|Laid down:||9 September 1931|
|Launched:||9 March 1933|
|Commissioned:||10 February 1934|
|Decommissioned:||10 February 1946|
|Struck:||1 March 1959|
|Fate:|| Sold for scrap, |
9 September 1959
|Length:||588 ft 2 in (179.2 m)|
|Beam:||62 ft 9 in (19.1 m)|
|Draft:||19 ft 5 in (5.9 m)|
|Speed:||32.7 knots (61 km/h)|
|Complement:||708 officers and enlisted|
|Armament:|| • 9 × 8 in, |
• 8 × 5 in,
• 8 × .50 calibre guns
USS San Francisco (CA-38), a New Orleans-class heavy cruiser was the second ship of the United States Navy named after the city of San Francisco, California. She saw extensive action during World War II.
After an extensive shakedown cruise—which included operations off Mexico, in Hawaiian waters, off Washington and British Columbia, and a voyage to the Panama Canal Zone—the cruiser returned to the Mare Island Navy Yard. Gunnery installation and conversion to a flagship took her into the new year, 1935. In February, she joined her division, Cruiser Division 6 at San Diego. In May, she moved north; participated in Fleet Problem XVI; then returned to southern California. A few weeks later, she was back off the northwest coast for fleet tactics; and, in July, she steamed farther north to Alaska. In August, she returned to California and, through the end of 1938, San Francisco continued to range the eastern Pacific, cruising from the state of Washington to Peru and from California to Hawaii.
In January 1939, she departed the west coast to participate in Fleet Problem XX, conducted in the Atlantic east of the Lesser Antilles. In March, she became flagship of CruDiv 7 and commenced a goodwill tour of South American ports. Departing Guantanamo Bay in early April, she called at ports on the east coast of that continent; moved through the Strait of Magellan; visited west coast ports; and, in early June, transited the Panama Canal to complete her voyage around the continent.
On 1 September, World War II started; and, on September 14, San Francisco moved south from Norfolk, Va. to join the Neutrality Patrol. The cruiser carried freight and passengers to San Juan, P.R., thence sailed for a patrol of the West Indies as far south as Trinidad. On 14 October, she completed her patrol back at San Juan and headed for Norfolk, where she remained into January 1940. On 11 January, she headed for Guantanamo Bay, where she was relieved of flagship duties by Wichita (CA-45), and whence she returned to the Pacific.
Transiting the Panama Canal in late February, she called at San Pedro and, in March, continued on to her new home port, Pearl Harbor, where she rejoined CruDiv 6. In May, she steamed northwest to the Puget Sound Navy Yard for an overhaul, during which she also received four guns. On 29 September, she returned to Pearl Harbor. In early May 1941, she became flagship of CruDiv 6; and, at the end of July, she moved east for a cruise to Long Beach, returning to Hawaii on 27 August. In September, the flag of Com-CruDiv 6 was hauled down; and, on 11 October, San Francisco entered the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard for an overhaul which was scheduled for completion on 25 December.
At 07:55, Japanese planes began bombing dives on Ford Island; and, by 08:00, the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor was well underway. The men in San Francisco secured the ship for watertightness and began looking for opportunities to fight back. Some crossed to New Orleans (CA-32) to help man antiaircraft batteries on that ship. Others began using available rifles and machine guns. Fifty caliber machine gun ammunition was transferred to Tracy (DD-214) for use.
The San Francisco was not bombed or damaged during the Japanese air raid. After the attack was over, work resumed to make the San Francisco seaworthy and combat-ready.
On 14 December, the cruiser left the yard; the scaling of her keel had been postponed in favor of more necessary repairs on other ships. On 16 December, she sortied with Task Force 14 (TF 14) to relieve Wake Island. The force moved west with a Marine Corps fighter squadron on board Saratoga (CV-3) and a Marine battalion embarked in Tangier (AV-8). However, when Wake Island fell to the Japanese on 23 December, TF 14 was diverted to Midway which it reinforced. On 29 December, the force returned to Pearl Harbor.
