Affonso VI

List of Portuguese monarchs

This is a list of Portuguese monarchs dating from the independence of Portugal from the kingdom of León in 1128 under Afonso Henriques, who proclaimed himself King in 1139, to the proclamation of the Portuguese Republic on October 5, 1910, during the reign of Manuel II, "the Patriot," or "the Missed King." Afonso I was recognized as king, in 1143, by Alfonso VII of León and Castile and, in 1179, by the Pope Alexander III.

It includes the Portuguese rulers from the

Historical roots of the Monarchy

Portugal originated as a distinct political and national entity in the 9th century, when the first County of Portugal was established by Vímara Peres just after the reconquista of Northern Portugal from the Moors, who ruled very briefly in this area. The County of Portugal's original territory was limited to an area between the Minho and Douro rivers in today's Northern Portugal.

The Iberian political and genealogical forerunners of the Portuguese throne were some of the following:

House of Vímara Peres

The basis of the Portuguese nationality dates from 868 when Alfonso III of León gave Vímara Peres the lands between the Minho and Douro rivers, in the south of Galicia. In the period of Reconquista, Vímara ruled over a county named after the city of Portucale (today's Porto) and based in Guimarães.

The First County of Portugal would last for two centuries, until 1071, when Portugal lost its autonomy as the last Count, Nuno II Mendes, lost the Battle of Pedroso to Garcia II of Galicia and Portugal, son of Ferdinand I of Castile-León. Garcia II became the first monarch to use the style "King of Portugal".

One year later, in 1072, Garcia was defeated by his brothers and the Portuguese lands were again incorporated into the kingdom of León; this would only last for two decades, until the re-creation of the county of Portugal under Henry, Count of Portugal in 1093.

Name Started Ended Alternative names Title
Vímara Peres

868 873 Vimarano Count of Portugal
Lucídio Vimaranes

873 ? Count of Portugal
Onega Lucides
with Diogo Fernandes

? c. 924 Countess of Portugal
Mumadona Dias
with Mendo I Gonçalves

c. 924 c. 950 Countess of Portugal
Gonçalo I Mendes

c. 950 999 Count of Portugal,
magnus dux portucalensium (in 997)
Mendo II Gonçalves

999 1008 Count of Portugal
Alvito Nunes

1008 1015 Count of Portugal
Ilduara Mendes
with Nuno I Alvites

1017 1028 Countess of Portugal
Mendo III Nunes

1028 1050 Count of Portugal
Nuno II Mendes

1050 1071 Count of Portugal, during the rule
of Garcia II of Galicia and Portugal (1065-1072).

Before the House of Burgundy

The so called Second County of Portugal is generally attributed to Henry of Burgundy, a French prince, great grandson of Robert II of France in the male line, nephew to Alfonso VI of León's Queen Constance of Burgundy. His mother was a Catalan princess, and as such Prince Henry was born in Barcelona. The so-called second county of Portugal was in fact transmitted personally as a personal feudal property to his wife, Queen Theresa, Countess of Portugal, the Count being consort and Regent of the County, as she married in her childhood to him. King Alfonso VI had personal claims to the dynastic County of Portugal, after the murder of his brother King Garcia I of Galicia and Portugal, as they were both grandsons of a Queen of Leon born into the family of the old Counts of Portucale. One may imagine those rights were given to Queen Theresa, his favourite daughter, when politically marrying her, such a young child.

When Alfonso VI of León gave her the county her husband, Prince Henry, intended to secure peace and order in a difficult region, something that his brother-in-law the Count of Galicia, Raymond (a Burgundian nobleman) had not managed to do. Henry was a vassal, but soon tried to gain more autonomy for his county and ultimately make it an independent kingdom, a politic his wife, when reigning in adulthood, never abandoned. This would only happen after their death, under their son, Afonso Henriques.

