Addison

Addison

[ad-uh-suhn]
Addison, Joseph, 1672-1719, English essayist, poet, and statesman. He was educated at Charterhouse, where he was a classmate of Richard Steele, and at Oxford, where he became a distinguished classical scholar. His travels on the Continent from 1699 to 1703 were recorded in Remarks on Italy (1705). Addison first achieved prominence with The Campaign (1704), an epic celebrating the victory of Marlborough at Blenheim. The poem was commissioned by Lord Halifax, and its great success resulted in Addison's appointment in 1705 as undersecretary of state and in 1709 as secretary to the lord lieutenant of Ireland. He also held a seat in Parliament from 1708 until his death. Addison's most enduring fame was achieved as an essayist. In 1710 he began his contributions to the Tatler, which Richard Steele had founded in 1709. He continued to write for successive publications, including the Spectator (1711-12), the Guardian (1713), and the new Spectator (1714). His contributions to these periodicals raised the English essay to a degree of technical perfection never before achieved and perhaps never since surpassed. In a prose style marked by simplicity, order, and precision, he sought to engage men's thoughts toward reason, moderation, and a harmonious life. His works also include an opera libretto, Rosamund (1707); a prose comedy, The Drummer (1716); and a neoclassical tragedy, Cato (1713), which had an immense success in its own time, but has since been regarded as artificial and sententious. In his last years Addison received his greatest prominence. In 1717 he was made secretary of state, an office he resigned the following year. But the period (1714-19) was also marked by failing health, a supposedly unhappy marriage, and the severing of his relations with his good friend Richard Steele.

See biography by P. H. B. O. Smithers (1954, repr. 1968).

Addison, Thomas, 1793-1860, English physician, b. near Newcastle, grad. Univ. of Edinburgh (M.D., 1815). In 1837 he became a physician at Guy's Hospital, London, where he conducted important research on pneumonia, tuberculosis, and other diseases. He was the first to recognize (1855) the disease of the adrenal glands that later became known as Addison's disease, and he is equally famous for his description of pernicious anemia.
Addison, village (1990 pop. 32,058), Du Page co., NE Ill.; inc. 1884. An industrial suburb of Chicago, it manufactures machinery and plastic items.

Joseph Addison, oil painting by Michael Dahl, 1719; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born May 1, 1672, Milston, Wiltshire, Eng.—died June 17, 1719, London) English essayist, poet, and dramatist. His poem on the Battle of Blenheim, The Campaign (1705), brought him to the attention of leading Whigs and paved the way to important government posts (including secretary of state) and literary fame. With Richard Steele, he was a leading contributor to and guiding spirit of the periodicals The Tatler (1709–11) and The Spectator (1711–12, 1714). One of the most admired masters of English prose, he brought to perfection the periodical essay. His Cato (1713), a highly successful play with political overtones, is one of the important tragedies of the 18th century.

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Joseph Addison, oil painting by Michael Dahl, 1719; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born May 1, 1672, Milston, Wiltshire, Eng.—died June 17, 1719, London) English essayist, poet, and dramatist. His poem on the Battle of Blenheim, The Campaign (1705), brought him to the attention of leading Whigs and paved the way to important government posts (including secretary of state) and literary fame. With Richard Steele, he was a leading contributor to and guiding spirit of the periodicals The Tatler (1709–11) and The Spectator (1711–12, 1714). One of the most admired masters of English prose, he brought to perfection the periodical essay. His Cato (1713), a highly successful play with political overtones, is one of the important tragedies of the 18th century.

Learn more about Addison, Joseph with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Disease in which gradual atrophy of the adrenal cortex causes the adrenal glands to produce insufficient quantities of the steroid hydrocortisone while causing the pituitary gland to produce excess quantities of pituitary hormones. Most of the cortex tissue is destroyed by the time symptoms (including weakness, abnormal coloration, weight loss, and hypotension) appear. Hydrocortisone-replacement therapy is often successful, usually given with other hormones to stabilize sodium levels. More than half of cases are believed to be due to an autoimmune reaction (see autoimmune disease); the remainder are caused by destruction of the adrenal gland by granuloma (e.g., tuberculosis).

Learn more about Addison disease with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Addison is a town in Winston County, Alabama, United States. At the 2000 census the population was 723. According to the 2005 U.S. Census estimates, the town had a population of 713.

Geography

Addison is located at (34.200042, -87.177851).

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.5 square miles (1 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 723 people, 315 households, and 219 families residing in the town. The population density was 205.7 people per square mile (79.5/km²). There were 339 housing units at an average density of 96.5/sq mi (37.3/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 99.45% White, 0.14% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.14% Asian, and 0.14% from two or more races. 0.14% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 315 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.0% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.2% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.78.

In the town the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.0 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $22,235, and the median income for a family was $31,146. Males had a median income of $26,667 versus $19,583 for females. The per capita income for the town was $12,973. About 16.3% of families and 19.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.1% of those under age 18 and 19.5% of those age 65 or over.

Addison's major industry has been the mobile home industry since the 60's. It is presently the home of Cavalier Homes and Southern Energy. More people work in Addison than live in the community due to the plants.

Addison High School

Addison is home to Addison High School, a member of the Winston County School System. The athletic teams of the school are nicknamed the Bulldogs. Addison had the most successful sports program in class 1-A in 2006 winning state championships in football and volleyball.

The school has had a competitive football team since coach A.G. Hicks came to Addison in the mid 50's starting a tradition of teams known for great defense, something the school is still known for today. In 1970 Addison won the state chanpionship, going 13-0, and allowed only one touchdown to be scored on its defense. In 1976 the Bulldogs won their second state championship in football under the direction of first year head coach Allen Stephenson. Randy White, also in his first year, led the Bulldogs to a third championship in 2006 with the same style of play he learned from Hicks in the 70's.

The volleyball program, under the directions of Pam Wilkins, has won three straight state championships and going undefeated in 2006. The girl's softball program, led by coach Debbie Thompson, has also won one state championship.

References

External links

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