On 8 January 1942, the San Francisco again moved west. In TF 8, she steamed toward Samoa to rendezvous with, and cover the off-loading of, transports carrying reinforcements to Tutuila, Samoa. Thence she joined TF 17 for raids on Japanese installations in the Gilberts and Marshalls. The San Francisco arrived in the Samoan area on 18 January and, on 24 January, was detached to continue coverage for the transports while the remainder of the task force and TF 17 conducted offensive operations to the northwest.
On 8 February, the San Francisco departed from Tutuila. On the 10th, she rejoined CruDiv 6, then in TF 11, and she set a course for an area northeast of the Solomons to strike Rabaul. However, the American force was sighted and attacked by two waves of twin-engined Japanese Betty bombers. Sixteen of the planes were destroyed, but since the element of surprise had been lost, TF 11 retired eastward.
During the next few days, TF 11, centered on Lexington (CV-2), conducted operations in the South Pacific, then headed for New Guinea to participate with TF 17 in a raid against Japanese shipping and installations.
On 7 March, one of San Francisco's scout planes was reported missing and could not be found.
On the night of 9 March and 10, TFs 11 and 17 entered the Gulf of Papua, whence, at dawn, Lexington and Yorktown (CV-5) launched their aircraft to cross the Owen Stanley Range and attack the Japanese at Salamaua and Lae.
The next day, the missing plane was sighted by Minneapolis (CA-36) and recovered by San Francisco. It had landed on the water, but had been unable to communicate. The pilot, Lt. J. A. Thomas, and the radioman, RMS O. J. Gannan, had headed for Australia, sailing the plane backwards as it tended to head into the prevailing east wind. In five days and 21 hours, they had covered approximately 385 miles (715 km) on a course within 5 degrees of that intended.
San Francisco returned to Pearl Harbor on 26 March. On 22 April, the cruiser departed Oahu for San Francisco in the escort of convoy 4093. At the end of May, she headed west, escorting convoy PW 2076, made up of transports carrying the 37th Army Division, destined for Suva, and special troops bound for Australia. The cruiser remained in the escort force as far as Auckland, New Zealand; thence steamed for Hawaii, arriving at Pearl Harbor on 29 June.
San Francisco steamed west with Laffey (DD-459) and Ballard (AVD-10) to escort convoy 4120 to the Fiji Islands. From there, she got underway to rendezvous with the Solomon Islands Expeditionary Force.
On 3 September, San Francisco's force put into Nouméa, New Caledonia, for fuel and provisions. On 8 September, the ships departed that island to cover reinforcements moving up to Guadalcanal. On the 11th, San Francisco's force, TF 18, rendezvoused with TF 17, the Hornet group; and, the next day both groups refueled at sea. On 14 September, the reinforcement convoy departed the New Hebrides. TF 61 commenced covering operations with TF 17 operating to the eastward of TF 18 and conforming to the movements of TF 18.
At about 14:50, on 15 September, Wasp (CV-7) was torpedoed on the starboard side. Fires broke out on the carrier. Explosions multiplied the fires. Rear Admiral Scott took command of TF 18. San Francisco and Salt Lake City (CA-25) prepared to take the carrier in tow; but, by 15:20, the fires were out of control and destroyers began taking on survivors. Lansdowne (DD-486) torpedoed the burning hulk. TF 18 then headed for Espiritu Santo.
On the morning of 17 September, San Francisco, Juneau (CL-52), and five destroyers put back to sea to rendezvous with TF 17 and resume coverage of reinforcement convoys. Other units of TF 18 had headed for Nouméa with Wasp survivors.
On 23 September, cruisers San Francisco, Salt Lake City, Minneapolis, and Chester, light cruisers Boise, and Helena, and Destroyer Squadron 12 became TF 64, a surface screening and attack force under the command of Rear Admiral Scott in San Francisco. The next day, the force headed to the New Hebrides.
By 23:30, when the warships were approximately six miles northwest of Savo Island, they turned to make a further search of the area. A few minutes after setting the new course, radar indicated unidentified ships to the west, several thousand yards distant. At about 23:45, the Battle of Cape Esperance began.