Name Started Ended Alternative names Title
Henry

1093 1112 Henrique (Portuguese) Count of Portugal
Theresa

1112 1126 Teresa
or Tareja (Old Portuguese)
Countess of Portugal
Regent of the County
but the de facto ruler
and self-styled Queen of Portugal
Afonso

1126 1139 Alphonzo (English),
Alphonse (English),
Afonso Henriques
(Portuguese alternative),
Affonso (Old Portuguese),
Alfonso (Old Portuguese)
or Alphonso
(Old Portuguese)
Count of Portugal (until 1128/1129) and
the Prince of Portugal (Dux Portucalensis)

House of Burgundy, or Afonsine Dynasty, 1143-1383

The foundation of the Portuguese Royal House of Burgundy is for some a controversial subject. Some say it started in 1093 with the appointment of Henry of Burgundy as Count of Portugal. However, at that time counties and kingdoms in Iberia had the same status. Portugal passed from being a county to a kingdom shortly after the County of Castile did the same. The fact did not alter the sovereignty of the principal feudal lords. Almost all of them received and granted allegiance between themselves in several parts of their realms.

In addition, since the sovereignty was with Queen Theresa, one cannot say the House of Burgundy was founded until after her death. Even if she ruled her county styling herself Queen Theresa of Portugal, as it was usual to all sons and daughters of Iberian monarchs to use the titles of their parents in the German/Visigothic manner the House of Burgundy cannot be referred to as a Royal House either:

  • until Afonso I proclaimed himself King in 1139.
  • or, to others, when his cousin "Emperor" Alfonso VII of León recognised him as king in 1143, keeping him as a vassal only by a separate allegiance over the Leonese exclave town of Astorga.
  • or, to some purists, until the pope recognised him as king in 1179, when he was made a papal vassal (instead of Leonese) for his town of Astorga, by Alexander III's papal bull Manifestus Probatum.

In fact, his father, the Prince Henry, count consort of Portugal, styled himself in all written documents solely as Count Henry, husband of Queen Theresa, daughter of the Emperor of León. All documents needed her name besides his.

Queen Theresa, starting to reign by herself on the early death of her older husband, styled herself as Queen Theresa of Portugal, daughter of the great Emperor Afonso of León. In 1128, with the Battle of São Mamede and the end of the civil war, by the deposition of Queen Theresa, power was taken by Infante Dom Afonso Henriques as the sole ruler, officially styling himself Prince of Portugal, grandson of Emperor Alfonso VI of León. He proclaimed himself King of Portugal in 1139. This is commonly accepted as the date of the foundation of the first Portuguese royal house. With Afonso's victory in the Battle of Ourique he was acclaimed King of Portugal by his soldiers and the Portuguese people. In the same year, according to the legend, he summoned the cortes (estates-general) at Lamego, where he was crowned by the archbishop of Braga.

The year of 1143 is also one of the most supported dates for the foundation of the House of Burgundy as the Portuguese royal house. In that year Afonso I declared himself the direct liegeman of the Papacy and swore himself and the kingdom servants of the Church, even if the pope did not immediately recognise his allegiance. It was also in that year that the Treaty of Zamora established peace between the Portuguese and Castile and Leon with Alfonso VII of Castile recognizing Afonso as a king. However, as the Church did not recognize Portugal in the dignity of a kingdom with the right to conquer territories from the Moors until 1179 when Pope Alexander III acknowledged Afonso as King of Portugal, some argue that that event marks the beginning of the first royal dynasty of Portugal.

The House of Burgundy corresponds to a complex period in the Portuguese History of implementation of the monarchy and the process of conquest of Moorish lands to the south, which ended in 1249. And the implementation of necessary structures, such as international diplomacy, agriculture, population, commerce, education and culture, even all that existed in the Portuguese territory a long time ago, and even in a very developed way during the regency of Count Henrique of Burgundy already, who travelled to Rome and Jerusalem, France and other hispanic kingdoms, and was the nephew of the most powerful diplomat of his time, Saint Bernard, leading him to bring the cosmopolite Order of the Temple to his fied when it was just created.

The end of the House of Burgundy began in 1383 with the death of Ferdinand I. The heiress to the throne was Infanta Beatrice, sole daughter of Ferdinand and wife of John I of Castile. Although frequently forgotten from the monarchs of the country, she was acclaimed queen of Portugal in 1383 after her father's death, but the possibility of loss of independence to Castile due to her marriage triggered a civil war and an Interregnum period known as the 1383-1385 Crisis.

