Adolph

Adolph

[ad-olf, ey-dolf; Ger. ah-dawlf]
Gottlieb, Adolph, 1903-74, American painter, b. New York City. Gottlieb studied under John Sloan and Robert Henri. In the 1940s he created pictographs which were stylized, primitive symbols set in a gridlike pattern. His abstract dynamic canvases of the following decade (e.g., Frozen Sounds, Number One, 1951; Whitney Mus., New York City) placed him in the front ranks of abstract expressionism. Many of his later works, called bursts, display large fiery circles over a network of spiky lines.

Walter Gropius, photograph by Erich Hartmann.

(born May 18, 1883, Berlin, Ger.—died July 5, 1969, Boston, Mass., U.S.) German-U.S. architect and educator. The son of an architect, he studied in Munich and Berlin and in 1907 joined the office of Peter Behrens. In 1919 he became director of the Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar. He designed a new school building and housing for the Bauhaus when it moved to Dessau (1925); with its dynamic International Style composition, asymmetrical plan, smooth white walls set with horizontal windows, and flat roof, the building became a monument of the Modernist movement. In 1934 Gropius fled Germany for Britain, and in 1937 he arrived in the U.S, taking a position at Harvard University. At the Bauhaus and as chair (1938–52) of Harvard's architecture department, he established a new prototype of design education, which ended the 200-year supremacy of the French École des Beaux-Arts. Among his most important ideas was his belief that all design—whether of a chair, a building, or a city—should be approached in essentially the same way: through a systematic study of the particular needs and problems involved, taking into account modern construction materials and techniques without reference to previous forms or styles.

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(born Sept. 5, 1927, Cape May, N.J., U.S.) U.S. economist. He worked as an economist for the Chase Manhattan Bank (1957–61; 1965–68). As an undersecretary at the U.S. Treasury Department (1969–74), Volcker was the chief architect of the U.S.'s abandonment of the gold-exchange standard and the devaluations of the U.S. dollar (1971, 1973). After serving as president of the Federal Reserve Bank (1975–79), he was appointed head of the Federal Reserve System in 1979 by Pres. Jimmy Carter and served until 1987. To end a period of very high inflation, he slowed the growth of the money supply and allowed interest rates to rise, causing a recession (1982–83) but dramatically reducing inflation.

Learn more about Volcker, Paul A(dolph) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 5, 1927, Cape May, N.J., U.S.) U.S. economist. He worked as an economist for the Chase Manhattan Bank (1957–61; 1965–68). As an undersecretary at the U.S. Treasury Department (1969–74), Volcker was the chief architect of the U.S.'s abandonment of the gold-exchange standard and the devaluations of the U.S. dollar (1971, 1973). After serving as president of the Federal Reserve Bank (1975–79), he was appointed head of the Federal Reserve System in 1979 by Pres. Jimmy Carter and served until 1987. To end a period of very high inflation, he slowed the growth of the money supply and allowed interest rates to rise, causing a recession (1982–83) but dramatically reducing inflation.

Learn more about Volcker, Paul A(dolph) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Walter Gropius, photograph by Erich Hartmann.

(born May 18, 1883, Berlin, Ger.—died July 5, 1969, Boston, Mass., U.S.) German-U.S. architect and educator. The son of an architect, he studied in Munich and Berlin and in 1907 joined the office of Peter Behrens. In 1919 he became director of the Staatliches Bauhaus Weimar. He designed a new school building and housing for the Bauhaus when it moved to Dessau (1925); with its dynamic International Style composition, asymmetrical plan, smooth white walls set with horizontal windows, and flat roof, the building became a monument of the Modernist movement. In 1934 Gropius fled Germany for Britain, and in 1937 he arrived in the U.S, taking a position at Harvard University. At the Bauhaus and as chair (1938–52) of Harvard's architecture department, he established a new prototype of design education, which ended the 200-year supremacy of the French École des Beaux-Arts. Among his most important ideas was his belief that all design—whether of a chair, a building, or a city—should be approached in essentially the same way: through a systematic study of the particular needs and problems involved, taking into account modern construction materials and techniques without reference to previous forms or styles.

Learn more about Gropius, Walter (Adolph) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Adolph is an unincorporated community in Randolph County, West Virginia, United States. Originally known as West Huttonsville, Adolph was named by the Board on Geographic Names in 1977.

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