Initial confusion caused both sides to momentarily check their fire in fear of hitting their own ships. Then, the battle was reopened and continued until 00:20 on 12 October, when surviving Japanese ships retired toward the Shortland Islands. Two American cruisers, the Salt Lake City and the Boise, and the two destroyers, Duncan (DD-485) and Farenholt (DD-491), had been damaged. Later, Duncan went down. The Japanese cruiser Furutaka and a destroyer had been sunk during the surface action. Two more enemy destroyers were sunk on 12 October by USMC planes from Henderson Field. After the engagement, TF 64 retired to Espiritu Santo.
On 15 October, the San Francisco resumed operations in support of the Guadalcanal campaign. On the evening of 20 October, her group was ordered back to Espiritu Santo. At 21:19, submarine's torpedoes were reported. The Chester was hit amidships on the starboard side but continued under her own power. Three other torpedoes exploded: one off Helena's starboard quarter; a second between Helena and San Francisco; and the third about off San Francisco's port beam. Two others were sighted running on the surface.
San Francisco reached Espiritu Santo on the night of 21 October, but departed again on 22 October to intercept any enemy surface units approaching Guadalacanal from the north and to cover friendly reinforcements. On 28 October, Rear Admiral Scott transferred to Atlanta. The next day, San Francisco returned to Espiritu Santo; and, on 30 October, Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan, the commanding officer of San Francisco when the United States entered the war, returned to the ship and raised his flag as Commander Task Group 64.4 (CTG 64.4) and prospective CTF 65.
Just before noon, a Japanese twin-float reconnaissance plane began shadowing the formation.
The force arrived off Lunga Point on 12 November, and the transports commenced unloading. By mid-afternoon, an approaching Japanese air group was reported. At 13:18, the ships got underway. At 14:08, 21 enemy planes attacked.
At 14:16, an already-damaged torpedo plane dropped its torpedo off San Francisco's starboard quarter. The torpedo passed alongside, but the plane crashed into San Francisco's control aft, swung around that structure, and plunged over the port side into the sea. Fifteen men were killed, 29 wounded, and one missing. Control aft was demolished. The ship's secondary command post, Battle Two, was burned out but was reestablished by dark. The after anti-aircraft director and radar were put out of commission. Three 20 millimeter mounts were destroyed.
The wounded were transferred to President Jackson, just before the approach of an enemy surface force was reported. The covering force escorted the transports out of the area, then reassembled and returned. At about midnight, San Francisco, in company with one heavy cruiser, three light cruisers, and eight destroyers, entered Lengo Channel.
At 01:25 on November 13, a Japanese naval force was discovered about to the northwest. Rear Admiral Callaghan's task group maneuvered to intercept in what became the first engagement in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. At 01:48, in almost pitch darkness, San Francisco opened fire on an enemy cruiser off her starboard beam. At 01:51, she trained her guns on a small cruiser or large destroyer off her starboard bow. Then in an attempt to locate other targets, San Francisco accidentally targeted the US light cruiser Atlanta. The San Francisco's gunfire caused extensive damage to the already damaged Atlanta, plus killing Admiral Scott and most of the Atlanta's bridge crew. Belatedly, the San Francisco realized she was firing on a "friendly" ship and ceased fire. The green dye that San Francisco used to distinguish her shells from those of other ships, was later found stained on the Atlanta's superstructure before the Atlanta sank. Shortly thereafter, the battleship Hiei was sighted and taken under fire, at an initial range of only .
At about 02:00, San Francisco trained her guns on a second battleship, Kirishima. At the same time, she became the target of the Nagara off her starboard bow and of a destroyer which had crossed her bow and was passing down her port side. The enemy battleship joined the cruiser and the destroyer in firing on San Francisco whose port 5 inch battery engaged the destroyer but was put out of action except for one mount. The battleship put the starboard 5 inch battery out of commission. San Francisco swung left while her main battery continued to fire on the battleships which, with the cruiser and the destroyer, continued to pound San Francisco. A direct hit on the navigation bridge killed or badly wounded all officers except the communications officer, Lt.Cmdr. Bruce McCandless. Command devolved on the damage control officer, Lt.Cmdr. Herbert E. Schonland, but he thought his own efforts were needed to keep the ship "afloat and right-side up", so he ordered McCandless to stay at the conn. Steering and engine control were lost and shifted to Battle Two. Battle Two was out of commission by a direct hit from the port side. Control was again lost.
