[ad-uhm for 1, 3, 5–6; a-dahn for 2, 4]
Dollard des Ormeaux, Adam, 1635-1660, garrison commander of the fort at Ville-Marie (Montreal), b. France. He probably went to Canada in 1658. In the spring of 1660 he led a small party of Frenchmen up the Ottawa River to wage war on the Iroquois. At Long Sault Rapids he and his companions were killed after a week's defense in an improvised fort against a large band of Iroquois. Their resistance, however, probably delayed an Iroquois plan to attack New France.
Elsheimer, Adam, 1578-1610?, German painter. After studying in Frankfurt, Munich, and Venice, he settled in Rome and worked for Pope Paul V. He painted small pictures on copper. They were chiefly of biblical and mythological subjects with landscape backgrounds, which he executed with minute precision. He had numerous students (including Pieter Lastman, who was the teacher of Rembrandt) and is thought to have had a considerable influence on Dutch landscape painting. Elsheimer was particularly successful in rendering light effects. His Good Samaritan is in the Louvre. Tobias and Coronis are both in the National Gallery in London.
Adam, [Heb.,=man], in the Bible, the first man. In the Book of Genesis, God creates humankind in his image as a species of male and female, giving them dominion over other life. Elsewhere in Genesis, however, Adam is the personal name of the first man for whom the created order is then fashioned. From his body, Eve is made to be his helper and partner. After the Fall, i.e., their disobedience, they are expelled from the Garden of Eden. The Qur'an depicts Adam's creation and fall. These traditions led to the monotheistic ideas regarding sin and grace. For examples of Jewish and Islamic legends about the biblical accounts, see Lilith and Pseudepigrapha. Higher criticism regards chapters 1-4 of Genesis as the re-workings of Babylonian and Canaanite myths concerning creation. While the myths stress human servitude to the gods, Genesis places humankind at the center of the created order, over which it exercises dominion as God's agent.
Adam, Adolphe Charles, 1803-56, French composer of the popular song Cantique de Noël. He composed more than 50 stage works, including comic operas such as Le Postillon de Longjumeau (1836) and the ballet Giselle (1841).
Adam, James: see Adam, Robert.
Adam, Robert, 1728-92, and James Adam, 1730-94, Scottish architects, brothers. They designed important public and private buildings in England and Scotland and numerous interiors, pieces of furniture, and decorative objects. Robert possessed the great creative talents, with his brother James serving chiefly as his assistant. Robert Adam designed his buildings to achieve the most harmonious relation between the exterior, the interior, and the furniture. His light, elegant, and essentially decorative style was a free, personal reconstitution of antique motifs. He drew upon numerous sources including earlier English Palladian architecture, French and Italian Renaissance architecture, and the antique monuments themselves as he knew them through publications and personal investigation. Adam himself contributed an important study, Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia (1764). For decorative painting, Adam employed such artists as Angelica Kauffmann and Antonio Zucchi. The Adam manner gained great favor in his day, and designs in the Adam style have never ceased to appear. Especially interesting examples of Adam planning and decoration are Osterly Park, Middlesex (1761-80); Syon House, Middlesex (1762-69); and Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire (1768-75). The brothers wrote Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam (3 vol., 1778-1822). Robert was architect to the king from 1762 until 1768, when he was succeeded by James. Robert Adam was buried in Westminster Abbey.

See J. Fleming, Robert Adam and His Circle (1962) and D. Stillman, The Decorative Work of Robert Adam (1966); D. Yarwood, Robert Adam (1970).

Adam, in the Bible, town on the upper Jordan.
Malik, Adam, 1917-84, Indonesian government official. A militant nationalist as a youth, he helped to found a news bureau that eventually became the official Indonesian news agency, and after World War II he fought for Indonesian independence. He entered the house of representatives in 1956 and later served as ambassador to the USSR (1959-63) and minister of commerce (1963-65) under President Sukarno. He was (1966) a key figure in Sukarno's removal from power and became foreign minister in the new government. In this post he negotiated Indonesia's readmittance to the United Nations and a peace treaty with Malaysia, while reversing Sukarno's pro-Chinese policies. He later served as Vice President (1978-83) under President Suharto.
Sedgwick, Adam, 1785-1873, English geologist. He was a professor at Cambridge from 1818. His most important work was a study, made with R. I. Murchison, of the rock formation of Devonshire, which they named the Devonian system. Sedgwick also introduced the term Cambrian.

