Actinobacillus

Actinobacillus

[ak-tin-oh-buh-sil-uhs, ak-tuh-noh-]
Actinobacillus is a genus of gram-negative, immotile and nonspore-forming, oval to rod-shaped bacteria occurring as parasites or pathogens in mammals, birds, and reptiles. It is a member of the Pasteurellaceae family. The bacteria are facultatively aerobic, capable of fermenting carbohydrates (without production of gas) and of reducing nitrates. The genomic DNA contains between 40 and 47 mol % guanine plus cytosine.

Actinobacillus (Pasteurella) ureae and A. hominis occur in the respiratory tract of healthy humans and may be involved in the pathogenesis of sinusitis, bronchopneumonia, and meningitis. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans occurs in the human oral microflora, and together with anaerobic or capnophilic organisms may cause endocarditis in the upper alimentary tract. Actinobacilli are susceptible to most antibiotics of the beta-lactam family, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, and many other antibacterial chemotherapeutics.

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