# Name Started Ended Alternative names Epithet(s) Relationship with predecessor(s)
1 Afonso I

1139 1185 Alphonzo I (English),
Alphonse I (English),
Afonso Henriques
(Portuguese alternative),
Affonso I (Old Portuguese),
the Conqueror (o Conquistador)
The Founder (o Fundador)
the Great (o Grande'')
son of Henry, Count of Portugal
2 Sancho I

1185 1211 Sanctius I (English) the Populator (o Povoador) son of Afonso I
3 Afonso II

1211 1223 Alphonzo II (English),
Alphonse II (English),
Affonso II (Old Portuguese),
the Fat (o Gordo) son of Sancho I
4 Sancho II

1223 1247 Sanctius II (English) the Pious (o Capelo)
the Piteous (o Piedoso) son of Afonso II 5 Afonso III

1247 1279 Alphonzo III (English),
Alphonse III (English),
Affonso III (Old Portuguese),
the Bolognian (o Bolonhês) brother of Sancho II
younger son of Afonso II 6 Denis

1279 1325 Dinis (Portuguese) or
Diniz (Old Portuguese) the Farmer (o Lavrador)
the Poet-King (o Rei-Poeta)
the Troubadour-King (o Rei-Trovador) son of Afonso III 7 Afonso IV

1325 1357 Alphonzo IV (English),
Alphonse IV (English),
Affonso IV (Old Portuguese),
(Old Portuguese) the Brave (o Bravo) son of Denis 8 Peter I

1357 1367 Pedro I (Portuguese) the Just (o Justiceiro)
or the Cruel (o Cruel)
the Vengeful (o Vingativo) or
the Until-the-End-of-the-World-In-Love
(o Até-ao-Fim-do-Mundo-Apaixonado) son of Afonso IV 9 Ferdinand I

1367 1383 Fernando I (Portuguese) the Handsome (o Formoso)
the Beautiful (o Belo)
the Fickle (o Inconstante)
the Reckless (o Inconsciente) son of Peter I 10 Beatrice (disputed)

1383 1385 Beatriz (Portuguese) or Beatrix (English alternative)
Brites (Old Portuguese)  

daughter of Ferdinand I

House of Aviz, or Joannine Dynasty, (1385-ca. 1580)

Main articles: Portugal in the period of discoveries, Struggle for the throne of Portugal.

The second dynasty of Portuguese Royalty is known as the House of Aviz, after John, Master of the military Order of Aviz, who later became John I of Portugal.

The institution of House of Aviz followed the dynastic crisis that originated from the death of Ferdinand I in 1383. With the Portuguese victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota in 1385, John I, half-brother of Ferdinand and natural son of Pedro I, confirmed the kingship which had been bestowed upon him at the Cortes of Coimbra in April 1385.

This period of Portuguese history is considered to include the ascension of Portugal to the status of a European and world power. The first act of expansion was the conquest of Ceuta in 1415 and was followed by the exploration, colonization and commerce exercised in Africa, Asia and Brazil. It also includes the height of the Portuguese Empire during the reign of Manuel I and the beginning of its decline during John III's reign.

John III was succeeded in 1557 by his grandson Sebastian, who died, aged 24 and childless, in the Battle of Alcazarquivir. He was succeeded by his great-uncle Henry, aged 66, who, as a Catholic Cardinal, had no children either. Cardinal-King Henry died two years later and the struggle for the throne started between the different claimants, including Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, Philip II of Spain and Anthony, Prior of Crato.

Anthony was acclaimed king in several cities around the country in 1580, 20 days before Philip II of Spain invaded Portugal and defeated the supporters of Anthony in the Battle of Alcântara. Although Anthony continued to "rule the country" from the Azores Islands until 1583, the date of 1580 is generally accepted as the end of the House of Aviz as a Portuguese Royal House. The last king of the House of Aviz is subject to debate, with only some historians accepting the period of 20 days between Anthony's acclamation and the Battle of Alcântara as the reign of Anthony I of Portugal.