See J. W. Clark and T. M. Hughes, The Life and Letters of the Rev. Adam Sedgwick (2 vol., 1890).

Mickiewicz, Adam, 1798-1855, Polish romantic poet and playwright, b. Belorussia. He studied at the Univ. of Vilna, where he was arrested (1823) for pan-Polish activities and deported to Russia. He was permitted (1829) to travel through Europe, remaining there following the Polish uprising of 1830. Later he served as professor of literature in Lausanne (1839) and in Paris (1840-44). In the revolutionary upheavals of 1848 and again in the Crimean War he organized legions for Polish emancipation. He died in Constantinople during a cholera epidemic. Mickiewicz's poetry gave international stature to Polish literature. His powerful verse expressed a romantic view of the soul and the mysteries of life, often employing Polish folk themes. His major works include the fantastic drama The Forefathers (1823); the philosophical poem Konrad Wallenrod (1828); The Books of the Polish Nation and of Polish Pilgrimage (1832); and the great epic Pan Tadeusz (1834, tr. 1917). This poem, Mickiewicz's masterpiece, is a comprehensive and Homeric treatment of the life of the Polish gentry.

See biographies by M. M. Gardner (1911, repr. 1971) and R. Koropeckyj (2008); studies by W. Weintraub (1954 and 1959) and M. Kridl, ed. (1951, repr. 1969).

Ferguson, Adam, 1723-1816, Scottish philosopher and historian. He was professor of philosophy at the Univ. of Edinburgh (1759-85). His Essay on the History of Civil Society (1767) criticized earlier theories of a state of nature; it was an important contribution to intellectual history and influenced Hegel. In his Principles of Moral and Political Science (1792), Ferguson advanced the principle of perfection and attempted to reconcile self-interest and universal benevolence.

See D. Kettler, The Social and Political Thought of Adam Ferguson (1965); M. Jack, Corruption and Progress: The 18th-Century Debate (1989).

Zagajewski, Adam, 1945-, one of Poland's major contemporary poets, b. Lviv. He and his family were forcibly repatriated to Poland when Lviv was ceded by Poland to the USSR, and he was raised in Silesia, later moving to Kraków, where he graduated from Jagiellonian Univ. Passionally opposed to the ruling Communist regime, Zagajewski was the best-known figure in the "Generation of 1968," a group of politically dissident young poets. He continued to rage against the government until the late 1970s, when he largely abandoned defiant political poetry for more lyrical and meditative verse concerned with philosophical and personal themes. In 1982 he moved to Paris, where his mature work flowered and he produced poems that were often concerned with his own past, with the individual and history, and with the nature of reality and art. His collections in English translation include Tremor (1985), Canvas (1991), Mysticism for Beginners (1997), Another Beauty (2000), and the anthology Without End (2002). Among his books of essays are Solidarity, Solitude (1986, tr. 1989) and Two Cities (1991, tr. 1995). Zagajewski has also written several novels.
Smith, Adam, 1723-90, Scottish economist, educated at Glasgow and Oxford. He became professor of moral philosophy at the Univ. of Glasgow in 1752, and while teaching there wrote his Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), which gave him the beginnings of an international reputation. He traveled on the Continent from 1764 to 1766 as tutor to the duke of Buccleuch and while in France met some of the physiocrats and began to write An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, finally published in 1776.

In that work, Smith postulated the theory of the division of labor and emphasized that value arises from the labor expended in the process of production. He was led by the rationalist current of the century, as well as by the more direct influence of Hume and others, to believe that in a laissez-faire economy the impulse of self-interest would bring about the public welfare; at the same time he was capable of appreciating that private groups such as manufacturers might at times oppose the public interest. Smith was opposed to monopolies and the concepts of mercantilism in general but admitted restrictions to free trade, such as the Navigation Acts, as sometimes necessary national economic weapons in the existing state of the world. He also accepted government intervention in the economy that reduced poverty and government regulation in support of workers.

Smith wrote before the Industrial Revolution was fully developed, and some of his theories were voided by its development, but as an analyst of institutions and an influence on later economists he has never been surpassed. His pragmatism, as well as the leaven of ethical content and social insight in his thought, differentiates him from the rigidity of David Ricardo and the school of early 19th-century utilitarianism. In 1778, Smith was appointed commissioner of customs for Scotland. His Essays on Philosophical Subjects (1795) appeared posthumously.

