The dispersal through slave trading represents one of the largest migrations in human history. The economic effect on the African continent was devastating. Some communities created by descendants of Black African slaves in Europe and Asia have survived to the modern day, but in other cases, blacks intermarried with non-blacks and their descendants blended into the local population. In the Americas, the confluence of multiple racial groups from around the world created a widespread mixing bowl effect. In Central and South America most people are descended from European, American Indian, and African ancestry. In Brazil, where in 1888 nearly half the population was descended from African slaves, the variation of physical characteristics extends across a broad range. In the United States, racist Jim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws maintained a distinction between racial groups. The adoption of the one drop rule defined anyone with any discernible African ancestry as African, even though the strictest application of that rule would categorize nearly all Americans as African.
African immigration has become the primary force in the modern diaspora. It is estimated that the current population of recent African immigrants to the United States alone is over 600,000.. Countries with the most immigrants to the U.S. are Nigeria, Ghana, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Egypt, Sierra Leone, Somalia, and South Africa. Some immigrants have come from Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique(see Luso American), Equatorial Guinea, Kenya, and Cameroon. Immigrants typically congregate in urban areas, moving to suburban areas over time.
Between 1500 and 1900, approximately four million enslaved Black Africans were transported to island plantations in the Indian Ocean, about eight million were shipped to Mediterranean-area countries, and about eleven million survived the Middle Passage to the New World. Their descendants are now found around the globe. Due to intermarriage and genetic assimilation, just who is a descendant of the Black African diaspora is not entirely self-evident.
A few examples of populations on continents away from Africa who are seen as "Black" or who see themselves as "Black" because they descend from Black Africans are: African Americans and many Latin Americans.
African Americans — (see description above) or visit African American.
Afro-Latin Americans — Among the Afro-Latin American populations in South and Central America, there are populations that identify as negros. Some identify as Afro-Latin Americans when they have high levels of admixture of other ethnicities, as well.
|Continent / Country||Country population||Afro-descendants||Black population|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1,047,366||58.00%||607,472|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||118,432||85.00%||100,667|
|Antigua and Barbuda||78,000||94.90%||63,000|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||39,619||98.00%||38,827|
|British Virgin Islands||24,004||83.00%||19,923|
|Turks and Caicos islands||26,000||34.00%||18,000|
|France||62,752,136||8.0% (inc. French Guiana and other territories)||5,000,000|
|United Kingdom||60,609,153||3.0% (inc. partial)||2,015,400|
| Italy ||59,448,163||1.3%||755,000|
|Republic of Ireland||4,339,000||1.1%||43,000|
|South America/Central America||425,664,476||23.9%||101,532,873|
|El Salvador||7,066,403||< 0.01%||0*|
|Venezuela||26,414,815||Between 10-26.5%||2,641,481 - 6,999,926*|
|Australia||21,000,000||0.9% (includes partial)||248,605|
|2,641,481 - 6,999,926||9|
In the construction of the African Diaspora, the transatlantic slave trade is often considered the defining element, but people of African descent have engaged in eleven other migration movements involving North America since the 16th century, many being voluntary migrations, although undertaken in exploitative and hostile environments.
In the 1860s, people from sub-Saharan Africa, mainly from West Africa and the Cape Verde Islands, started to arrive in a voluntary immigration wave to seek employment as whalers in Massachusetts. This migration continued until restrictive laws were enacted in 1921 that in effect closed the door on non-Europeans, but by that time, men of African ancestry were already a majority in New England’s whaling industry, with African Americans working as sailors, blacksmiths, shipbuilders, officers, and owners, eventually bringing their trade to California.
1.7 million people in the United States are descended from voluntary immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. African immigrants represent 6 percent of all immigrants to the United States and almost 5 percent of the African American community nationwide. About 57 percent immigrated between 1990 and 2000. Immigrants born in Africa constitute 1.6 percent of the black population. People of the African immigrant diaspora are the most educated population group in the United States — 50 percent have bachelor's or advanced degrees, compared to 23 percent of native-born Americans. The largest African immigrant communities in the United States are in New York, followed by California, Texas, and Maryland. The states with the highest percentages of Africans in their total populations are the District of Columbia, followed by Mississippi, and Louisiana. Refugees represent a minority.
U.S. Bureau of the Census categorizes the population by race based on self-identification. The census surveys have no provision for a "multiracial" or "biracial" self-identity, but since 2000, respondents may check off more than one box and claim multiple ethnicity that way.
At an intermediate level, in Latin America and in the former plantations in and around the Indian Ocean, descendants of enslaved people are a bit harder to define because many people are mixed in demographic proportion to the original slave population. In places that imported relatively few slaves (like Argentina or Chile), few if any are considered Black today. In places that imported many enslaved people (like Brazil or Dominican Republic), the number is larger, but most are of mixed ancestry.
see: Black British
During the 1930s fifteen Black American families moved to the Soviet Union as agricultural experts.As African states became independent in the 1960s, the Soviet Union offered them the chance to study in Russia; over 40 years, 400,000 African students came, and many settled there.
See also: Racism in modern Russia.
As a result of the prominence of Caribbean immigration, the term "African Canadian", while sometimes used to refer to the minority of Canadian blacks who have direct African or African American heritage, is not normally used to denote black Canadians. Blacks of Caribbean origin are usually denoted as "West Indian Canadian", "Caribbean Canadian" or more rarely "Afro-Caribbean Canadian", but there remains no widely used alternative to "Black Canadian" which is considered inclusive of both the African and Caribbean black communities in Canada.
Increase in African immigrants and refugees with tuberculosis -- Seattle-King County, Washington, 1998-2001.
Oct 04, 2002; The proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases among foreign-born persons in the United States has increased steadily, accounting for...