# Name Started Ended Alternative names Epithet(s) Relationship with predecessor
11 (10) John I

1385 1433 João I (Portuguese) the Master of Avis (o Mestre de Avis),
the One of Good Memory (o de Boa Memória),
the Good (o Bom)
or the Great (o Grande)
illegitimate son of Peter I
12 (11) Edward

1433 1438 Duarte (Portuguese) the Eloquent (o Eloquente) or
the Philosopher-King (o Rei-Filósofo)
son of John I
13 (12) Afonso V

1438 1481 Alphonzo V (English),
Alphonse V (English),
Affonso V (Old Portuguese)
the African (o Africano) son of Edward
14 (13) John II

1481 1495 João II (Portuguese) the Perfect Prince (o Príncipe Perfeito)
or the Tyrant (o Tirano)
son of Afonso V

House of Aviz-Beja

! with=150px | #
Name Started Ended Alternative names Epithet(s) Relationship with predecessor(s)
15 (14) Manuel I

1495 1521 Emmanuel I (English),
Manoel I (Old Portuguese)
the Fortunate (o Venturoso,
o Bem-Aventurado or o Afortunado)
first cousin and brother-in-law of John II
grandson of Edward
16 (15) John III

1521 1557 João III (Portuguese) the Pious (o Piedoso
or o Pio)
son of Manuel I
17 (16) Sebastian

1557 1578 Sebastião (Portuguese) the Desired (o Desejado) grandson of John III
18 (17) Cardinal Henry

1578 1580 Henrique (Portuguese) the Chaste (o Casto) or
the Cardinal-King (o Cardeal-Rei)
granduncle of Sebastian
younger son of Manuel I
19 (18) Anthony
(disputed)

1580 1581 António (Portuguese) the Prior of Crato (o Prior do Crato)
the Determined (o Determinado)
the Fighter (o Lutador)
the Independentist (o Independentista)
nephew of John III and Cardinal Henry
grandson of Manuel I

Portuguese House of Habsburg, or Philippine Dynasty, (1580-1640)

The Portuguese House of Habsburg is known in Portugal as the Philippine Dynasty after the three Spanish kings named Philip who ruled from 1580 to 1640. The dynasty began with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain as Philip I of Portugal in 1580, officially recognized in 1581 by the Cortes of Tomar. Philip I swore to rule Portugal as a kingdom separate from his Spanish domains, under the system known as a Personal Union; these promises were to be progressively forgotten by his successors.

Under Philip II, the Portuguese Empire began to fall apart because of the pressure from the enemies of Spain. Philip II and Philip III of Portugal did not rule by themselves, and had powerful Castilian validos (Castilian name for favourite prime-ministers).

Even if Portugal was ruled apart from the other realms of the Habsburgs in Madrid, by the Council of Portugal, exclusively by Portuguese nobles or by royal family ones, and kept his empire to himself, his own currency, his arms and flag, his taxes at the Castilian borderline, sometimes his own ambassadors, the Portuguese nobles remaining in Portugal feel they lost political and economic strength, differently from those Portuguese nobles staying at the court in Madrid, very rich and powerful. Especially after Castilian military support to Portuguese empire against Dutch occupation in northern Brazil showed to be a failure.

And when the Castilian valido Olivares, following Richelieu model in France, established a plan to unify the administration, military service, and taxes of all distinct monarchies of Philip III in Europe, not respectful of the Dual Monarchy between Lisbon and Madrid, the fact provoked a rising by the nobility in 1640, known after the 19th century by romantic historians as the Restoration of Independence (Portuguese: Restauração da Independência). In the 17th century and afterwards, it was simply known as the Acclamation War, as it simply restored in their stolen royal rights the House of Braganza, deposing a tyrant king, and acclaiming (or electing) another more suitable to the country, as it has been done already several times before in Portuguese history. The bloodless revolution began joyfully in Lisbon the 1st December 1640, and was soon supported throughout the country and its colonies, bringing Portugal to the Thirty Years War scene till peace was finally settled, after twenty eight years of War with Castile in Europe, and with Holland in Asia, America and Africa, in 1668.

