome, N.Y. From 1830 he was pastor of the First Church in Philadelphia, mother church of the Presbyterian denomination in America. In the schism (1837-70) in Presbyterianism between the strict Calvinists and those whose views had become tinged with New England liberalism, Barnes's opinions and writings placed him with the liberal wing. His commentaries on biblical books, published as Notes: Explanatory and Practical (rev. ed., 6 vol., 1872), attracted wide attention.
Thomas, Albert, 1878-1932, French statesman and Socialist leader. He worked with Jean Jaurès on the journal Humanité and was active in socialist politics. In 1910 he was elected to the chamber of deputies, and during World War I he held cabinet positions, serving notably as minister of munitions. He was director (1919-32) of the International Labor Bureau of the League of Nations. Among his several books are Le Syndicalisme allemand (1903) and Le 2d Empire (1907).

See study by E. J. Phelan (1949).

Speer, Albert, 1905-81, German architect and National Socialist (Nazi) leader. A member of the Nazi party from 1931, he became its official architect after Hitler came to power. His grandiose but coldly eclectic designs include the stadium at Nuremberg (1934). A highly efficient organizer, Speer became (1942) minister for armaments, succeeding the engineer Fritz Todt. In 1943 he also took over part of Hermann Goering's responsibilities as planner of the German war economy. From Todt, Speer inherited the Organisation Todt (OT), an organization using forced labor for the construction of strategic roads and defenses. Under Speer's direction, economic production reached its peak in 1944, despite Allied bombardment. In the last months of the war Speer did much to thwart Hitler's scorched-earth policy, which would have devastated Germany. Largely because of the OT's wide use of slave labor, Speer was sentenced (1946) to imprisonment for 20 years by the Nuremberg war-crimes tribunal. He was released from Spandau war crimes prison in 1966.

See his memoirs, Inside the Third Reich (tr. 1970); biographies by W. Hamsher (1970), G. Sereny (1995), and J. Fest (2002).

Bitzius, Albert: see Gotthelf, Jeremias.
Brisbane, Albert, 1809-90, American social theorist, b. Batavia, N.Y. After studying with Charles Fourier in Paris, he returned to the United States as an enthusiastic advocate of Fourierism. His Social Destiny of Man (1840) aroused widespread interest, especially that of Horace Greeley, who gave him a column in the Tribune. Brisbane was instrumental in the founding of the phalanxes at Brook Farm and Red Bank, N.J. The failure of most of the other communal experiments was disastrous for the Fourierist cause, but Brisbane reaffirmed his convictions in his General Introduction to Social Science (1876). His wife, Redelia Brisbane, edited and wrote an introduction to his autobiography, published posthumously as Albert Brisbane: A Mental Biography (1893, repr. 1969). His son, Arthur Brisbane (1864-1936), was editor of the New York Evening Journal and other Hearst papers.

See biography by O. Carlson (1937).

Steffen, Albert, 1884-1963, Swiss novelist, poet, and playwright, who wrote in German. His works are concerned with the martyrdom and redemption of Christ. To Steffen the solution to social ills lay in the emulation of Christ's life. The mystical novel Sucher nach sich selbst [seeker after himself] (1931) expresses his religious outlook. With the death of Rudolf Steiner in 1905, Steffen became the leader of Steiner's mystical anthroposophy movement. His works in English translation include Death Experience of Manes (tr. 1970) and Hiram and Solomon (tr. 1971).
Kahn, Albert, 1869-1942, American architect, designer of factories, b. Germany. He organized a large office in Detroit that applied the techniques of mass production to architecture, and he designed a great number of factories, war plants, and naval bases. Kahn was a pioneer in the use of reinforced concrete and steel. From 1928 to 1932 he was in charge of the industrial building program in the USSR.

See G. Nelson, Industrial Architecture of Albert Kahn, Inc. (1939).

Marquet, Albert, 1875-1947, French painter. In 1894 he met Matisse and later became associated with fauvism. His exuberantly colored figure studies are clearly fauvist. Marquet was a gifted draftsman. Many of his later landscapes and port scenes, painted with great clarity, are in American museums.
Mun, Albert, comte de, 1841-1914, French Roman Catholic leader and politician. A monarchist at first, he later loyally supported the Third Republic. He was one of the few French Catholics of his day to attempt to implement the encyclical Rerum novarum (1891) issued by Pope Leo XIII, which dealt with the conditions of the working classes and the need for church action to remedy those conditions. Mun led in organizing associations of Catholic workers and advocating social reforms. A strong nationalist, he was bitterly hostile to Germany.

See study by M. Lynch (1952).

Kesselring, Albert, 1885-1960, German field marshal. An artillery staff officer in World War I, he later joined the air force and rapidly rose in rank during the Hitler regime. In World War II, he commanded air operations in Poland, on the Western Front, in central Russia, and in the Mediterranean area. Late in 1943, Kesselring was made supreme commander in Italy, and in Mar., 1945, he replaced Rundstedt as commander in chief in the West. He was convicted of war crimes by a British tribunal in 1947, but his death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. Freed by an act of clemency in 1952, he was elected (1953) president of the Stahlhelm, a veterans' organization in West Germany.

See his memoirs (1953; tr. 1953, repr. 1970).

Albert is a common first name. The name has its origins in the Germanic name Adalbrecht, meaning "noble-bright". Albert may refer to:

People:

Fictional characters:

In geography it may refer to:

* Battle of Albert (1914)
* Battle of Albert (1916)
* Battle of Albert (1918)

In other fields it may refer to:

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