Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi, known in Latin as Alboacen (972-1058 CE), was an Arab Muslim jurist of the Shafii school; he also made contributions to Qur'anic interpretations, philology, ethics, and literature. He served as judge at several Iraqi districts, including Baghdad, and as an ambassador of the Abbasid caliph to several Muslim states. Al-Mawardi's works on Islamic governance are recognized as classics in the field.


He was born in Basrah (present-day Iraq) during the year 972 C.E. Here he learnt Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) from Abu al-Wahid al-Simari before travelling to Baghdad to study. Since both Basrah and Baghdad were homes of the Mu'tazili school of thought (a non-Sunni group) at this time he was influenced by their teachings. His contribution in political science and sociology comprises a number of monumental books, the most famous of which is Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyya w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya (The Ordinances of Government). He is also credited with the creation of the Doctrine of Necessity.


  • Al-Ahkam al-Sultania w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya (The Ordinances of Government)
  • Qanun al-Wazarah (Laws regarding the Ministers)
  • Kitab Nasihat al-Mulk (The Book of Sincere Advice to Rulers)
  • Kitab Aadab al-Dunya w'al-Din (The Ethics of Religion and of this World)


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