# Name Started Ended Alternative names Epithet(s) Relationship with predecessor(s)
20 (18 or 19) Philip I

1581 1598 Filipe I (in Portugal)
Felipe II (in Spain)
the Prudent (o Prudente) grandson of Manuel I
nephew and son-in-law of John III
21 (19 or 20) Philip II

1598 1621 Filipe II (in Portugal)
Felipe III (in Spain)
the Cruel (o Cruel) (in Portugal)
the Pious (el Pio) (in Spain)
son of Philip I
22 (20 or 21) Philip III

1621 1640 Filipe III (in Portugal)
Felipe IV (in Spain)
the Oppressor (o Opressor) (in Portugal)
the Great (el Grande) (in Spain)
son of Philip II

House of Braganza, or Brigantine Dynasty (1640-1910)

Main articles: Portugal from the Restoration to the 1755 Earthquake, Portugal from the Napoleonic Invasions to the Civil War
The House of Braganza (Portuguese: Casa de Bragança) traced its origins to 1442 when the Duchy of Braganza was created by the Regent, Infante Dom Pedro, Duke of Coimbra, and offered to his brother Afonso, Count of Barcelos, a natural son of John I. The royal lineage of dukes that followed married into the House of Aviz and became one of the most important noble families of the country. Infanta Catarina, granddaughter of Manuel I and Duchess of Braganza by marriage to John, 6th Duke of Braganza (himself the heir of the dynastic rights of Jaime, Duke of Braganza, acclaimed heir to the throne in 1495 by the Cortes), joined the two houses in 1565. In 1580, she was one of the claimants to the throne, but lost it by military force to Philip I of Habsburg.

In 1640, with the Restoration of Independence, John, grandson of Catarina and 8th Duke of Braganza, was acknowledged as the legitimate heir to the throne as the great great grandson of Manuel I. The fourth dynasty saw the growth of the importance of Brazilian gold, the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the Napoleonic invasion, the independence of Brazil and a civil war followed by Liberalism.

The growth of a republican movement during the end of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th culminated in the 1908 assassination of the second last King of Portugal, Carlos I. Two years later in 1910 the republican revolution forced Manuel II into exile, thus putting an end to the Portuguese fourth dynasty. The House of Braganza continues unofficially until today, and the title of Duke of Braganza is still used by Duarte Pio, the 24th Duke of Bragança and the presumptive heir to the throne of Portugal.

House of Braganza

# Name Started Ended Alternative names Epithet(s) Relationship with predecessor(s)
23 (21 or 22) John IV

1640 1656 João IV (Portuguese) the Restoring King (o Restaurador)
the Fortunate (o Afortunado)
great-great-grandson of Manuel I
24 (22 or 23) Afonso VI

1656 1683 Afonso VI (Portuguese),
Alphonse VI (English),
Affonso VI (Old Portuguese)
the Victorious (o Vitorioso) son of John IV
25 (23 or 24) Peter II

1683 1706 Pedro II (Portuguese) the Pacific (o Pacífico) brother of Afonso VI
younger son of John IV
26 (24 or 25) John V

1706 1750 João V (Portuguese) the Magnanimous (o Magnânimo)
the Magnific (o Magnífico)
the Portuguese Sun-King
(o Rei-Sol Português)
son of Peter II
27 (25 or 26) Joseph I

1750 1777 José I (Portuguese) the Reformer (o Reformador) son of John V
28 (26 or 27) Maria I

1777 1816 Mary I (English alternative) the Pious (a Piedosa or a Pia)
the Mad (a Louca)
daughter of Joseph I
Peter III 1777 1783 Pedro III (Portuguese) son of John V
husband of Maria I
29 (27 or 28) John VI

1816 1826 João VI (Portuguese) the Clement (o Clemente) son of Peter III and Maria I
30 (28 or 29) Pedro IV

1826 1826 Peter IV (English)
or Pedro I (in Brazil)
the Soldier-King (o Rei-Soldado)
the Emperor-King (o Rei-Imperador)
the Liberator (o Libertador)
son of John VI
31 (29 or 30) Maria II

1826 1828 Mary II (English alternative) the Educator (a Educadora)
the Good-Mother (a Boa-Mãe)
daughter of Peter IV
32 (30 or 31) Miguel (disputed)