Soon thereafter, the enemy ceased firing. San Francisco followed suit and withdrew eastward along the north coast of Guadalcanal.
Seventy-seven sailors, including Rear Admiral Callaghan and Capt. Cassin Young, had been killed. One hundred and five had been wounded. Of seven missing, three were subsequently rescued. The ship had taken 45 hits. Structural damage was extensive, but not serious. No hits had been received below the waterline. Twenty-two fires had been started and extinguished.
At about 04:00, San Francisco, all her compasses out of commission, joined Helena and Juneau and followed them through Sealark Channel to sail to Espiritu Santo for initial repairs.
At about 10:00, the Juneau's medical personnel transferred to the San Francisco to assist in treating the numerous wounded. An hour later, the Juneau took a torpedo on the port side from the Japanese submarine I-26, in the vicinity of the bridge. "The entire ship seemed to explode in one mighty column of brown and white smoke and flame which rose easily a thousand feet in the air. The Juneau literally disintegrated." San Francisco was hit by several large fragments from Juneau. One man was hit, both his legs were broken. Nothing was seen in the water after the smoke lifted. The surviving ships were ordered to keep going without stopping to look for survivors. Unfortunately, the survivors of the Juneau were forced to wait eight days for rescue while floating in the ocean, undergoing intense shark attacks. Only 10 survived.
On the afternoon of 14 November, San Francisco returned towards Espiritu Santo. For her participation in the action of the morning of the 13th, and for that of the night of 11 October–12 October, she received the Presidential Unit Citation. On 18 November, the cruiser sailed for Nouméa; and, on 23 November, she got underway toward the United States. She reached San Francisco on 11 December. Three days later, repairs were begun at Mare Island.
In mid-September, she was ordered back to Pearl Harbor for repairs and reassignment to TF 14. On 29 September, San Francisco departed Pearl Harbor in Task Unit 14.2.1 (TU 14.2.1) for a raid against Wake and Wilkes Islands. On 5 October, the group arrived off the target area and conducted two runs by the enemy positions. On 11 October, her task unit returned to Pearl Harbor.
On 20 September, the force arrived off Makin. San Francisco participated in the pre-invasion bombardment of Betio, then patrolled outside the transport area to the west of Makin. On the 26th, she was detached and assigned to TG 50.1, joining Yorktown (CV-10), Lexington (CV-16), Cowpens (CVL-25), five cruisers, and six destroyers. With that force, she steamed toward the Marshalls to strike Japanese shipping and installations in the Kwajalein area. On 4 December, the carriers launched their planes against the targets. Shortly after noon, enemy aerial activity increased; and, at 12:50, San Francisco came under attack. Three torpedo planes closed her on the port bow. Her guns "splashed" two. The third was shot down by Yorktown. But, during the attack, the cruiser had been strafed several times. One man had been killed; 22 were wounded. After dark, the Japanese returned; and, on that night, Lexington was torpedoed. The force moved north and west. Shortly after 01:30, on 5 December, enemy planes faded from the radar screens. The next day, the ships headed back to Pearl Harbor.
On 22 January 1944, San Francisco sortied with TF 52 and again headed for the Marshalls. On 29 January, the division, screened by destroyers, left the formation and moved against Japanese installations on Maloelap to neutralize them during the conquest of Kwajalein. Following the bombardment, the ships proceeded on to Kwajalein. San Francisco arrived off the atoll at about 06:30 on 31 January. At 07:30, she opened fire on targets of opportunity, initially a small ship inside Kwajalein lagoon. At 08:49, she ceased firing. At 09:00, she resumed firing at targets on Berlin and Beverly islands. Through the day, she continued to shell those islands, and, in late afternoon, added Bennett Island to her targets. During the next week, she provided pre-landing barrages and support fire for operations against Burton, Berlin, and Beverly islands. On 8 February, the cruiser sailed for Majuro, whence she would operate as a unit of TF 58, the fast carrier task force.
