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Adrian

Adrian

[ey-dree-uhn]
Adrian, Roman emperor: see Hadrian.
Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, Baron, 1889-1977, English physiologist, M.D. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1915. He was research professor (1929-37) of the Royal Society and professor of physiology (1937-51) at Cambridge. In 1951 he became master of Trinity College. His research was chiefly on the physiology of the nervous system. He wrote The Basis of Sensation (1928), The Mechanism of Nervous Action (1932), and, with others, Factors Determining Human Behavior (1937). With Sir Charles S. Sherrington he shared the 1932 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work on the function of the neuron. He was awarded a barony in 1955.
Adrian, Gilbert, 1903-59, popularly known simply as Adrian, fashion designer, b. Naugatuk, Conn. Educated in New York City, he created designs for Broadway shows until 1925, when he moved to Hollywood. As studio designer at MGM studios (1928-41), he created glamorous clothing for such stars as Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Jean Harlow, and Katharine Hepburn, his opulent designs influencing haute couture throughout the 1930s and 40s. Adrian was known for his extravagant, draped evening gowns; hooded dresses; embroidered, padded evening jackets; and elegant suits. He was creative director for MGM's Wizard of Oz (1939), one of his most acclaimed productions; the same year he married actress Janet Gaynor. From 1942 to 1952 he ran a fashionable Beverly Hills salon.

See H. Gutner, Gowns by Adrian: The MGM Years 1928-1941 (2001).

Adrian, city (1990 pop. 22,097), seat of Lenawee co., SE Mich., on the Raisin River; inc. 1836. It is a manufacturing and trading center for a fertile farm region. Manufactures include machinery, furniture, transportation equipment, plastics, and adhesives. It is the seat of Adrian College and Siena Heights College. Numerous lakes are in the area.
Willaert, Adrian, c.1490-1562, Flemish composer. After brief engagements at Ferrara and Milan, he was choirmaster at St. Mark's, Venice, from 1527 until his death. Willaert was the founder of the Venetian school of composition. His polychoral settings of psalms and the Magnificat helped popularize this technique, and he and his followers were important in the development of the madrigal. Among his works are masses, motets, instrumental ricercari, and French and Italian secular songs.
Kantrowitz, Adrian, 1918-2008, American surgeon, b. New York City, grad. New York Univ. (1940). The son of a physician, Kantrowitz received his M.D. from the Long Island College of Medicine (1943), and after World War II studied cardiovascular physiology under Carl John Wiggers at Case Western Univ. During a career that spanned six decades, he worked to aid severely ill heart patients, using both surgery and more than 20 artificial devices. He devised (with Alan Lerrick) a plastic heart valve (1954), a heart-lung machine (1958), an internal pacemaker (1961-62), and (with Tetsuzo Akutsu) an auxiliary left ventricle (1964), or ventricular assist device (see under heart, artificial). In 1966 he performed the first implantation of a partial mechanical heart in a human, and on Dec. 6, 1967, the second human heart transplant, which was also the first performed in the United States. He also produced pioneering motion pictures taken inside the living heart.
orig. Nicholas Breakspear

(born 1100?, Abbot's Langley, near St. Albans, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died Sept. 1, 1159, Anagni, near Rome [Italy]) Pope (1154–59), the only Englishman ever to hold the office. He served in France and Italy before a successful mission to Scandinavia led to his election as pope. Adrian crowned Frederick I Barbarossa emperor in 1155, after Frederick had turned over Arnold of Brescia, leader of a revolt in Rome. The relationship quickly soured, however, as a result of Adrian's policy toward the Normans of southern Italy and his assertion that Frederick had received the imperial crown as a benefice. His controversial bull Laudabiliter supposedly gave Ireland to Henry II of England, a claim that was later refuted. Adrian's refusal to recognize the king of Sicily, William I, stirred revolt in the Campania.

Learn more about Adrian IV with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Latin Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus orig. Publius Aelius Hadrianus

Hadrian, bust in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples.

(born Jan. 24, AD 76, Italica, Baetica?—died July 10, 138, Baiae, near Naples) Roman emperor (117–38), Trajan's nephew and successor. After years of intrigue, he was adopted and named successor just before Trajan's death. He executed his senatorial opponents, abandoned Trajan's conquests in Armenia and Mesopotamia, and coped with unrest in Mauretania and Parthia. He traveled widely, and many of his accomplishments were related to his visits abroad. He began construction of Hadrian's Wall, and he visited and disciplined troops in Algeria and elsewhere. An admirer of Greek civilization, he completed the temple of Zeus in Athens and created a federation of Greek cities. He launched a building program at Delphi and was initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries. After his young companion Antinoüs drowned in the Nile (130), he grieved openly; he erected statues of the boy throughout the realm, and cults sprang up widely. He named Antoninus Pius his successor, to be followed by Marcus Aurelius.

Learn more about Hadrian with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Adrian
Gender: Male/Female
Origin: Latin
Meaning: "From Hadria"

The male and female given name Adrian is derived from the Latin Hadrianus, which is more familiar to English speakers as Hadrian. The name means "from Adria", a port on the Adriatic Sea. Adrian was the name of several early Christian saints and martyrs. The name is connected to the ancient Anglo-Saxon tribes of Great Britain, becoming widely known in England in the twelfth century, when Nicholas Breakspear took it as his regnal name when he became the first and only English pope, Adrian IV.

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