Tank research and development continues in many industrial countries despite the end of the Cold war. The funds involved are lower than when the United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in a massive arms race. Most of the tank design bureaus or arsenals now function with reduced staff or have completely disappeared. The huge Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau which was responsible for so many innovative tank designs, is now a part of the Ukrainian government, and produces agricultural machinery as well as armoured vehicles.
Other invisible tanks that blend into the visual environment by controlling luminosity via the use of flares and diodes are in conceptual stages in the US and UK military. Such a tank would not only be very difficult for the radar to pick up but also for the naked human eye. Prototype technology that used cameras to video surroundings and project it onto vehicles is currently undergoing testing by the British Ministry of Defence. It has been suggested that an invisible tank could be ready for service as early as 2012, although the main obstacle was reliability of the cameras and projectors.
One technology under development is electro-magnetic armour. Used to defeat shaped charge warheads, the armour uses a massive magnetic charge to break apart and disperse shaped charge jets. One proposed system uses a sensor net of fibre optics covering the vehicle. An impacting warhead will interrupt the flow of light through the fibre optics, registering a hit. An automated system registers the location and sends a signal to energise a powerful electric coil located behind the armour.
The spiralling electrons in the coil give rise to an intense magnetic field that interacts with the particles within the shaped charge jet. Although shape charges generate enormous forces by travelling at up to 9 km/s, the stream maintains its penetrating power over a very short, and specific, distance. The magnetic field "pinches" the charge jet, making it unstable and dispersing its force so the warhead's penetration power is significantly degraded. Other proposals use a layered electrified armour underneath standard armour. Penetration of the armour by a shaped charge results in a massive discharge of electricity powered by a capacitor array in the tank. The electricity discharges into the incoming jet of explosive gas/plasma and this disrupts its flow and direction by adding extra heat and electric charge. The electric discharge can also vaporize the molten metal used in some shape charges to increase penetration.
Using such systems could reduce main battle tanks from their current scale-tipping weight of 70 tons, down to a more manageable 20 tons, while providing superior protection. This would also have strategic implications. Current U.S. heavy armour divisions can take months to move from the continental United States to locations around the world. A lighter MBT could make deployment faster.
Other technologies being considered for MBTs include active armour, an advancement on reactive armour, which uses radar or other sensing technology to automatically react to incoming missiles. Once the system detects hostile fire, it calculates a firing resolution and deploys counter-projectiles to intercept and disrupt the incoming fire. Again the goal is to reduce overall tank armour while maintaining protection levels. This system could present risks to friendly infantry operating in close proximity to tanks.
Others have pointed at the development of the above mentioned advanced armor and defensive concepts as rendering the anti-tank missile useless. Modern tank armament has tended to focus on cannon fired KE penetrators, as reactive armor and the above-mentioned systems cannot defeat these very basic rounds. Increasing the velocity of gun-fired penetrators has been a major focus to increase range, accuracy and penetration. At present, research by NATO states on a new 140mm tank gun is underway. Such a large gun requires the need for automatic loading systems and caseless or even liquid propellant that can be stored more ergonomically. Conventional gun projectiles have a difficulty achieving very high velocities due to the speed of ignition of chemical explosives and the actual velocity of the explosive gas. The standard 120mm cannon used by many NATO states can achieve speeds below 2100 m/s. The 140mm cannon is projected to achieve at most 2300 m/s. Railguns and coilguns have been proposed, as these systems could provide much greater velocities and removed the need for dangerous explosives, but such systems require space-consuming generators and capacitors and have technical problem related to their mechanisms of action. A railgun is limited only by the amount of power available, but projectiles faster than 6000 m/s would be seriously hindered by atmospheric friction, putting an upper limit on projectile speeds. An intermediate solution is the use of electrically enhanced explosives or plasma impulse guns, such as Electrothermal-chemical technology. They would use electricity to vaporize or even turn into plasma an inert or explosive liquid that would propel a bullet. Gas velocities and pressures much higher than conventional explosives could be achieved resulting in greater bullet velocities, inert liquids or less-combustible explosives could be used. An electrically enhanced explosives cannon could achieve speeds of 3000 m/s.
One proposal is to use a Diesel-electric or turbine-electric series hybrid. These power plants would provide power by spinning a generator that would provide electricity to electric motors mounted inside the wheel hubs. In serial hybrid configuration allows for a huge variety of engines choices that would not be feasible with a conventional drive system, such as Stirling or Rankine cycle engine which are very efficient and are fuel flexible. Hypothetically even radioisotope thermoelectric generators could be used though the price and danger of contamination makes that unlikely. The engines can be designed for producing only constant power (other than peak power) making them smaller and much more efficient. In conjunction with electrical batteries and or ultracapacitors for storing excess and recaptured energy such a system would be far more fuel efficient than traditional tank power plants allowing for greater combat radius and less logistic support. A hybrid system could move about without running its generators, this allows for greatly reduced thermal and sonic signatures that are commonly used to target or detect tanks today. A system of this kind could be more rugged and damage sustaining with the use of multiple engine/generators and electric motors. Such a power plant could also provide electricity for energy weapons and defense systems like the ones mentioned above. A hybrid electric version of the M113 APC created by United Defence L.P. outperformed the conventional M113 in many areas, in an experimental setting.
Hard shell: to improve survivability armoured fighting vehicles will get heavier before they get lighter. The US Army's claim that its 70-tonne M1 Abrams is the 'most survivable main battle tank in the world' is being tested each day in Iraq. Yet the army has suffered more armoured vehicle losses in the continuing 'stabilisation' phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom than in the six-week 'combat' phase.(Vehicles: aramour)
Oct 01, 2005; The combination of lethality, mobility and protection provided by the M1 tank and M2/M3 Bradley fighting vehicle proved as...