On 12 February, San Francisco, in TG 58.2, cleared Majuro lagoon. Four days later, the carriers launched their planes against Truk. On the night of 16 February–17 February, Intrepid (CV-11) was torpedoed. San Francisco, with others, was assigned to escort her eastward. On 19 February, the group split: Intrepid, with two destroyers, continued toward Pearl Harbor; San Francisco and the remaining ships headed for Majuro. On 25 February, San Francisco sailed for Hawaii with TG 58.2. On 20 March, the group returned to Majuro, refueled, and departed again on 22 March to move against the Western Carolines. From 30 March to 1 April, carrier planes hit the Palaus and Woleai. San Francisco's planes flew rescue missions.
On 6 April, the force was back in Majuro lagoon. A week later, the ships set a course for New Guinea. From April 21 to 28, TG 58.2 supported the assault landings in the Hollandia (currently known as Jayapura) area. On 29 April, the ships moved back into the Carolines for another raid against Truk. On 30 April, San Francisco was detached and, with eight other cruisers, moved against Satawan. On completion of that bombardment mission, the cruisers rejoined TG 58.2 and headed back to the Marshalls.
Initially at Majuro, San Francisco shifted to Kwajalein in early June, and, on 10 June, departed that atoll in TG 53.15, the bombardment group of the Saipan invasion force. On 14 June, she commenced two days of shelling Tinian; then, after the landings on Saipan, shifted to fire support duties. On 16 June, she temporarily joined CruDiv 9 to bombard Guam. Word of a Japanese force en route to Saipan, however, interrupted the cannonade, and the ships returned to Saipan.
On 17 June, San Francisco refueled and took up station between the approaching enemy force and the amphibious force at Saipan. On the morning of 19 June, the Battle of the Philippine Sea opened for San Francisco. At about 10:46, she was straddled fore and aft by bombs. "... a mass of enemy planes on the screen at ." At 11:26, the cruiser opened fire. A 40 millimeter shell from Indianapolis set off San Francisco's smoke screen generators. By noon, quiet had returned. At 14:24, dive bombers made the last Japanese attack. By 20 June, San Francisco steamed westward in pursuit of the Japanese force. The next day, she returned to the Saipan area and resumed operations with the covering force for the transports. On 8 July, San Francisco again steamed to Guam to bombard enemy positions. During the next four days, she shelled targets in the Agat and Agana areas. On 12 July, she returned to Saipan; replenished; refueled; and, on 18 July, again took station off Guam.
On 18 July and the two days following, she shelled enemy positions, supported beach demolition units, and provided night harassing and defense repair interdiction in the Agat and Faci Point areas. On 21 July, she began to support Marines assaulting the Agat beaches. On 24 July, the cruiser shifted her fire to the Orote Peninsula.
On 31 October, she steamed west again and, on 21 November, arrived at Ulithi where she resumed flagship duties for CruDiv 6. On 10 December, she cleared the anchorage and moved toward the Philippines in TG 38.1. On 14 December and 15, during carrier strikes against Luzon, San Francisco's planes were employed on antisubmarine patrol and in rescue work. On December 16, the force headed for a rendezvous with TG 30.17, the replenishment force. A typhoon interrupted the refueling operations; and the ships rode out the storm for the next two days. On 19 December, she participated in a search for survivors from three destroyers which had gone down during the typhoon.
Arriving on 26 January, the ships sailed again on 10 February. On 16 February and 17, strikes were conducted against air facilities in central Honshū. On 18 February, the force moved toward the Volcano and Bonin Islands; and, on 19 February, covering operations for the Iwo Jima assault began. The next day, San Francisco closed on Iwo Jima with other cruisers and assumed fire support duties, which she continued until 23 January. Then she headed back toward Japan. On 25 January, Tokyo was the target. Poor weather prohibited operations against Nagoya on the following day; and, on 27 January, the force headed back to Ulithi.