1828 1834 Michael (English) the Traditionalist (o Tradicionalista),
the Usurper (o Usurpador)
or the Absolutist (o Absolutista)
the Absolut-King (o Rei Absoluto)
brother of Peter IV
younger son of John VI
- Maria II

1834 1853 Mary II (English alternative) the Educator (a Educadora) daughter of Peter IV
Ferdinand II

1837 1853 Fernando II (Portuguese) husband of Maria II

House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (or Braganza-Wettin)

Main article: History of Portugal (1834–1910)

With the marriage of Mary II, Queen of Portugal, to Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha during the 4th Dynasty, the House of Braganza continued in Portugal, as in this country is familiar with family names being passed by female lines. The surname Braganza continued to be present in all royals, and the Royal House was still known in Portugal as the House of Braganza. However, some foreign historians consider the existence of a House of Braganza-Wettin or House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

# Name Started Ended Alternative names Epithet(s) Relationship with predecessor(s)
33 (31 or 32) Pedro V

1853 1861 Peter V (English) the Hopeful (o Esperançoso)
the Loved One (o Bem-Amado)
the Much Loved (o Muito Amado)
son of Ferdinand II and Maria II
34 (32 or 33) Luís I

1861 1889 Louis (English),
Luiz (Old Portuguese)
the Popular (o Popular)
the Good (o Bom)
brother of Pedro V
son of Ferdinand II and Maria II
35 (33 or 34) Carlos I

1889 1908 Charles (English) the Martyred (o Martirizado)
or the Diplomat (o Diplomata)
the Martyr (o Mártir)
the Oceanographer (o Oceanógrafo)
son of Luís I
36 (34 or 35) Manuel II

1908 1910 Emmanuel II (English),
Manoel II (Old Portuguese)
the Patriot (o Patriota)
the Unfortunate (o Desventurado)
the Scholar (o Estudioso) or
the Missed King (o Rei-Saudade)
son of Carlos I

The chronology of the heads of state of Portugal continues on List of Presidents of Portugal.

Style

During the history of Portuguese monarchy, the Portuguese kings used the following styles:

Time Style Used by Reason
1140–1189 By the Grace of God, King of the Portuguese
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugalensium)
Afonso I, Sancho I
1189–1191 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and Silves
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugalliæ et Silbis)
Sancho I Conquest of Silves (1189)
1191–1248 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ)
Sancho I, Afonso II, Sancho II Loss of Silves to the Almohads (1191)
1248–1249 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and Count of Boulogne
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ & Comes Boloniæ)
Afonso III Afonso, married to Matilda II, Countess of Boulogne-sur-Mer, succeeds his brother Sancho on the Portuguese throne (January 1248)
1249–1253 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve, Count of Boulogne
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ & Algarbii & Comes Boloniæ)
Afonso III Conquest of the Moorish kingdom of Algarve (Al'Garb Al'Andalus) (1249)
1253–1369 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve
(Dei Gratiæ, Rex Portugaliæ & Algarbii)
Afonso III, Denis, Afonso IV, Peter I, Ferdinand I Afonso III repudiates Matilda and relinquishes his title of Count (1253)
1369–1371 By the Grace of God, King of Castile, León, Portugal, Toledo, Galicia, Seville, Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, the Algarve, Algeciras and Lord of Molina Ferdinand I Ferndinand I of Portugal is a pretender to the Castilian Crown, being a legitimate great-grandson of Sancho IV of Castile (1369)
1371–1383 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve Ferdinand I Renunciation of Castilian titles after the Peace of Alcoutim (1371)
1383–1385 By the Grace of God, King and Queen of Castile, León, Portugal, Toledo, Galicia, Seville, Cordoba, Murcia, Jaén, the Algarve, Algeciras and Lord and Lady of Biscay Beatrice & John I of Castile Beatrice of Portugal is a pretender to the Portuguese throne (1383)
1385–1415 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve John I Renunciation of Castilian titles after the defeat of John I of Castile at the Battle of Aljubarrota (1385)
1415–1458 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve, and Lord of Ceuta John I, Edward I, Afonso V Conquest of Ceuta (1415)
1458–1471 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarve, and Lord of Ceuta and Alcácer in Africa Afonso V Conquest of El Ksar as-Saghir (Alcácer-Ceguer) (1458)
1471–1475 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa Afonso V Conquest of Asilah and Tangiers (1471) and elevation of the Portuguese lordship in northern Africa to the condition of Kingdom of the Algarve Beyond the Sea
1475–1479 By the Grace of God, King of Castile, León, Portugal, Toledo, Galicia, Seville, Cordoba, Jaén, Murcia, the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa, Gibraltar, Algeciras, and Lord of Biscay and Molina Afonso V Pretension of Afonso V to the Castilian Crown, due to his marriage with Juana, la Beltraneja (1475)
1479–1485 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa Afonso V, John II Renunciation of the Castilian titles after the Treaty of Alcáçovas (1479)
1485–1499 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, and Lord of Guinea John II, Manuel I Erection of Lordship of Guinea, with the Portuguese colonies on the Gulf of Guinea (1485)
1499–1580 By the Grace of God, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc. Manuel I, John III, Sebastian, Henry, António, Prior of Crato After the return of Vasco da Gama from India, in 1499, the royal style is changed once more to become the most magnificent
1580–1640 By the Grace of God, King of Castile, León, Aragon, Two Sicilies, Jerusalem, Portugal, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Seville, Sardinia, Cordoba, Corsica, Murcia, Jaén, the Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, the Eastern & Western Indies, the Islands & Mainland of the Ocean sea, Count of Barcelona, Lord of Biscay and Molina, Duke of Athens and Neopatria, Count of Roussillon, Cerdagne, Margrave of Oristano and Goceano, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant and Milan, Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tyrol, etc. Philip I, Philip II, Philip III During the Philippine dynasty, the style of the Spanish Crown is merged with that of Portugal
1640–1815 By the Grace of God, King/Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc. John IV, Afonso VI, Peter II, João V, Joseph I, Maria I (with Peter III) After the Restoration (1640), return to the old style adopted by Manuel I
1815–1825 By the Grace of God, King/Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc. Maria I, John VI Elevation of Brazil as a kingdom inside the Portuguese Empire, thus making a United Kingdom (1815)
1825–1826 By the Grace of God, King/Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc. John VI, Pedro IV After the recognition of the independence of Brazil by John VI (1825), return to the old style
1826 By the Grace of God and Unanimous Acclamation of the People, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc. Pedro IV After the death of his father, Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, inherits the Portuguese throne, thus making a change once more in the royal title, until his abdication (1826)
1826–1910 By the Grace of God, King/Queen of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc. Maria II, Miguel I, Maria II (with Ferdinand II), Pedro V, Luís I, Carlos I, Manuel II After the abdication of Peter in favour of his daughter, return to the old style, until the collapse of the monarchy with the Portuguese First Republic (1910)

The style of address to the sovereign is as follows:

Notes

See also

Sources

  • Sousa, D. António Caetano de (1946). História Genealógica da Casa Real Portuguesa. Coimbra: Atlântida-Livraria Eds..
  • Jiří Louda & Michael Maclagan (1981), "Portugal", in Lines of Succession. Heraldry of the Royal families of Europe, London, Orbis Publishing, pp. 228-237. ISBN 0-85613-672-7. (revised and updated edition by Prentice Hall College Div - November 1991. ISBN 0028972554.)
  • Luís Amaral & Marcos Soromenho Santos (2002), Costados do Duque de Bragança, Lisboa, Guarda-Mor Edições.
  • Afonso Eduardo Martins Zuquete (dir.)(1989), Nobreza de Portugal e Brasil, vol. I, Lisboa, Editorial Enciclopédia.

External links

Search another word or see Affonso VIon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature
FAVORITES
RECENT

;
Time
1139–c. 1433 Mercy (HM-YM)
c. 1433–1577 Highness (HH-YH)
1577–1578 Majesty (HM-YM)
1578–1580 Highness (HH-YH)
1580–1748 Majesty (HM-YM)
1748–1825 Most Faithful Majesty (HFM-YFM)
1825–1826 Imperial and Most Faithful Majesty (HI&RFM-YI&RFM)
1826–1910 Most Faithful Majesty (HFM-YFM)