See biographies by J. Rae (1895, repr. 1965), I. S. Ross (1995), and J. Buchan (2006); studies by E. Ginzberg (1934, repr. 1964), T. D. Campbell (1971), S. Hollander (1973), and E. Rothschild (2001).

Marsh, Adam, or Adam de Marisco, d. 1259?, English Franciscan scholar. He was a student of Robert Grosseteste. When Grosseteste became bishop, Marsh took his place in the Franciscan school at Oxford. Marsh's advice and his services as a peacemaker were constantly sought, and Grosseteste relied heavily on him. Actively supporting the reform party of Simon de Montfort (1208?-1265), Marsh was able nevertheless to retain the confidence of Henry III. Of his writings only his letters survive.
Krafft, Adam: see Kraft, Adam.
Kraft or Krafft, Adam, c.1455-1509, German sculptor of Nuremberg. He moved from an ornamental late Gothic style toward clarity, symmetry, and a powerful use of rounded, organically constructed figures. His decorations for the Schreyer family tomb (c.1490) in the Church of St. Sebald in Nuremberg and his openwork tabernacle (1493-96) for the Church of St. Lawrence typify his earlier style. His later manner may be seen in his Stations of the Cross (1505-8; Nuremberg). Kraft was notably adept at blending architectural and sculptural forms.

Adam's Rib is a 1949 film starring Spencer Tracy and Katharine Hepburn and directed by George Cukor. The film was well-received upon its release and is considered a classic romantic comedy. Judy Holliday, who went on to fame in 1950's Born Yesterday, received her first substantial role in this film. The music was composed by Miklós Rózsa, except for the song "Farewell, Amanda", which was written by Cole Porter.


Prosecutor Adam Bonner (Tracy) is assigned the case against a woman (Holliday) who tried to scare her adulterous husband (Tom Ewell) by shooting him repeatedly. Bonner's wife, Amanda (Hepburn), also a lawyer, decides to defend the woman in court. As the two use every technique they know to win the case, the courtroom tension carries over into the couple's household.

Legal issues

The defendant, Doris Attinger, when narrating to Amanda Bonner her version of the events on the day she shot her husband, describes recognizable symptoms of a dissociative episode. These include a divorcement from the reality of her actions and even psychogenic amnesia concerning her actual wounding of her husband. Given that, one might have expected Amanda to ask the jury for a verdict of not-guilty-by-reason-of-insanity, because the defendant had been seized by an irresistible impulse.

But instead, Amanda asks for a simple verdict of not guilty, because all the defendant did was to "try to defend her home", and a man acting similarly might be acquitted. In short, she asks for jury nullification, and wins the case.


Ruth Gordon (later of Rosemary's Baby and Harold and Maude fame) and Garson Kanin were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Screenplay in 1950. In the decades since the film's release, it has attracted the esteem of many critics. In 1992, Adam's Rib was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

In June 2008, AFI revealed its "Ten top Ten"—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Adam's Rib was acknowledged as the seventh best film in the romantic comedy genre.



  • Judy Holliday had been starring on Broadway in Born Yesterday and Columbia Pictures bought the screen rights. Harry Cohn (Columbia's President) refused to consider Holliday the chance to recreate her role, so Cukor, Kanin, Gordon, Hepburn and Tracy conspired to offer the smallish part of Doris Attinger to Holliday, expand the part, as a sort of 'audition' for their friend, Judy Holliday. It worked; Holliday's performance was critically acclaimed and Columbia subsequently offered her the part and she won an Academy Award for it! (Note; that during jailhouse intervew, Cukor kept the camera on Holliday and Hepburn told Cukor, "Don't cutaway to me; keep the camera on Judy".)

Quotations from the movie

"Is that what they taught you at, ah, Yale Law School?"

"Tell me something. What is marriage? I'll tell you what it is: Marriage is a contract. It's the law."

""Licorice, mmmm. If there's anything I'm a sucker for, it's licorice."

"What blow you think you were striking for women's rights, I am sure I don't know, but you've certainly fouled us up beyond all recognition."

"Lawyers should never marry other lawyers. This is called inbreeding, from which comes idiot children and more lawyers."


External links

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