On 21 March, San Francisco, now attached to TF 54 for Operation Iceberg, departed Ulithi for the Ryukyus. On 25 March, she approached Kerama Retto, west of Okinawa, and furnished fire support for minesweeping and underwater demolition operations. That night, she retired and the next morning moved back in to support the landings and supply counter battery fire on Aka, Keruma, Zamami, and Yakabi Islands.
By the morning of 27 March, aerial resistance had begun. Thenext day, San Francisco shifted to Okinawa for shore bombardment in preparation for the assault landings scheduled for 1 April. On that day, she took up station in fire support sector 5, west of Naha, and, for the next five days, shelled enemy emplacements, caves, pill boxes, road junctions, and tanks, truck, and troop concentrations. At night, she provided harassing fire near the beachhead.
On 6 April, the cruiser retired to Kerama Retto; refueled and took on ammunition; assisted in splashing a Nakajima B6N "Jill" torpedo plane; then, rejoined TF 54 off Okinawa as that force underwent another air raid. San Francisco downed a Nakajima B5N "Kate" torpedo bomber. Dawn of 7 April brought another air raid, during which a kamikaze attempted to crash the cruiser. It was splashed off the starboard bow. After the raid, San Francisco shifted to TF 51 for fire support missions on the east coast of Okinawa, rejoining TF 54 on the west coast in late afternoon. On 11 April, air attacks increased; and, the next day, San Francisco set an Aichi D3A "Val" dive bomber on fire. The plane then glanced off a merchant ship and hit the water, enveloped in flames.
On 13 April and 14, the cruiser again operated with TF 51 off the east coast of the embattled island. The next day, she returned to Kerama Retto; thence proceeded to Okinawa and operations with TF 54 in the transport area. There she provided night illumination to detect swimmers and suicide boats and, just before midnight, assisted in sinking one of the latter. During the night, two further attempts by suicide boats to close the transports were thwarted.
With dawn, San Francisco returned to the Naha area to shell the airfield there. On 17 April, she moved up the coast and fired on the Machinate air field. The next day, she again shifted to the eastern side of the island and, that night, anchored in Nakagusuku Wan. The next day, San Francisco supported troops in the southern part of the island. From 21 April through 24 April, she shelled targets in the Naha airstrip area; and got underway for Ulithi.
On 13 May, San Francisco returned to Okinawa, arriving in Nakagusuku Wan and resuming support activities against targets in southern Okinawa. For the next few days, San Francisco supported the 96th Infantry Division in an area to the southeast of Yuna-baru. On 20 May, she shifted to Kutaka Shima; and, by the night of 22 May, she had depleted her supply of ammunition for her main batteries. On 25 May, the Japanese launched a large air attack against Allied shipping in Nakagusuku Wan. On 27 May, San Francisco provided fire support for the 77th Infantry Division; and, she retired to Kerama Retto the next day. On 30 May, the cruiser returned to the western side of Okinawa and, for the next two weeks, supported operations of the 1st and 6th Marine Divisions.
On 21 June, San Francisco was ordered to join TG 32.15, 120 miles (220 km) southeast of Okinawa. A week later, she put into Kerama Retto for a brief stay; then rejoined that group. In early July, she provided cover for the eastern anchorage. On 3 July, she sailed toward the Philippines to prepare for an invasion of the Japanese home islands. The cessation of hostilities in mid-August, however, obviated that operation, and San Francisco prepared for occupation duty.
On 27 November, San Francisco headed home. Arriving at San Francisco in mid-December, she continued on to the east coast in early January 1946 and arrived at Philadelphia, Penn. for inactivation on 19 January. Decommissioned on 10 February, she was berthed with the Philadelphia Group of the Atlantic Reserve Fleet until 1 March 1959 when her name was struck from the Navy list. On 9 September, she was sold, for scrapping, to the Union Mineral and Alloys Corp., New York; she was scrapped at Panama City, Florida in 1961.
Judgment day: as the aircraft began to take tension for launch, one of my newest ordies tapped me on the shoulder and told me the practice bombs weren't armed.
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